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Akademiya Nauk SSSR 



FLORA of the U.S. S.R. 



Volume IV 



V. L. Komarov, Editor 



Liliiflorae and Microspermae 



TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN 

Published for the Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. 

and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C, 

by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations 



^ 31 © 

BOTANICHESKII INSTITUT, AKADEMIIANAUK SSSR , ■ 
The Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S . R. 



FLORA OF THE U.S.S.R. 

(Flora SSSR) 

Volume IV 
Liliiflorae and Microspermae 

Chief Editor and Editor of This Volume 
Academician V. L. Komarov 



Compiled by 

E. G. Chernyakovskaya, B. A. Fedchenko, N. F. Goncharov, 

S. F. Gorshkova, A. A. Grossgeim, M. M. IT in, O. E. Knorring, 

V. L. Komarov, I. M. Krasheninnikov, A. N. Krishtofovich, O. I. Kuzeneva, 

A. S. Lozina-Lozinskaya, S. A. Nevskii, and A. I. Vvedenskii 



Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR 
Leningrad 1935 



Translated from Russian 



Israel Program for Scientific Translations 
Jerusalem 1968 



TT 67-51336 

Published Pursuant to an Agreement with 
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, U.S.A. 
and 
THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, WASHINGTON, D.C 



Copyright © 1968 

Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd. 

IPST Cat. No. 1920 



Translated by Dr. N. Landau 



Printed in Jerusalem by S. Monson 
Binding: Wiener Bindery Ltd., Jerusalem 



Available from the 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information 
Springfield, Va. 22151 



XII/7/5 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Systematic Index of Species in Volume IV 

Family XXXIII. Liliaceae Hall 

Key to Subfamilies 

Subfamily 1. Melanthioideae Engl 

Genus 252. Tofie Id ia Huds 

Genus 253. Narthecium (Moehr. ) Huds. ... 

Genus 254. Stenanthium Kunth 

Genus 255. Zygadenus Rich 

Genus 256. Acelidanthus Trautv. et Mey . • . 

Genus 257. Vera t rum L 

Genus 258. Me rend era Ramond 

Genus 259. Bulboc odium L 

Genus 260. Colchicum (Tourn. ) L 

Subfamily 2. Asphodeloideae Vent 

Genus 261. Asphodeline Rchb 

Genus 262. Eremurus M. B 

Genus 263. Anthericum L 

Genus 264. Funkia Spreng 

Genus 265. Hemerocallis L 

Subfamily 3. Alliodeae Engler 

Genus 266. Gage a Salisb 

Subgenus I. Eugacea Pascher 

Subgenus II. Platyspermum (Boiss.) Miscz. 

Genus 267. Allium L 

Subfamily 4. Lilioideae Engl 

Genus 268. Lilium L 

Subgenus I. Eulirion Rchb 

Subgenus II. Cardiocrinum Endl 

Genus 269. Korolkowia Rgl 

Genus 270. Rhinopetalum Fisch 

Genus 271. F r i t i 1 1 a r i a L 

Genus 272. T u 1 i p a L 



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Genus 273. ErythroniumL 

Genus 274. Lloydia Salisb 

Genus 275. S cilia L 

Subgenus E use ill a Baker 

Genus 276. OrnithogalumL 

Genus 277. Puschkinia Adams 

Genus 278. Bellevalia Lapeyrouse 

Genus 279. Hyacinthus Tourn 

Genus 280. Hyacintella Schur 

Genus 281. Leopoldia Pari 

Genus 282. Muscarimia Kostel. 

Genus 283. Muscari Mill 

Subfamily 5. Asparagoideae Vent 

Genus 284. Asparagus L 

Subgenus Euasparagus Baker 

Genus 285. D anae Medic 

Genus 286. Ruse us Tourn 

Genus 287. Clinton i a Raf 

Genus 288. Smilacina Desf 

Genus 289. M a j a n t h e m u m Wigg 

Genus 290. Disporum Salisb . 

Genus 291. Streptopus L. C. Rich 

Genus 292. Polygonatum (Tourn.) Adans. 

Genus 293. Convallaria L 

Genus 294. Paris L 

Genus 295. Trillium L 

Subfamily 6. Smilacoideae Engl 

Genus 296. S mi lax (Tourn.) Linn 

Family XXXIV. Amaryllidaceae Lindl 

Genus 297. Galanthus L 

Genus 298. Leucojum L 

Genus 299. Ungernia Bge 

Genus 300. Sternbergia Waldst. et Kit. • 

Genus 301. Ixiolirion Fisch 

Genus 302. Narcissus L 

Genus 303. Pancratium L 

Family XXXV. Dioscoreaceae Lindl 

Genus 304. Dioscorea L 

Subgenus I. Helmia (Kunth) Benth. . . . 

Subgenus II. Eudioscorea Pax 

Subgenus III. Stenophora (Uline) Knuth 

Genus 305. Tamus L 

Family XXXVI. Iridaceae Lindl 

Genus 306. Crocus L 

Subgenus I. Involucrati Maw 



IV 



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Subgenus Nudiflori Maw 

Genus 307. Iris L 

Genus 308. Belamcanda Adans 

Genus *. Sisyrinchium L 

Genus 309. Gladiolus L 

Order 9. Microspermae 

Family XXXVII. Orchidaceae Lindl 

Key to Genera 

Tribe I. Cypripedieae Lindl 

Genus 310. Cypripedium L 

Tribe II. Malaxideae Lindl 

Genus 311. M a 1 a x i s Soland 

Genus 312. Microstylis Nutt 

Genus 313. L i p a r i s L. C. Rich. 

Genus 314. Calypso Salisb 

Genus 315. Ephippianthus Rchb 

Genus 316. Corallorhiza Hall 

Genus 317. Ore ore his Lindl. 

Tribe III. Cyrtopodieae Pfitzer 

Genus 318. E u 1 o p h i a R. Br 

Tribe IV. . Neottieae Lindl 

Genus 319. Pogonia Juss 

Genus 320. Listera R.Br 

Genus 321. Neottia Sw 

Genus 321a. Holopogon Kom. et Nevskiin . . . . 

Genus 322. Epipactes Adans 

Genus 323. Cephal anther a L. C. Rich 

Genus 324. Limodorum L. C. Rich 

Genus 325. Epipogon S.G. Gmelin 

Genus 326. G a s t r o d i a R. Br 

Genus 327. Spiranthes L.C.Rich 

Genus 328. G o od y e r a R. Br 

Genus 329. Zeuxine Lindl 

Tribe V. Ophrydeae Lindl 

Genus 330. Habenari a Willd 

Genus 331. H e r m i n i u m R. Br 

Genus 332. Chamaeorchis Rich 

Genus 333. Neottianthe Schlechter 

Genus 334. Neolindleya Kranzl 

Genus 335. Coeloglossum Hartm 

Genus 336. Leuc orchis E. Mey 

Genus 337. P seud od iphry 1 lum Nevski gen. nov. 

Genus 338. Perularia Lindl 

Genus 339. Platanthera L. C. Rich 

Genus 340. Ly si el la Rydb 



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Genus 341. Limn ore his Rydb 

Genus 342. Gymnadenia R. Br. 

Genus 343. Gale ore his Rydb 

Genus 344. Chusua Nevski gen. nov 

Genus 345. Traunsteinera Rchb. f 

Genus 346. S t e v e n i e 1 1 a Schlechter 

Genus 347. Comperia C. Koch 

Genus 348. Orchis L 

Genus 349. Anacamptis L. C. Rich 

Genus 350. H i m an t o gl o ssum W.D.Koch 

Genus 351. Serapias L 

Genus 352. Ophry s (L. ) Swartz 

Addenda III 731 555 

Alphabetical List of Families and Genera Appearing in 

Volume IV 755 576 



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VI 



SUBJECTS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



Indexes 

Family Liliaceae, key to subfamilies and 
genera L ilium and Lloydia; family 
Amarillidaceae and key to genera of this 
family 

Genera; Tofieldia, Narthecium, 
Stenantium, Zygadenus, Aceli- 
danthus, Veratrum, Clintonia, 
Smilacina 

Genera: Merendera, Bulbocodium, 
Colchicum, Asphodeline, 
Anthericum, Funkia, Hemerocal- 
lis, Danae, Ruscus, Gladiolus . . . 

Genera: Eremurus, Majanthemum, 

Disporum, Streptopus; family Iridaceae, 
except the genus Gladiolus and the 
section Juno of the genus Iris 

Genera; Gage a and S cilia 

Genera' Allium, Tulipa, Ungernia, section 
Juno of the genus Iris 

Genera ; Korolkowia, Rhinopetalum, 
Fritillaria, Bellevalia, Hyacinthus, 
Hyacintella, Muscarimia , Muscari, 
Galanthus, Leucojum 

Genera; Erythronium and Ornithogalum 

Genus Asparagus 

Genera; Polygonatum, Convallaria , 
Paris, Trillium, Smilax 

Genera- Sternbergia.Ixiolirion, 

Narcissus, Pancratium 

Family Dioscoreaceae 

Order Microspermae 

Indications concerning occurrence of fossilized 
plants 



Editorial Staff 



Arranged by V.L. Komarov 



Arranged by O .1 . Kuzeneva 



Arranged by Chernyakovskaya 



Arranged by B.A. Fedchenko 
Arranged by A. A. Grossgeim 

Arranged by A.I. Vvedenskii 



Arranged by A .S . Lozina-Lozinskaya 
Arranged by I .M . Krasheninnikov 
Arranged by M .M . Il'in 

Arranged by O . E . Knorring 

Arranged by S .G. Gorshkova 
Arranged by N.F. Goncharov 
Arranged by S.A. Nevskii 



Arranged by A.N. Krishtofovich 



vn 



Addenda - Descriptiones plantarum novarum in Tomo IV Florae URSS 
commemoratarum . 

The plates were drawn by the following artists: M.M. Parfenenko - I, XXV; 
A. P. Voronova-II, IV- IX, XXII, XXVII, XXXI -XXXIV, XLIV; S.P.Korovin 
II, V, X-XVI, XVIII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXXV; A.S. Lozina-Lozinskaya - XIX , 
XXIII, XXIV; T.L. Yuzepchuk - XX , XXI; L.M. Kopteva - XXVI, XXXVI; 
S.A. Moiseeva - XXX, XXX VII-XLIII; L.M. Kopteva; A. P. Voronova and 
M.M. Parfenenko - XVII . 



vm 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX OF SPECIES 
in Vol. IV of the "Flora of the USSR. "* 

Family XXXIII. Liliaceae Hall. 

Subfamily. 1. Melanthioideae Engl. 

Genus 252. Tofieldia Huds. 

Page : 

1969. 1. T. palustris Huds 3 

1970. 2. T. nutans Willd 4 

1971. 3. T. cernua Smith 4 

1972. 4. T. calyculata Whlb 5 

Genus 253. Narthecium (Moehr.) Huds. 

1973. 1. N. caucasicum Miscz. 5 

Genus 254. Stenanthium Kunth. 

1974. 1. S. sachalinense F. Schmidt . . 6 

Genus 255. Zygadenus Rich. 

1975. 1. Z. sibiricus (L.) A. Gray 9 

Genus 256. Acelidanthus Trautv. et Mey. 

1976. 1. A. anticleoides Trautv. et Mey • . 10 

Genus 257. Veratrum L. 

1977. 1. V. nigrum L 11 

197a 2. V. Maackii Rgl 11 

1979. 3. V. dahuricum (Turcz.) Loes 12 

1980. 4. V. Lobelianum Bern 13 

1981. 5. V. calyciflorum Kom 13 

1982. 6. V. oxysepalum Turcz 14 

1983. 7. V. Misae (Sirjaev) Loes 14 

Genus 258. Merendera Ramond. 

1984. 1. M. sobolifera C. A. M 16 

1985. 2. M. Raddeana Rgl 16 

1986. 3. M. hissarica Ryl. . 17 

1987. 4. M. trigyna (Adams) Woron 17 

* [This Index has been reproduced photographically from the Russian original.] 
** [Russian page number: appear in the left-hand margin of the text.] 



Page 

1988. 5. M. Eichlen {Rgl) Boiss 18 

1989. 6. M. candidissima Miscz 18 

1990. 7. M. robusta Bge 18 

1991. 8. M. Jolantae E. Czerniak 19 

Genus 259. Bulbocodium L. 

1992. 1. B. versicolor (Ker.-Gawl.) Spreng 20 

Genus 260. Colchicum (Tourn.) L. 

1993. 1. C. Biebersteinii Rouy 25 

1994. 2. C. serpentinum Miscz 25 

1995. 3. C. nivale Boiss. et Huet 26 

1996. 4. C. Szovitsii Fisch 26 

1997. 5. C. zangezurum Grossh 26 

1998. 6. C. Regelii Stef. 27 

1999. 7. C. luteum Baker 27 

2000. 8. C. umbrosum Stev 28 

2001. 9. C. laetum Stev 29 

2002. 10. C. speciosum Stev • 29 

* C. autumnale L • 30 



Subfamily 2. Asphodeloideae Vent. 
Genus 261. Asphodeline Rchb. 

2003. 1. A. dendroides (Hoffm.) Woron 32 

2004. 2. A. taurica (Pall.) Kunth 33 

2005. 3. A. lutea (L.) Rchb 33 

2006. 4. A. tenuiflora (C. Koch) Miscz • 34 

2007. 5. A. tenuior (Fisch.) Ldb. . 34 

Genus 262. Eremurus M. B. 
Section Eueremurus O. Fedtsch. 

2008. 1. E. spectabilis M. B 39 

2009. 2. E. tauricus Stev 40 

2010. 3. E. Regelii Vved ... 40 

2011. 4. E. turkestanicus Rgl 41 

2012. 5. E. altaicus (Pall.) Stev 41 

2013. 6. E. Korshinskyi O. Fedtsch 42 

2014. 7. E. sogdianus (Rgl.) Benth. et Hook 42 

Section 2. Ammolirion Kar. et Kir. 

2015. 8. E. inderiensis (M. B.) Rgl 43 

2016. 9. E. comosus O. Fedtsch 43 

Section 3. Trochantus O. Fedtsch. 

2017. 10. E. stenophyllus (Boiss. et Buhse) Baker 43 

2018. 11. E. Olgae Rg) 44 



Section 4. H e nn igia Kar. et Kir. Pa CT e 

2019. 12. E. robustus Rgl 47 

2020. 13. E. Kaufmanni Rgl 47 

2021. 14. E. Korovini B. Fedtsch 48 

2022. 15. E. Alberti Rgl 48 

2023. 16. E. lactiflorus O. Fedtsch 49 

2024. 17. E. Hilariae M. Pop. et Vved • 49 

2025. 18. E. anisopterus (Kar. et Kir.) Rgl • 50 

2026. 19. E. kopetdaghensis M. Pop 50 

2027. 20. E. luteus Baker 51 

2028. 21. E. Saprjagajevi B. Fedtsch . . • . • 51 

2029. 22. E. Capusii Franchet 51 

2030. 23. E. bucharicus Rgl • 52 

Genus 263. Anthericum L. 

2031. 1. A. ramosum L • . . . 53 

Genus 264. Funkia Spreng. 

2032. 1. F. ovata Spreng 54 

2033. 2. F. lancifolia Spreng 55 

Genus 265. Hemerocallis L. 

2034. 1. H. fulva L 56 

2035. 2. H. flava L. . . . - 59 

2036. 3. H. Middendorffii Trautv. et Mey 59 

2037. 4. H. Dumortieri Morren • 60 

2038. 5. H. minor Mill • 60 

Sub family 3. A 1 1 i o i d e a e Engl. 
Genus 266. Gagea Salisb. 
Subgenus 1. Eugagea Pascher. 
Section 1. Nudiscaposae Terr. 

2039. 1. G. spathacea (Hayne) Salisb 70 

2040. 2. G. Joannis Grossh 70 

2041. 3. C. minima (L.) Ker-Gawl 70 

2042. 4. G. granulosa Turcz 71 

2043. 5. G. hiensis Pascher. 72 

2044. 6. G. confusa Terr 75 

2045. 7. G. dshungarica Rgl. . • • 75 

2046. 8. G. pseudoerubescens Pascher 75 

2047. 9. G. filiformis (Ldb.) Kunth 76 

2048. 10. G. minuta Grossh 76 

2049. 11. G kopetdagensis Vved 77 

2050. 12. G. Korshinskyi Grossh 77 

2051. 13. G. Popovii Vved 77 

2052. 14. G. sacculifera Rgl 78 

2053. 15. G. lutea (L.) Ker.-Gawl 78 

2054. 16. G. erubescens Besser 79 



Page 

2055. 17. G. longiscapa Grossh '° 

2056. 18. G. Helenae Grossh 80 

2057. 19 G. pusilla (Schmidt) Roem. et Schult 80 

2058. 20. G. Fedtschenkoana Pascher 81 

2059. 21. G. Capusii Terr. . . 81 

2060. 22. G. parva Vved 82 

2061. 23. G. Chanae Grossh 82 

2062. 24. G. Germainae Gros&h 82 

2063. 25. G. triquetra Vved 83 

2064. 26. G. fistulosa (Ram.) Ker.-Gawl 83 

2065. 27. G. samojedorum Grossh 84 

2066. 28. G. anisanthos C. Koch 87 

2067. 29. G. glacialis C. Koch 87 

2068. 30. G. sulfurea Miscz 87 

2069. 31. G. emarginata Kar. et Kir 88 

2070. 32. G. mirabilis Grossh • • . 88 

2071. 33. G. tenuissima Miscz 89 

2072. 34. G. arvensis Dumortier ... • . . • 89 

2073. 35. G. dubia Terr 90 

2074. 36. G. Granatelli Pari 90 

2075. 37. G. pratensis (Pers.) Roem. et Schult 91 

2076. 38. G. Paczoskii (Zap.) Grossh 91 

2077. 39. G. transversalis Stev • 92 

Section 2. Foliatae Terr. 

2078. 40. G. Szovitsii (Lang.) Besser 92 

2079. 41. G. Callieri Pascher 93 

2080. 42. G. Heldreichii Terr 93 

Subgenus II. Latyspermum (Boiss.) Miscz. 
Section 1. Euplatyspermum Miscz. 

2081. 43. G. rigida Boiss. et Sprun 94 

2082. 44. G. graminifolia Vved 94 

2083. 45. G. hissarica Lipsky 95 

2084. 46. G. divaricata Rgl 95 

2085. 47. G. Bergii Litv. 95 

2086. 48. G. ucrainica Klok. 96 

2087. 49. G. taurica Stev 99 

2088. 50. G. Alexeenkoana Miscz 99 

2089. 51. G. Caroli-Kochii Grossh 99 

2090. 52. G. pseudoreticulata Vved 100 

2091. 53. G. commutata C. Koch • 100 

2092. 54. G. reticulata (Pall.) Roem. et Schult 101 

2093. 55. G. tenuifolia (Boiss.) Fomin 101 

2094. 56. G. improvisa Grossh • • 102 

2095. 57. G. Chomutovae Pascher 102 

2096. 58. G. chlorantha (M. B.) Roem. et Schult 103 

2097. 59. G. anisopoda M. Pop 103 

2098. 60. G. Alberti Rgl 103 

2099. 61. G. Olgae Rgl 104 



Page 

2100. 62. G. afghanica Terr 107 

2101. 63. G. Vvedenskyi,Grossh 107 

2102. 64. G. altaica Schischk. et Sumn 107 

2103. 65. G. bulbifera (Pall.) Roem. et Schult 108 

2104. 66. G. pamirica Grossh 108 

2105. 67. G. tenera Pascher 109 

2106. 68. G. stipitata Merklin 109 

2107. 69. G. ova Stapf IO9 

2108. 70. G. capiilifolia Vved 110 

2109. 71. G. gageoides (Zucc). Vved 110 

2110. 72. G. minutiflora Rgl Ill 

Section 2. Plecostigma (Turcz.) Pascher. 

2111. 73. G. pauciflora Turcz. . . Ill 

2112. 74. G. provisa Pascher 112 

Genus 267. Allium L. 
Section 1. Anguinum Don. 

2113. 1. A. victorialis L 141 

Section 2. Ophioscordon (Wallr.) Vved. 

2114. 2. A. ursinum 1 142 

Section 3. Rhiziridium Don. 

2115. 3. A. sacculiferum Maxim 143 

2116. 4. A, Komarovianum Vved • 143 

2117. 5. A. Drobovi Vved 144 

2118. 6. A. oreoscordum Vved 144 

2119. 7. A. Fischeri Rgl 145 

2120. 8. A. clathratum Ldb 145 

2121. 9. A. leucocephalura Turcz 146 

2122. 10. A. flavidum Ldb 146 

2123. 11. A. Maackii Prokh 149 

2124. 12. A. splendens Willd 150 

2125. 13. A. lineare L 150 

2126. 14. A. strictum Schrad. . . • 151 

2127. 15. A. bogdoicolum Rgl 151 

2128. 16. A. amphibolum Ldb 152 

2129. 17. A. Szovitsii Rgl 153 

2130. 18. A. brachyodon Boiss 153 

2131. 19. A. oreoprasoides Vved 154 

2132. 20. A. oreodictyum Vved 154 

2133. 21. A. scabriscapum Boiss. et Ky 155 

2134. 22. A. trachyscordum Vved. ......... 155 

2135. 23. A. guzaricum Rgl. 156 

2136. 24. A. inconspicuum Vved ■ 156 

2137. 25. A. drepanophyllum Vved 157 

2138. 26. A. xiphopetalum Aitch. et Baker • 157 

2139. 27. A. Barsczewskii Lipsky 158 



Page 

2140. 28. A. Iutescens Vved 159 

2141. 29. A. longiradiatum Vved. 159 

2142. 30. A. dolichomischum Vved • 160 

2143. 31. A. dolichostylum Vved 160 

2144. 32. A. inderiense Fisch 161 

2145. 33. A. stephanophorum Vved 161 

2146. 34. A. tenuicaule Rgl 162 

2147. 35. A. oreoprasum Schrenk 162 

2148. 36. A. odorum L. • 163 

2149. 37. A. angulosum L 164 

2150. 38. A. albidum Fisch 164 

2151. 39. A. flavescens Bess 165 

2152. 40. A. Stellerianum Willd 165 

2153. 41. A. prostratum Trev 166 

2154. 42. A. rubens Schrad „ 166 

2155. 43. A. tytthocephalum Roem. et Schult 169 

2156. 44. A. senescens L 169 

2157. 45. A. nutans L ." 171 

2158. 46. A. pumilum Vved 171 

2159. 47. A. polyrrhizum Turcz 172 

2160. 48. A. bidentatum Fisch. 172 

2161. 49. A. bellulum Prokh 173 

2162. 50. A. tenuissimum L 173 

2163. 51. A. anisopodum Ldb 174 

2164. 52. A. caespitosum Sievers 174 

2165. 53. A. obliquum L • . . 175 

2166. 54. A. platyspathum Schrenk 175 

2167. 55. A. polyphyllum Kar. et Kir 176 

2168. 56. A. hymenorrhizum Ldb 176 

2169. 57. A. kaschianum Rgl 177 

2170. 58. A. glaciale Vved 177 

2171. 59. A. setifolium Schrenk 178 

2172. 60. A. subtilissimum Ldb 178 

2173. 61. A. jucundum Vved 179 

2174. 62. A. tytthanthum Vved 179 

2175. 63. A. kokanicum Rgl 180 

2176. 64. A. filifolium Rgl 180 

2177. 65. A. caricoides Rgl 181 

2178. 66. A. tianschanicum Rupr • 182 

2179. 67. A. condensation Turcz .... 182 

2180. 68. A. petraeum Kar. et Kir 183 

2181. 69. A. talassicum Rgl 183 

2182. 70. A. Marschalianum Vved 184 

2183. 71. A. saxatile M.B 184 

2184. 72. A. globosum M.B 185 

2185. 73. A. Alexandre Vved 185 

2186. 74. A. teretifolium Rgl 186 

2187. 75. A. Korolkovii Rgl 187 

2188. 76. A. Albovianum Vved . 187 

2189. 77. A. gunibicum Miser 188 

2190. 78. A. daghestanicum Grossh 188 

2191. 79. A. Veschnjakovii Rgl 188 



Page 

2192. 80. A. Semenovi Rg\ 189 

2193. 81. A. monadelphum Less 189 

2194. 82. A. schoenoprasum L 190 

2195. 83. A. Ledebourianum Roem. et Schult 194 

2196. 84. A. Maximowiczii Rgl 194 

2197. 85. A. oliganthum Kar. et Kir 195 

Section 4. P h y 1 1 o d o 1 o n (Salisb.) Prokh. 

2198. 86. A. microbulbutn Prokh 195 

2199. 87. A. altaicum Pall 196 

2200. 88. A. fistulosum L. 196 

Section 5. Cepa Prokh. 

2201. 89. A. galanthum Kar. et Kir 197 

2202. 90. A. pskemense B. Fedtsch 197 

2203. 91. A. Vavilovi M. Pop 198 

2204. 92. A. Oschanini O. Fedtsch 198 

2205. 93. A. cepa L 199 

Section 6. Haplostemon Boiss. 

2206. 94. A. Margaritae B. Fedtsch 199 

2207. 95. A. inaequale Janka 200 

2208. 96. A. mosehatum L. . . 200 

2209. 97. A. callidictyon C. A. M 201 

2210. 98. A. lacerum Freyn 201 

2211. 99. A. stamineum Boiss 202 

2212. 100. A. kossoricum Fom 202 

2213. 101. A. pseudoflavum Vved 203 

2214. 102. A. pulchellum Don. . . . • 204 

2215. 103. A. carinarum L 204 

2216. 104. A. oleraceiim L 205 

2217. 105. A. paniculatum L • 205 

2218. 106. A. lencoranicum Miscz 206 

2219. 107. A. karsianum Fom 207 

2220. 108. A. Kunthianum Vved 207 

2221. 109. A. rupestre Stev 208 

2222. 110. A. convallarioides Grossh 208 

2223. 111. A. kirindicum Bornm 209 

2224. 112. A. fibrosumRgl 209 

2225. 113. A. syntamanthum C. Koch 210 

2226. 114. A. rubellum M.B 213 

2227. 115. A. albanum Grossh 213 

2228. 116. A. scabrellum Boiss. et Buhse 214 

2229. 117. A. Jacquemontii Kunth 215 

2230. 118. A. anisotepalum Vved 215 

2231. 119. A. minutum Vved 216 

2232. 120. A. parvulum Vved 216 

2233. 121. A. Griffithianum Boiss. 217 

2234. 122. A. ophiophyllum Vved 218 

2235. 123. A. inops Vved 218 



Page 

2236. 124. A. lasiophyllum Vved 219 

2237. 125. A. delicatulum Siev 219 

2238. 126. A. glomeratum 220 

2239. 127. A. Pallasii Murr 220 

2240. 128. A. macrostemum Bge 221 

2241. 129. A. coeruleum Pall 221 

2242. 130. A. caesium Schrenk 222 

2243. 131. A. elegans Drob 223 

2244. 132. A. kopetdaghense Vved 223 

2245. 133. A. oreophiloides Rgl 224 

2246. 134. A. schoenoprasoides Rgl 224 

2247. 135. A. kujukense Vved 225 

2248. 136. A. eremoprasum Vved 226 

2249. 137. A. Popovii Vved. 226 

2250. 138. A. confragosum Vved 227 

2251. 139. A. scrobiculatum Vved 227 

2252. 140. A. transvestiens Vved 228 

2253. 141. A. sabulosum Stev 228 

2254. 142. A. turkestanicum Rgl 229 

Section 7. Porrum Don. 

2255. 143. A. ferganicum Vved 229 

2256. 144. A. Lehmannianum Merckl 230 

2257. 145. A. Borszczowii Rgl 233 

2258. 146. A. brevidens Vved 233 

2259. 147. A. turkomanicum Rgl 234 

2260. 148. A. crystallinum Vved 234 

2261. 149. A. filidens Rgl 235 

2262. 150. A. dictyoscordum Vved 236 

2263. 151. A. viride Grossh 236 

2264. 152. A. dictyoprasum C. A. M 236 

2265. 153. A. vineale L. 237 

2266. 154. A. Aucheri Boiss 238 

2267. 155. A. guttatum Stev 238 

2268. 156. A. affine Ldb 239 

2269. 157. A. firmotunicatum Fom 240 

2270. 158. A. fuscoviolaceum Fom 240 

2271. 159. A. sphaerocephalum L 241 

2272. 160. A. Regelianum Beck 241 

2273. 161. A. scorodoprasum L 242 

2274. 162. A- longicuspis Rgl 243 

2275. (163). A. sativum L. 243 

2276. 164. A. Fominianum Miscz 244 

2277. 165. A. ponticum Miscz. 244 

2278. 166. A. gracilescens Somm et Lev 245 

2279. 167. A. erubescens C. Koch • 246 

2280. 168. A. rotundum L 246 

2281. 169. A. jajlae Vved 247 

2282. 170. A. Waldsteinii Don 248 

2283. 171. A. talyschense Miscz 251 

2284. 172. A. pseudoampeloprasum Miscz 251 

2285. 173. A. atroviolaeeum Boiss 252 



Page 

2286. 174. A. leucanthum C. Koch 252 

2287. 175. A. ampeloprasum L 253 

2288. 176. A. porrum L 254 

2289. 177. A. monanthum Maxim 254 

2290. 178. A. paradoxum (M.B.) Don 254 

2291. 179. A. Candolleanum Alb 255 

2292. 180. A. oreophilum C. A. M • 255 

2293. 181. A. gypsaceum M. Pop 256 

2294. 182. A. helicophyllum Vved 256 

2295. 183. A. Sergii Vved 257 

2296. 184. A. Eugenii Vved 257 

2297. 185. A. verticillatum Rgl 258 

2298. 186. A. aroides M. Pop. et Vved 258 

2299. 187. A. monophyllum Vved 259 

2300. 188. A. Derderianum Rgl 259 

2301. 189. A. Alexejanum Rgl • 259 

2302. 190. A. akaka Gmel 260 

2303. 191. A. materculae Bordz 260 

2304. 192. A. Christophii Trautv 261 

2305. 193. A. Bodeanum Rgl 261 

2306. 194. A. brachyscapum Vved 261 

2307. 195. A. karataviense Rgl ' 262 

2308. 196. A. Mariae Bordz 262 

2309. 197. A. cardiostemon Fisch. et Mey 263 

2310. 198. A. Fetissovii Rgl 263 

2311. 199. A. dasyphyllum Vved 264 

2312. 200. A. insufficiens Vved 264 

2313. 201. A. robustum Kar. et Kir 265 

2314. 202. A. decipiens Fisch 265 

2315. 203. A. Severtzovii Rgl 266 

2316. 204. A. Suvorovii Rgl 266 

2317. 205. A. grande Lipsky 267 

2318. 206. A. alaicum Vved 267 

2319. 207. A. stipitatum Rgl 267 

2320. 208. A. gultschense B. Fedtsch 268 

2321. 209. A. aflatunense B. Fedtsch 268 

2322. 210. A. altissimum Rgl 269 

2323. 211. A. taeniopetalum M. Pop. et Vved 269 

2324. 212. A. Rosenbachianum Rgl 270 

2325. 213. A. Komarovi Lipsky 270 

2326. 214. A. seravschanicum Rgl 273 

2327. 215. A. pseudoseravschanicum M. Pop. et Vved 273 

2328. 216. A. datum Rgl 274 

2329. 217. A. giganteum Rgl 274 

2230. 218. A. Trautvetterianum Rgl 274 

2331. 219. A. Schubertii Zucc 275 

2332. 220. A. caspium (Pall.) M. B 275 

2333. 221. A. darvasicum Rgl 275 

2334. 222. A. Winklerianum Rgl 276 

2335. 223. A. cupuliferum Rgl 277 

2336. 224. A. Regelii Trautv ^ 

2337. 225. A. iliense Rgl 278 



Section 8. Calloscordum (Herbert) Baker. Page 

2338 226. A. nerinifolium Baker 279 

Section 9. Nectaroscordum (Lindl.) Gren. et Godr. 

2339. 227. A. tripedale Trautv 279 

2340. 228. A. Dioscoridis Sibth. et Sm 280 

Subfamily 4. L i 1 i o i d e a e Engl. 
Genus 268. Lilium L. 

Subgenus 1. Eulirion Rchb. 
Section 1. Leucolirion Wilson. 

2341. 1. L. candidum L 286 

Section 2. Pseudolirium Wilson. 

2342. 2. L. dahuricum Ker.-Gawl 286 

2243. 3. L. pulchellum Fisch 287 

Section 3. Martagon Wilson. 

2344. 4. L. martagon L 288 

2345. 5. L. avenaceum Fisch 288 

2346. 6. L. distichum Nakai 289 

— * L. Hansonii Leichtlin • . 289 

2347. 7. L. Maximoviczii Rgl 290 

— * L. tigrinum Ker. Gawl 290 

— * L bulbiferum L 291 

2348. 8. L. callosum Sieb. et Zucc 291 

2349. 9. L. tenuifolium Fisch 291 

2350. 10. L. cernuum Kom • 292 

2351. 11. L. Ledebourii Boiss 292 

2352. 12. L. ponticum C. Koch 293 

2353. 13. L. Kesselringianum Miscz 293 

2354. 14. L. monadelphum M. B 293 

2355. 15. L. Szovitsianum Fisch. et Ave Lallem 294 

Sub genus II. Cardiocrinum Endl. 

— — L. cordifolium Thunberg 294 

Genus 269. Korolkowia Rgl. 

2356. 1. K. Severzowii Rgl 295 

Genus 270. Rhinopetalum Fisch. 

2357. 1. Rh. Karelini Fisch 297 

2358. 2. Rh. gibbosum (Boiss.) Los. et Vved 297 

2359. 3. Rh. arianum Los. et Vved 298 

2360. 4. Rh. bucharicum (Rgl.) A. Los 298 

2361. 5. Rh. stenantherum Rgl 301 



Genus 271. Fritillaria L. 

Section E u f r i t i 1 lar i a Boiss. Page 

2362. 1. F. palidiflora Schrenk 304 

2363. 2. F montana Hoppe 305 

2364. 3. F. ruthenica Wikstr 305 

2365. 4. F. meleagroides Patrin 305 

2366. 5. F. meleagris L 306 

2367. 6. F. lutea Mill 306 

2368. 7. F. Kotschyana Herb 307 

2369. 8. F. latifolia Willd. 308 

2370. 9. F. grandiflora Grossh 308 

2371. 10. F. orientalis Adams 311 

2372. 11. F. caucasica Adams 311 

2373. 12. F. armena Boiss 311 

2374. 13. F. kurdica Boiss 312 

2375. 14. E. Michailovskyi Fom 312 

2376. 15. F. Grosjheimiana A. Los 313 

2377. 16. F. Waiujevi Rgl 313 

2378. 17. F. Regefii A. Los 314 

2379. 18. F. Olgae Vved. . . . • 314 

2380. 19. F. ussuriensis Maxim 315 

2381. 20. F. ferganensis A. Los 315 

2382. 21. F. verticillata Willd 316 

Section Peti Ilium (L). 

2383. 22. F. Raddeana Rgl 317 

2384. 23. F. Eduardii Rgl. 317 

Genus Li liar hi za (Kellog) A. Los. 

2385. 24. F. kamtschatcensis (L.) Fisch 318 

2386. 25. F. dagana Turcz 319 

2387. 26. F. Maximowiczii Freyn 320 

Genus 272. Tulipa L. 
Section Tulipanum Reb. 

2388. 1. T. Tubergeniana Hoog 329 

2389. 2. T. kuschkensis B. Fedtsch 329 

2390. 3. T. Hoogiana B. Fedtsch 330 

2391. 4. T. Julia C. Koch 330 

Section Leiostemones Boiss. 

2392. 5. T. Florenskyi Woron 331 

2393. 6. T. lanata Rgl 331 

2394. 7. T. ingens Hoog 332 

2395. 8. T. Fosteriana Irv 332 

2396. 9. T. carinata Vved • • 332 

2397. 10. T. praestans Hoog 333 

2398. 11. T. subpraestans Vved 334 

2399. 12. T. Alberti Rgl 334 

2400. 13. T. Greigii Rgl 335 



Page 

2401. 14. T. mogoltavica M. Pop. et Vved 335 

2402. 15. T. Micheliana Hoog 336 

2403. 16. T. Eichleri Rgl 336 

2404. 17. T. Schmidtii Fom 339 

2405. 18. T. Maximoviczii Rgl 339 

2406. 19. T. linifolia Rgl 340 

2407. 20. T. Wilsoniana Hoog 341 

2408. 21. T. Lehmanniana Merckl 341 

2409. 22. T. Behmiana Rgl 341 

2410. 23. T. Borszczowii Rgl 342 

2411. 24. T. Korolkowii Rgl 342 

2412. 25. T. nitidaHoog 343 

2413. 26. T. rosea Vved 343 

2414. 27. T. Schrenkii Rgl 343 

2415. 28. T. Ostrovskiana Rgl 344 

2416. 29. T. Kolpakovskiana Rgl .... 345 

2417. 30. T. Zenaidae Vved 345 

2418. 31. T. brachystemon Rgl 346 

2419. 32. T. platystemon Vved 346 

2420. 33. T. altaica Pall 346 

2421. 34. T. dubia Vved 347 

2422. 35. T. iliensis Rgl 347 

2423. 36. T. ferganica Vved 348 

2424. 37. T. anisophylla Vved 348 

2425. 38. T. Korshinskyi Vved 349 

2426. 39. T. tianschanica Rgl 349 

2427. 40. T. tetraphylla Rgl 350 

2428. 41. T. hissarica M. Pop. et Vved 350 

2429. 42. T. Krauseana Rgl 351 

Section Spiranthera Vved. 

2430. 43. T. Kaufmanniana Rgl 351 

Section Lophohyllon Vved 

2431. 44. T. Regelii Krasn 352 

Section Eriostemones Boiss. 

— 44.* T. violacea Boiss. et Buhse 352 

2432. 45. T. caucasica Lipsky 353 

— * T. silvestris L. 353 

2433. 46. T. Bibersteiniana Schult 354 

2434. 47. T. patens Agardh 355 

2435. 48. T. sogdiana Bge 355 

2436. 49. T. Buhseana Boiss. 356 

2437. 50. T. turkestanica Rgl 357 

2438. 51. T. turkomanica B. Fedtsch 357 

2439. 52. T. bifloriformis Vved 358 

2440. 53. T. biflora Pall 358 

2441. 54. T. polychroma Stapf 359 

2442. 55. T. koktebelica Junge 359 



xx 



Page 

2443. 56. T. Callieri Halacsy et Lev 360 

2444. 57. T. orithyoides Vved 360 

2445. 58. T. dasystemonoides Vved 361 

2446. 59. T. dasystemon Rgl 361 

2447. 60. T. tarda Stapf 362 

Section Orithyia Baker. 

2448. 61. T. heteropetala Ldb 363 

2449. 62. T. uniflora (L.) Bess 363 

2450. 63. T. heterophylla (Rgl.) Baker 364 

Genus 273. Erythronium L. 

2451. 1. E. sibiricum (Fisch. et Mey.) Kryl 365 

2452. 2. E. caucasicum Woron 365 

Genus 274. Lloydia Salisb. 

2453. 1. L. triflora (Ldb.) Baker 366 

2454. 2. L. rubriviridis (Boiss. et Ky.) Baker 366 

2455. 3. L. serotina (L.) Rchb 369 



Genus 275. Scilla L. 
Subgenus Euscilla Baker. 
Section Barnardia (Lindl.) Grossh. 

2456. 1. S. japonica (Thunb.) Baker 372 

Section Prospero (Baker.) Grossh. 

2457. 2. S. atropatana Grossh 372 

2458. 3. S. autumnalis L 373 

Section Pluriovulatae Grossh. 

2459. 4. S. bifolia L. 373 

2460. 5. S. nivalis Boiss 374 

2461. 6. S. Roseni C. Koch 374 

2462. 7. S. Winogradowii Sosn 375 

2463. 8. S. Hohenackeri Fisch. et Mey 375 

2464. 9. S. diziensis A. Grossh 376 

2465. 10. S. sibirica Andrevs 376 

2466. 11. S. caucasica Miscz 376 

2467. 12. S. monanthos C. Koch 377 

2468. 13. S. armena Grossh. 377 

2469. 14. S. Misczenkoana Grossh 378 

2470. 15. S. puschkinioides Rgl 378 

2471. 16. S. bucharica Dessjatova 379 

2472. 17. S. Raevskiana Rgl 379 



Genus 276. Ornithogatum L. 

Section He 1 eocharmos Backer. Page 

2473. 1. O. umbellatum L. 382 

2474. 2. O. tenuifolium Guss 383 

2475. 3. O. refractum Kit 383 

2476. 4. O. fimbriatum Willd 383 

2477. 5. O. transcausicum Miscz 384 

2478. 6. O. Sintenisii Freyn 384 

2479. 7. O. Woronovii H. Krasch. 384 

2480. 8. O. Balansae Boiss 385 

2481. 9. O. Schmalhauseni Alb 385 

2482. 10. O. sigmoideum Freyn et Sint 386 

2483. 11. O. Schischkini H. Krasch 386 

2484. 12. O. hyrcanicum Grossh 389 

2485. 13. O. graciliflorum C. Koch 389 

2486. 14. O. platyhypllum Boiss 389 

2487. 15. O. arianum Lipsky 390 

Section Beryllis Salisb. 

2488. 16 O. flavescens Lam. 390 

2489. 17. O. Schelkovnikovii Grossh 390 

2490. 18. O. pyrenaicum L. 391 

2491. 19. O. arcuatum Stev 391 

2492. 20. O. magnum H. Krasch. et Schischk. 391 

2493. 21. O. brachystachys C. Koch 392 

2494. 22. O. Fischerianum H. Krasch 392 

Section Myogalum Baker. 

2495. 23. O. nutans L 393 

2496. 24. O. Boucheanum (Kunth) Aschers. 393 

Genus 277. Puschkinia Adams. 

2497. 1. P. scilloides Adams 394 

2498. 2. P. hyacinthoides Baker. 394 

Genus 278. Bellevalia Lapeyrouse. 
Section Eubellevalia Boiss. 

2499. 1. B. turkestanica French 396 

2500. 2. B. atroviolacea Rgl 397 

2501. 3. B. albana Woron. 397 

2502. 4. B. sarmatica (Pall.) Woron 397 

2503. 5. B. zygomorpha Woron. 398 

2504. 6. B. longistyla (Miscz.) Grossh 401 

2505. 7. B. araxina Woron 401 

2506. 8. B. Aucheri (Baker) A. Los 401 

2507. 9. 3. Fomini Woron. 402 

2508. 10. B. Lipskyi (Miscz.) Wulf . 402 

2509. 11. B. lutea Bordz 402 

2510. 12. B. Wilhelmsii (Stev.) Woron. 403 



Page 

2511. 13. B. montana (C. Koch) Boiss 403 

2512. 14. B. Saviczi Woron 403 

2513. 15. B. speciosa Woron 404 

Section Oxyodon A. Los. 

2514. 16. B. pycnantha (C. Koch) A. Los 404 

2515. 17. B. acutifolia (Boiss.) Deloney 405 

Genus 279. Hyacinthus L. 

2516. 1. H. Litwinovii E. Czerniak 406 

2517. 2. H. transcaspicus Litw 406 

2518. 3. H. kopetdaghi E. Czerniak. 407 

* H. orientalis L 407 

Genus 280. Hyacintella Schur. 

2519. 1. H. leucophaea (C. Koch) Schur 408 

2520. 2. H. Pallasiana (Stev.) A. Los 408 

Genus 281. Leopoldia Pari. 

2521. 1. L. comosa (L.) Pari 409 

2522. 2. L. longipes (Boiss.) A. Los 410 

2523. 3. L. tenuiflora (Tausch) Heldr. • 410 

2524. 4. L. caucasica (Griseb.) A. Los 410 

Genus 282. Muscarimia Kostel. 

2525. 1. M. muscari (L) A Los 411 

Genus 283. Muscari Mill. 
Section Eumuscari A. Los. 

2526. 1. M. neglectum Guss 416 

2527. 2. M. commutatum Guss. 416 

2528. 3. M. racemosum (L.) Mill 417 

2529. 4. M. leucostomum Woron 417 

2530. 5. M. dolychanthum Woron. 417 

2531. 6. M. Woronowii Tron et A. Los 418 

2532. 7. M. pendulum Trautv 418 

2533. 8. M. Steupii Woron. et Tron 418 

2534. 9. M. botryoides (L.) Mill 419 

2535. 10. M. polyanthum Boiss. 419 

2536. 11. M. Szowitzianum Baker. 420 

Section Pseudomuscari A. Los. 

2537. 12. M. Turkewiczi (Woron.) A. Los 420 

2538. 13. M. pallens M. B 420 

2539. 14. M. paradoxum (Fisch. et Mey) 421 

2540. 15. M. apertum Freyn et Conrath 421 

2541. 16. M. coeruleum A. Los 421 

2542. 17. M. fornicularum Fom 422 

2543. 18. M. coeleste Fom 422 



Subfamily 5. Asp ar agoi deae Vent 

Genus 284. Asparagus L. 
Subgenus Euasparagus Baker. 

Section 1. Archiasparagus Iljin. Page 

2544. 1. A. verticillatus L 428 

2545. 2. A. schoberioides Kunth 428 

Section 2. Neoasparagus Iljin. 

2546. 3. A. tenuifolius Lam 429 

2547. 4. A. turkestanicus M. Pop 429 

2548. 5. A. Popov i Iljin 430 

2549. 6. A. bucharicus Iljin 430 

2550. 7. A. neglectus Kar. et Kir. 430 

2551. 8. A. Misczenkoi Iljin 431 

2552. 9. A. Breslerianus Schult 431 

2553. 10. A. angulofractus Iljin 432 

2554. 11. A. soongoricus Iljin 432 

2555. 12. A. tuberculatus Bge 433 

2556. 13. A. dahuricus Fisch 433 

2557. 14. A. kasakstanicus Iljin 434 

2558. 15. A. brachyphyllus Turcz 437 

2559. 16. A. persicus Baker 438 

2560. 17. A. pseudoscaber Grecescu 439 

2561. 18. A. Levinae Klok. 439 

2562. 19. A. officinalis L. 439 

2563. 20. A. setiformis Kryl 440 

2564. 21. A. caspius Hohen. 440 

2565. 22. A. oligoclonos Maxim 441 

2566. 23. A. polyphyllus Stev 441 

2567. 24. A. litoralis Stev 442 

Genus 285. Danae Medic 

2568. 1. D. racemosa (L.) Moench 443 

Genus 286. Ruscus To urn. 

2569. 1. R. hypophyllum L 444 

2570. 2. B. hypoglossum L 444 

2571. 3. R. ponticus Woron 444 

2572. 4. R. hyrcanus Woron 447 

Genus 287. Clintonia Raf. 

2573. 1. C. udensis Trautv. et Mey 448 

Genus 288. Smilacina Desf. 

2574. 1. S. dahurica Turcz. 451 

2575. 2. S. hirta Maxim 452 

2576. 3. S. trifoliate Desf 452 

Genus 289. Majanthemum Wigg. 

2577. 1. M. bifolium (L.) F. Schmidt 453 

2578. 2. M. dilatetum (Wood.) Nels. et Macb 454 



Genus 290. Disporum Salisb. Page 

2579. 1. D. viridescens (Maxim.) B. Fedtsch 454 

Genus 291. Streptopus L. C. Rich. 

2580. 1. S. amplexifolius (L.) DC 455 

2581. 2. S. ajanensis Tilling , 456 

Genus 292. Polygonatum Adans. 

2582. 1. P. roseum (Ldb.) Kunth 458 

2583. 2. P. stenophyllum Maxim 458 

2584. 3. P. verticillatum (L.) All 259 

2585 4. P. sibiricum Redoute 459 

2586. 5. P. Sewerzowi Rgl 460 

2587. 6. P. involucratum Maxim 460 

2588. 7. P. Desoulavyi Kom 463 

2589. 8. P. humile Fisch 463 

2590. 9. P. officinale All 463 

2591. 10. P. Maximoviczii F. Schmidt 464 

2592. 11. P. latifolium Desf 464 

2593. 12. P. acuminatifolium Kom 465 

2594. 13. P. glaberrimum C. Koch 465 

2595. 14. P. ovatum Miscz. 465 

2596. 15. P. obtusifolium Miscz. 466 

2597. 16. P. polyanthemum (M. B.) Dietr 466 

2598. 17. P. multiflorum (L.) All. 466 

Genus 293. Convallaria L. 

2599. 1. C. majalis L 467 

Genus 294. Paris L. 

2600. 1. P. quadrifolia L. 469 

2601. 2. P. incompleta M. B 470 

2602. 3. P. hexaphylla Cham 470 

2603. 4 P. manshurica Kom 473 

Genus 295. Trillium L. 

2604. 1. T. kamtschaticum Pall 473 

2605. 2. T. rhombifolium Kom 474 

Subfamily 6. Smilacoideae Engl. 
Genus 296. Smilax L. 

2606. 1. S. excelsa L 474 

2607. 2. S. Oldhami Miq • 475 

Family XXXIV. Amaryllidaceae Lindl. 
Genus 297. Galanthus L. 

2608. 1. G. latifolius Rupr 477 

2609. 2. G. transcaucasicus Fom 478 



Page 

2610. 3. G. nivalis L. 478 

2611. 4. G. caucasicus (Baker) Grossh 478 

2612. 5. G. alpinus Sosn 479 

2613. 6. G. plicatus M. B 479 

2614. 7. G. Woronowii A. Los 479 

Genus 298. Leucojum L. 

2615. 1. L. aestivum L 480 

* L. vernum L 481 

Genus 299. Ungernia Bge. 

2616. 1. U. trisphaera Bge 482 

2617. 2. U. tadshikorum Vved 483 

2618. 3. U. Victoris Vved 483 

2619. 4. U. minor Vved 484 

2620. 5. U. ferganica Vved 484 

2621. 6. U. Severtzovii (Rgl.) B. Fedtsch 485 

Genus 300. Sternbergia Waldst. et Kit. 

2622. 1. S. Fischeriana (Herb.) Roem. 486 

2623. 2. S. colchiciflora Waldst et Kit 486 

2624. 3. S. lutea (L.) Ker.-GawL 489 

Genus 301. Ixiolirion Fisch. 

2625. 1. I. karateginum Lipsky 490 

2626. 2. I. tataricum (Pall.) Roem. et Schult 490 

2627. 3. I. montanum (La Bill.) Herbert 491 

Genus 302. Narcissus L. 

2628. 1. N. caucasicus (Fom.) Gorschk 492 

2629. 2. N. pseudo-narcissus L 492 

* N. poeticus L 493 

• N. tazetta L 493 

Genus 303. Pancratium L. 

2630. 1. P. maritimum L 494 

Family XXXV. Dioscoreaceae Lindl. 
Genus 304. Dioscorea L. 

2631. 1. D. caucasica Lipsky .• • • 495 

* D. batatas Decne 496 

2632. 2. D. polystachya Turcz 497 

Genus 305. Tamus L. 

2633. 1. T. communis L 498 



XXVI 



Family XXXVI. Iridaceae LindL. 

Genus 306. Crocus L. 
Subgenus 1. Involucrati Maw. 

Section 1. Fibromembranacei Maw. Page 

2634. 1. C. vallicola Herbert 501 

2635. 2. C. Suworowianus C. Koch 501 

2636. 3. C. karsianus Fom 502 

2637. 4. C. Scharojani Rupr 502 

2638. 5. C. Autrani Alb 502 

Section 2. Retikulati Maw. 

2639. 6. C. Heuffelianus Herbert 503 

2640. 7. C. Pallasii Goldb 503 

Subgenus Nudiflori Maw. 
Section 3. Reticula tissimi B. Feetsch. 

2641. 8. C. variegatus Hoppe 504 

2642. 9. C. susianus Ker.-Gawl 504 

Section 4. Fibromembranacei Maw. 

2643. 10. C. alatavicus Rgl. et Semen 505 

2644. 11. C. caspicus Fisch. et Mey 505 

2645. 12. C. aureus Sibth. et Sm 505 

2646. 13. C. Korolkowi Rgl. et Maw 506 

2647. 14. C. Michelsoni B. Fedtsch 506 

Section 5. Annulati Maw. 

2648. 15. C. tauricus (Trautv.) Puring 509 

2649. 16. C. Adami Gay 509 

2650. 17. C. artvinensis (I. Phil.) Grossh 510 

2651. 18. C. Roopiae Woron 510 

2652. 19. C. speciosus M. B 510 

Genus 307. Ms L. 
Section 1. Apogon. 

2653. 1. I. lazica Alb 514 

2654. 2. I. tenuifolia Pall 515 

2655. 3. I. tianschanica (Maxim.) Vved 515 

2656. 4. I. ventricosa Pall 516 

2657. 5. I. songarica Schrenk 517 

2658. 6. I. ruthenica Ker.-Gawl 517 

2659. 7. I. uniflora Pall 518 

2660. 8. I. ensata Thunb 518 

2661. 9. I. sibirica L 519 

2662. 10. I. orientalis Thunb 520 

2663. 11. I. setosa Pall 520 

2664. 12. I. foetidissima L 523 

2665. 13. I. laevigata Fisch 524 



Page 

2666. 14. I. Kaempferi Sieb 525 

2667. 15. I. pseudacorus L 525 

2668. 16. I. halophila Pall 526 

2669. 17. I. sogdiana Bge 526 

2670. 18. I. musulmanica Fomin 527 

2671. 19. I. notha M.B 528 

2672. 20. I. violacea Klatt 528 

2673. 21. I. graminea L 529 

2674. 22. I. humilis M.B 229 

2675. 23. I. Ludwigii Maxim 530 

Section Pardanthopsis (Hance) Baker. 

2676. 24. I. dichotoma Pall 530 

Section Oncocyclus Baker. 

2677. 25. I. iberica Hoffm 532 

2678. 26. I. elegantissima Sosn 533 

2679. 27. I. Camillae Grossh 533 

2680. 28. I. acutiloba C. A. M 533 

2681. 29. I. Fomini Woron. 534 

2682. 30. I. Schelkownikowi Fom 537 

2683. 31. I. Ewbanlriana Foster 537 

2684. 32. I. Grossheimi Woron 538 

2685. 33. I. lycotis Woron 538 

2686. 34. I. paradoxa Stev 538 

2687. 35. I. Medwedewi Fom 539 

Section Regelia Lynch. 

2688. 36. I. stolonifera Maxim 540 

2689. 37. I. darvasica Rgl 541 

2690. 38. I. Korolkowi Rgl 541 

2691. 39. I. Hoogiana Dykes 542 

2692. 40. L karategina B. Fedtsch 542 

Section Pogoniris Baker. 

2693. 41. I. longiscapa Ldb 544 

2694. 42. I. falcifolia Bge 544 

2695. 43. I. flavissima Pall 545 

2696. 44. I. pumila L. 545 

2697. 45. I. Timofejewi Woron 546 

2698. 47. I. Potanini Maxim 549 

2699. 47. I. tigridia Bge 549 

2700. 48. I. Bloudowi Ldb 550 

2701. 49. I. scariosa Willd 550 

2702. 50. I. aphylla L. 551 

2703. 51. I. variegata L 552 

2704. 52. I. imbricata Lindl 552 

2705. 53. I. gerraanica L • • 553 

2706. 54. L Alberti Rgl 553 



XXVlll 



Section Reticulatae Dykes. Page 

2707. 55. I. Winkleri Rgl 554 

Section Reticulatae Dykes. 

2708. 56. I. Winogradowi Fom 554 

2709. 57. I. reticulata M. B. . 555 

2710. 58. I. hyrcana Woron 555 

2711. 59. I. Kolpakowskiana Rgl 556 

Section Gynandriris Benth. 

2712. 60. I. maricoides Rgl 556 

Section Juno (Tratt) Boiss. 

2713. 61. I. Fosteriana Aitch 560 

2714. 62. I. baldshuanica B. Fedtsch 561 

2715. 63. I. Nikolai Vved 561 

2716. 64. I. Rosenbachiana Rgl 562 

2717. 65. I. Popovii Vved 562 

2718. 66. I. parvula Vved 563 

2719. 67. I. tadshikorum Vved 563 

2720. 68. I. linifolia O. Fedtsch 564 

2721. 69. I. Vvedenskyi Nevski 564 

2722. 70. I. narynensis O. Fedtsch 567 

2723. 71. I. Narbuti O. Fedtsch 567 

2724. 72. I. Kuschakewiczii B. Fedtsch 568 

2725. 73. I. subdecolorata Vved 568 

2726. 74. I. coerulea B. Fedtsch 569 

2727. 75. I. vicaria Vved 569 

2728. 76. I. warleyeosis Foster 570 

2729. 77. I. bucharica Foster 570 

2730. 78. 1. magnifica Vved 571 

2731. 79. I. Willmottiana Foster 572 

2732. 80. I. orchioides Carr. 572 

2733. 81. I. maracandica Vved 573 

2734. 82. I. Tubergeniana Foster 573 

2735. 83. I. caucasica Hof fm 574 

2736. 84. I. pseudocaucasica Grossh 574 

2737. 85. I. drepanophylla Aitch. et Baker 575 

2738. 86. I. kopetdaghensis Vved 575 

2739. 87. I. leptorhiza Vved 576 

Genus 308. Belamcanda Adans. 
Genus* Sisyrinchium L. 

2740. 1. B. chinensis Leman. 577 

* S. angustifolium Mill 578 

Genus 309. Gladiolus L. 

2741. 1. G. segetum Ker-Gawl 580 

2742. 2. G. turkmenorum E. Czerniak 581 

2743. 3. G. communis L. . . . 582 



Page 

2744. 4. G. tenuiflorus C. Koch 582 

2745. 5. G. palustris Gaud 583 

2746. 6. G. imbricatus L 583 

2747. 7. G. Kotschyanus Boiss 584 

2748. 8. G. atroviolaceus Boiss 587 

2749. 9. G. halophilus Boiss • • • 588 



Order 9. Microspermae. 
Family XXXVII. Orchidaceae Lindl. 
Tribe I. CYPRIPEDIEAE LINDL. 
Genus 310. Cypripedium L. 

2750. 1. C. guttatum Sw 596 

2751. 2. C. Yatabeanum Makino 597 

2752. 3. C. macranthum Sw 598 

2753. 4. C. calceolus L 598 

Tribe II. MALAXIDEAE LINDL. 
Genus 311. Malaxis Soland. 

2754. 1. M. paludosa (L) Sw 600 

Genus 312. Microstylis Nutt. 

2755. 1. M. monophyllos (L.) Lindl 601 

Genus 313. Liparis L. C. Rich. 

2756. 1. L. Loeselii (L.) L. C. Rich 602 

2757. 2. L. japonica (Miq.) Maxim 603 

2758. 3. L. Makinoana Schlechter 603 

Genus 314. Calypso Salisb. 

2759. 1. C. bulbosa (L.) Rchb. f 604 

Genus 315. Ephippianthua Rchb. 

2760. 1. E. Schmidtii Rchb. f 607 

Genus 316. Corallorhiza Hall. 

2761. 1. C. bifida Chatel 608 

Genus 317. Oreorchis Lindl. 

2762. 1. O. patens Lindl 609 

Tribe III. CYRTOPODIEAE PFITZER. 
Genus 318. Eulophia R. Br. 

2763. 1. E. turkestanica (Litw.) Schlechter 610 



Tribe IV. NEOTTIAE LINDL. 

Genus 319. Pogonia Juss. Page 

2764. 1. P. Japonica Rchb f 611 

Genus 320. Listera R. Br. 

2765. 1. L. ovata (L.) R. Br. 612 

2766. 2. L. cordata (L.) R. Br 613 

2767. 3. L. brevidens Nevsk-' 613 

2768. 4. L. major Nakai 614 

Genus 321. Neottia Sw. 

2769. 1. N. nidus avis (L.) L. C. Rich 618 

2770. 2. N. papilligera Schlechter 618 

2771. 3. N. camtschatea (L.) Rchb 619 

2772. 4. N. asiatica Ohwi 620 

Genus 321a. Holopogon Kom. et Nevski. 
2772a. 1. N. ussuriensis Kom. et Nevski . . ' 617, 620 

Genus 322. Epipactis Adans. 
Section 1. Arthrochilium Irmisch. 

2773. 1. E. Thunbergii A. Gray 622 

2774. 2. E. Royleana Lindl. . 622 

2775. 3. E. veratrifolia Boiss. et Hoh 623 

2776. 4. E. palustris (L.) Crantz 623 

Section 2. Euepipactis Irmisch. 

2777. 5. E. latifolia (L.) All 624 

2778. 6. E. pap llosa Franch. et Sav 625 

2779. 7. E. rubiginosa Crantz 626 

2780. 8. E. microphylla (Ehrh.) Sw 629 

Genus 323. Cephalantkera L. C. Rich. 

2781. 1. C. epipactoides Fisch. et Mey 631 

2782. 2. C. longibracteata Bl 631 

2783. 3. C. grandiflora (L.) Babin? 632 

2784. 4. C. longifolia (Huds.) Fritsch • . 632 

2785. 5. C. caucasica Kranzlin 633 

2786. 6. C. rubra (L.) L. C. Rich 634 

Genus 324. Limodorum L. C. Rich. 

2787. 1. L. abortivum (L.) Sw 635 

Genus 325. Epipogon S. G. Gmelin. 

2788. 1. E. aphyllum (Schmidt) Sw 635 

Genus 326. Gastrodia R. Br. 

2789. 1. G. elata Bl 636 



Genus 327. Spiranthes L. C. Rich. Page 

2790. 1. S. autumnalis (Balb.) L. C. Rich 637 

2791. 2. S. amoena (M. B.) Spreng 638 

2792. 3. S. sinensis (Pers.) Ames 639 

Genus 328. Goodyera R. Br. 

2793. 1. G. repens (L.) R. Br 639 

Genus 329. Zeuxine Lindl. 

2794. 1. Z. strateumatica (L.) Schlechter 640 

Tribe V. OPHRYDEAE LINDL. 
Genus 330. Habenaria Willd. 

2795. 1. H. linearifolia Maxim 642 

2796. 2. H. dianthoides Nevski 642 

Genus 331. Herminium R. Br. 

2797. 1. H. monorchis (L.) R. Br 643 

Genus 332. Chamaeorchis Rich. 

2798. 1. Ch. alpinus (L.) L C. Rich 644 

Genus 333. Neottianthe Schlechter. 

2799. 1. N. cucullata (L.) Schlechter 645 

Genus 334. Neolindleya Kranzl. 

2800. 1. N. camtschatica (Cham.) Nevski 646 

Genus 335. Coeloglossum Hartm. 

2801. 1. C. viride (L.) Hartm 647 

Genus 336. Leucorehis E. Mey. 

2802. 1. L. albidus (L.) E. Mey 649 

Genus 337. Pseudodiphryllum Nevski. 

2803. 1. P. Chorisianum (Cham.) Nevski 650 

Genus 338. Peralaria Lindl. 

2804. 1. P. fuscescens (L.) Lindl 651 

2805. 2. P. ussuriensis (Maxim.) Schlechter 652 

Genus 339. Platanthera L. C. Rich. 

2806. 1. P. bifolia (L.) L. C. Rich 656 

2807. 2. P. extremiorientalis Nevski • • • 657 

2808. 3. P. chlorantha Cust 658 

2809. 4. P. Freynii Kranzl 659 

2810. 5. P. sachalinensis F. Schmidt 660 



1920 



Page 

2811. 6. P. tipuloides (L. f.) Lindl 660 

2812. 7. P. ophryoides F. Schmidt 661 

2813. 8. P. cornu-bovis Nevski 662 

Genus 340. Lysiella Rydb. 

2814. 1. L. oligantha (Turcz.) Nevski 663 

Genus 341. Ldmnorchis Rydb. 

2815. 1. L. convallariaefolius (Fisch. ex Lindl.) Rydb 665 

2816. 2. L. dilatatus (Pursh) Rydb 665 

2817. 3. L. hologlottis (Maxim.) Nevski 666 

Genus 342. Gymnadenia R. Br. 

2818. 1. G. odoratissima (L.) L. C. Rich 667 

2819. 2. C. conopsea (L.) R. Br 668 

Genus 343. Galeorchis Rydb. 

2820. 1. G. cydochilus (Franch. et Sav.) Nevski 669 

Genus 344. Chusua Nevski. 

2821. 1. Ch. secunda Nevski 670 

Genus 345. Traunsteinera Rchb. f. 

2822. 1. T. globosa (L.) Rchb. f 671 

2823. 2. T. sphaerica (M. B.) Schlechter 672 

Genus 346. Steveniella Schlechter. 

2824. 1. S. satyrioides (Stev.) Schlechter. 675 

Genus 347. Comperia C. Koch. 

2825. 1. C. taurica C. Koch 676 

Genus 348. Orchis L. 
Subgenus 1. Eu-orchis L. Klinge. 
Section 1. Platychilon Nevski. 

2826. 1. O. palustris Jacq 680 

2827. 2. O. coriophora L 681 

2828. 3. O. mascula L 683 

2829. 4. O. pallens L 684 

2830. 5. O. proviocialis Balb • 685 

2831. 6. O. viridifusca Alb 685 

2832. 7. O. mono L. • 686 

2833. 8. O. picta Lois 686 

2834. 9. O. caspia Trautv 688 

2835. 10. O. chlorotica Woron 689 

2836. 11. O. Fedtschenkoi E. Czerniak 689 



Section 2. Antropochilon Nevski. Page 

2837. 12. O. ustalata L 690 

2838. 13. O. tridentata Scop • . . 691 

2839. 14. O. militaris L 691 

2840. 15. O. simia Lam .... 693 

2841. 16. O. purpurea Huds 694 

2842. 17. O. maxima C. Koch 695 

2843. 18. O. punctata Stev 696 

2844. 19. O. Schelkownikovii Woron 697 

Subgenus II. Dactylorhiza (Neck.) Nevski. 
Section 1. Iberanthus Schlechter. 

2845. 20. O. iberica M. B 700 

Section 2. Schlechteranthus Nevski. 

2846. 21. O. flavescens C. Koch 701 

2847. 22. O. romana Seb. et Maur 702 

2848. 23. O. sambucina L 702 

Section 3. Kling-eanthus Schlechter. 

2849. 24. O. maculata L. 703 

2850. 25. O. Fuchsii Druce 704 

2851. 26. O. amblyoloba Nevski 707 

2852. 27. O. triphylla C. Koch 708 

2853. 28. O. euxina Nevski • 709 

2854. 29. O. aristata Fisch 710 

2855. 30. O. Traunsteineri Saut 711 

2856. 31. O. baltica Klinge 712 

2857. 32. O. salina Turcz 713 

2858. 33. O. umbrosa Kar. et Kir 714 

2859. 34. O. sanasunitensis Fleischm 715 

2860. 35. O. cruenta Muell 716 

2861. 36. O. latifolia L • 717 

Genus 349. Anacamptis L. C. Rich. 

2862. 1. A. pyramidalis (L.) L. C. Rich 718 

Genus 350. Himantoglossum W. D. Koch. 

2863. 1. H. caprinum (M. B.) Spreng 719 

2864. 2. H. formosum (Stev.) C. Koch 720 

Genus 351. Serapias L. 

2865. 1. S. vomeracea (Burm.) Briq 721 

Genus 352. Ophrys (L.) Swartz. 

2866. 1. O. muscifera Huds 725 

2867. 2. O. transhyrcana E. Czerniak • • 726 

2868. 3. O. caucasica Woron 727 

2869. 4. O. taurica (Agrg.) Nevski 728 

2870. 5. O. oestrifera M. B 729 

2871. 6. O. apifera Huds 730 



Family XXXIII. LILIACEAE HALL. 

Flowers commonly undifferentiated into calyx and corolla, with 
6 distinct or more or less united perianth segments of same color; stamens 
6; ovary in USSR plants superior, mostly 3- (rarely 2-4-5) locular with 
axile placention, rarely unilocular with parietal placentation; anthers 
distinct, nearly always 2 -celled, Saccharophilous plants with fleshy 
lustrous leaves and thickened roots, producing bulbs or corms. Seeds 
containing endosperm. 

Very few fossilized remnants of this family exist, S m ila x being the only fully authenticated genus. 
Such remnants as Agavites kioviensis Rogow. and A. priscus Kis. from the Eocene of M. Dnp. (Kiev), 
C onvallarites reinekiodes Schmalh. from the Oligocene of M . Dnp. (Volhynia), and 
Liliophyllites sp. from M . Dnp. (Volhynia) are rather dubious. 



Key to Subfamilies 

1. Fruit a capsule 2. 

"*■ Fruit a berry 5. 

2. Tips of carpels distinct, somewhat spreading; inflorescence a simple 
or forked terminal raceme; plants with rhizomes, bulbs or corms. 
1 . Melanthioideae, page 2 . 

"+■ Tips of carpels fully united; capsule rounded, flat or concave at the top. 
3. 

3. Rhizome; leaves all radical, except in As phod e li ne in which stem 
is leafy, but pedicels of this plant jointed; inflorescence terminal; 
capsule with dehiscent locules 2. Asphodeloideae, page 24. 

"•" Bulb or rarely a short horizontal rhizome 4. 

4. Inflorescence umbelliform, with 2 broad subtending leaves, rarely with 

2 narrow bracts, very rarely flowers solitary 

3. Allioideae, page 46. 

■+ Inflorescence paniculate or umbelliform, or flowers solitary; 

subtending leaves none 4. Lilioideae, page 216. 

5. Underground rhizome branched; tips of branches prolonged into leafy 
vertical shoots or giving rise to lateral aerial stems; leaves with arched 
venation 5. Asparagoideae, page 324. 

■*■ Scandent plants with reticulate leaf venation; flowers small in axillary 
umbels 6. Smilacoideae, page 362. 



Subfamily 1. Mela nthioideae ENGL. 

(Family Melanthaceae R. Br. 1810). 

Leaves with parallel venation; flowers solitary or gathered in a raceme 
or panicle, regular; perianth segments mostly distinct, usually persistent 
in fruit, in the genus Colchicum united in lower part into a tube; 
anthers small, 2 -celled, oblong or ovaloid; styles 3; capsule septicidal; 
seeds often appendaged. 

1. Perianth open, stellate or rarely campanulate, the segments distinct 

to base or nearly so 3. 

■*■ Perianth forming a narrow long tube in lower part; flower solitary. . . 7. 

2. Anthers oblong or ovaloid, with distinct cells; flowers in a dense 

raceme; flowers subtended by 3 bracts; seeds unappendaged 

252. Tofieldia Huds. 

"*■ Anthers cordate or reniform, with fused cells 2. 

3. Leaves linear to lanceolate, to 10 mm broad; the whole plant smooth. 
4. 

"+ Lower and middle cauline leaves 1-20 cm broad; pedicels pubescent. 
257. Veratrum L. 

4. Plants rhizomatose; inflorescence dense 5. 

"*" Plants cormatose; inflorescence rather loose 6. 

5. Filaments of stamens tomentose; style 1 253. Narthecium Huds. 

■+ Filaments of stamens glabrous; styles 3 

256. Acelidanthus Trautv. et Mey. 

6. Flowers few, 2-4 in raceme; perianth campanulate 

254. Stenanthium Kunth. 

* Flowers in a loose racemiform panicle; perianth with horizontally 

spreading segments 255. Zygadenus Michx. 

7. Perianth with united segments, infundibular-campanulate, with a long 
cylindric tube 260. Colchicum L. 

■*" Perianth segments free, with long narrow claws 8. 

8. Styles 3, quite distinct 258. Merendera Ramond. 

+ Style 1, 3 -fid in upper part 259. Bulbocodium L. 



Genus 252. TOFIELDIA* HUDS.** 

Huds. Fl. angl. ed. 2(1778)157. 

Perianth corollalike, deeply 6 -parted, wide open, peristent in fruit; 
stamens 6, inserted at the base of perianth segments; filaments dilated 
at base; anthers 2-celled; pistil with 3 short styles; stigma capitate; fruit 
a trilocular capsule, dividing into 3 fruitlets; seeds numerous. 

1. Bracteole 1 at the base of pedicel, 3-lobed . ... 1. T. palustris Huds. 
"+ Bracteoles 2, the lower lanceolate at the base of pedicel, the upper at 

the base of perianth 2, 

2. Cauline leaves 2-4; radical leaves with 7 or more veins 

4. T. calyculata Wahb. 

"■" Cauline leaves 1 or 2 or none; radical leaves mostly 5-nerved 3. 



Named after the Englishman Tofield, correspondent of Hudson in 1778. 
Arranged by O.I. Kuzeneva. 



3. Inflorescence an elongated spikelike raceme, with distant leaves, 

2-12 cm long; anthers pale yellow 3. T. cernua Smith. 

+ Inflorescence compact, capitate in flower; fruiting inflorescence not 

more than 2 cm long; anthers dark violet 2. T. nutans Willd. 

1. T. palustris Huds. Fl. angl. I (1778) 157; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 209; 
Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 588. — T. borealis Whlb. Fl. Lapp. (1812)89.— 
Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1848) 934, 935.— Exs. : Fl. Finl. exs. No. 569. 

Perennial; stem erect, 5-30 cm long, leafy only at base; leaves 
lanceolate, short -acuminate, (1.5) 3-5 (7) cm long, 1-2.7 mm broad, 
commonly 3-nerved, the margin thinly and finely prickly-ciliate; raceme 
short, fairly compact except the somewhat looser base, 1-2 cm long, 
5-6 cm broad; pedicels short (ca. 1/2-3/4 mm in flower and 1-2 mm in 
fruit); bracteole 1 at base of flower, cleft to 2/3 into ovate obtuse lobes; 
perianth segments whitish, oblong-ovate, obtuse, 2-2.5 mm long, 
0.3-1.0 mm broad; stamens as long as perianth; styles short, the length 
of perianth; capsule rounded-ovoid, 2.5-3 mm long, 2-2.3 mm broad; 
seeds ferruginous -brown, oblong, laterally compressed, ca. 0.7 mm long. 
June -July. 

Tundras, coastal sands, shores of mountain streams, and rarely mossy 
bogs. — Arctic: Arc. Eur., Arc. Sib., Chuk. ; European part: Kar.-Lap., 
Dv.-Pech., V. -Kama (alpine zone of Urals); E. Siberia: Lena-Kol. (N. ), 
Ang.-Say. (balds). Gen. distr. : Arc, Scand., Centr. Eur., Atl. Eur., 
N. Am. Described from Scotland. Type in London. 

2. T. nutans Willd. ex L. Syst. Veg. curant. Schultes VII, 2 (1830) 
1573inobs.; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 210; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 583; 
Kom. Fl. Kamch. I, 289.— T. coccinea Rich, in R. Br. Verm. 
Schr. I, 481; Ldb. I.e. 210, ex parte. — Ic. : Hulten, Fl. of Kamtch. I 
(1927) f. 15. 

Perennial; stems erect, 4-10 (15) cm long, mostly bearing 2 leaves; 
radical leaves numerous, lance -linear, acuminate, crenulate -margined, 
white in lower part, green above, mostly 5-nerved, one-fourth to half the 
length of stem, 1-4 cm long, 1-4 mm broad; cauline leaves minute; 
inflorescence initially compact, 6-10 mm long, at length elongating and 
becoming loose; pedicels at first ca. 0.5 mm long, gradually elongating, 
1-3.5 mm long in fruit, horizontally spreading to declined; bracteoles 2: 
the lower subtending the pedicel, foliaceous, ovate, acuminate, to 1 mm 
long, initially exceeding the pedicel, the upper tightly adhering to perianth 
base, calyculate, ca. 1 mm long, parted to 1/3-2/3 into 3 broadly triangular 
acuminate lobes; perianth segments elongate-obovate, pale yellow, violet- 
tinged; capsule exceeding the perianth, rounded- ovoid; seeds yellowish- 
brown. July, rarely August. 

Arctic and alpine zones, dry tundras, stony slopes, and sandy places. — 
Arctic: Arc. Sib., Chuk.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., Dau. , Lena-Kol. ; 
Far East: Kamch., Okh. , Ze.-Bu., Uda, Uss., Sakh. Gen. distr.: Japan, 
N. America (Alaska). Described from E. Siberia. Type in London. 

3. T. cernua Smith in Trans. Linn. Soc. XII (1817) 244; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 210. — Ic: (sub A nt he r i c u m) Gmel. Fl. Sib. I (1747) ab. 18, 
f. 2. 



Perennial; stem erect, (15) 20-40 cm long, mostly with one leaf in 
lower part; radical leaves numerous, mostly 5 -nerved, 3-8 cm long, 
2-4 mm broad; inflorescence terminal; raceme elongate-cylindric, loose, 
(l) 2-7 (12) cm long; pedicels mostly drooping, especially after anthesis, 
as long as the flower; bracteoles 2, one at base ca. 1 mm long, the other 
calyculate at perianth base, 3-lobed, scarious; perianth yellowish-white, 
the segments 3-4 mm long; capsule 3-4 mm long, 3-4 mm broad. 
July- August. (Plate I, Figure 1 a-c). 

Wet stony slopes, mountain passes; pine, spruce and broad-leaved 
mountain woods. — E. Siberia: Lena-Kol. , Ang.-Say., Dau. Endemic. 
Described from the Lena River. 

4. T. calyculata Wahlb. Fl. Lapp. (1812) 90; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 210; 
Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1848) 930. — Exs . : HFR No. 641 . 

Perennial; stem erect, rarely somewhat nodding, (10) 15-30 (45) cm 
long; leaves radical and cauline, sessile, linear, many-nerved, gradually 
acuminate; radical leaves 5-15 (23) cm long, 2-4 mm broad; lower 
cauline leaves flat, linear, the upper minute abbreviated; inflorescence 
a terminal, erect, mostly cylindric, rarely capitate, simple or rarely 
branched, 4-6 (12) cm long, spiciform raceme, the flowers in lower part 
mostly distant; pedicels shorter than flower; bracteoles 2, the lower 
subtending the pedicel lanceolate, the other at perianth base 3-lobed; 
perianth segments yellowish-white, 3-3.5 mm long; stamens 6; styles 3, 
short; capsule 3-3.5 mm long, ovoid to rounded-ovoid, many-seeded; 
seeds elongated, cinnamon-brown. June-July. 

Wet and dry peat bogs, calcareous and stony places. — European part: 
U. Dnp., M. Dnp. Gen. distr. : Scand. (E. Bait.), Centr. Eur., Atl. Eur. 
and Med. (Pyrenees). Described from Gotland Island. Type in Uppsala. 



Genus 253. NARTHECIUM* (MOEHR.) HUDS.** 

Moehr. in Acta Acad. nat. curios. ( 1742) 389, t.5, f . 1; Huds. Fl. Angl. (1767)128. 

Perianth corollalike, 6 -parted, the segments spreading persistent; 
filaments of stamens tomentose; style 1, with 3-lobed stigma; capsule 
conical, loculicidal; stem [?] with an elongated filiform appendage at the 
end and at base. Perennials. 



1. N. caucasicum Miscz. Fl. cauc. cirt. fasc. 33 (1912) 82. 

Perennial; rhizome long, creeping; stems 11-25 cm long, leafy at 
base; leaves linear-ensiform, sheathing, 5-9 (11) cm long, 2-3 cm broad; 
sheath broadly hyaline -margined; cauline leaves mostly 3 or 4, divergent, 
decreasing in size up the stem; raceme rather dense; pedicels as long as 
or scarcely longer than flower; bracts recurved, acuminate; perianth 
6 mm long, the segments elongate obtuse; filaments shorter than perianth, 
densely villous with hairs of equal length; ovary conical; style rather 
thick, gradually attenuate. June -August. 



From Greek narthex, alluding to large umbels. 
Arranged by O.I. Kuzeneva. 



Near streams in the alpine zone. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Klukhor Pass. Cotype in Leningrad. 



Genus 254. STENANTHIUM* KUNTH** 

Kunth Enum. pi. IV (1843) 189. 

Perianth 6 -parted, colored; perianth segments without glands, slightly- 
spreading and divergent; stamens 9, inserted at base; filaments filiform - 
subulate; anthers reniform, 1 -celled, extrorse; ovary subinferior, 
trilocular, with numerous ovules in each locule; styles 3, with simple 
stigma; capsule elongated, 3 -parted, topped by the style; seeds numerous, 
compressed. 

1. S. sachalinense F. Schmidt., Mem. Acad. Sc. Petersb. VII ser. 
VII 2 (1868) 188. — Ic. : ibid. t.IV, f. 1-7. 

Perianth; bulb small, oblong -ovaloid, with a coriaceous tunic; stem 
smooth, 17-30 cm long, 1-1.2 mm thick; radical leaves 2 or 3, shorter 
than stem, lanceolate to linear -lanceolate, acuminate, slightly narrowed 
toward base, 10-20 cm long, 3-8 mm broad, green; capsule leaves 1 or 2, 
small, the lower green, the upper often reddish like the bracts; 
inflorescence a simple loose raceme; flowers 2-4, nodding; pedicels 
shorter than to rarely as long as perianth, subtended by elliptic reddish 
bracts; perianth campanulate at base, green; perianth segments with 
reddish-tinged reflexed tips, the outer 3 lanceolate, 10-13 mm long, 
of about equal breadth at base, 2.5-3 mm broad, parallel-nerved throughout, 
acuminate, the 3 inner ones ovate -lanceolate, broader, winged in lower 
part, nerveless on the wings, 3.5-4 mm broad; stamens reaching the limb 
of perianth segments; immature seeds flat, lanceolate, winged at the tip. 
June-July. (Plate!, Figure 2a). 

Rocks and stony slopes.— Far East: Sakh. Endemic. Described from 
Due area. Type in Leningrad. 



Genus 255. ZYGADENUS t RICH.tt 

L.C. Rich, in Michx. Fl. bor. amer. I (1803) 213, t.22. 

Perianth petaloid, persistent in fruit, deeply 6 -parted; stamens 6; 
ovary trigonous, with 3 approximate styles; fruit a trigonous capsule, with 
peristent style, trilocular; locules many-seeded. Seeds numerous. 

1. Z. sibiricus (L. ) A. Gray in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New -York IV 
(1837) 112. — Melanthium sibiricum L. Sp. pi. (1753)332.— 
Leimanthium sibiricum Turcz. Cat. baic.-dah. (1838) No. 1158. — 
Anticlea sibirica Kunth, Enum. IV (1841) 191; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
207. — Exs.: HFR No. 1243. 



From Greek stenos, narrow, and anthos, flower, alluding to the narrow perianth segments. 

Arranged by O.I. Kuzeneva. 

From Greek zygos , yoke, pair, and a den , gland, referring to the pair of nectariferous glands 

(nectaries) at the base of each of the perianth segments . 

Arranged by O.I. Kuzeneva. 



(7) 




Plate I 



1. Tofieldia cernua Smith.: a)flowers; b) fruit; c) bracteole.— 2. Stenanthium sachalinense 
F.Schmidt; a) perianth segments.— 3. Zygadenus sibiricus Asa Gray; a) flower; b) fruit; c)perianth 
segments.— 4. Acelidanthus anticleoides Fisch. et Mey. : a) flower; b) fruit.— 5. Vera t rum 
dahuricum Turcz.; a)flower; b) perianth segments; c)fruit.— 6. V. Maackii Regel- a) fruit. 



Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, clothed in blackish-brown leaf remnants; 
stem erect, simple, 20-80 cm long; leaves mostly on the lower part of 
stem linear, acuminate, narrowed toward base; inflorescence a loose 
racemelike panicle, (5) 10-25 (40) cm long; pedicels longer than or rarely 
as long as perianth; bracts elliptic, dark violet mostly one -fourth to half 
the length of or rarely as long as the pedicel; perianth short -campanulate 
at base, the segments whitish, greenish outside, horizontally spreading; 
outer segments broader, ovate -lanceolate, acuminate, 5-8 (10) mm long, 
2-3 mm broad, the inner lanceolate; nectariferous glands on lower one- 
third of the segment; stamens 1/4-1/3 shorter than perianth; anthers 
reniform, reddish-violet; capsule oblong-ovoid, obtusely trigonous, 
ca. 10 mm long, 4 mm broad; seeds ovaloid-cylindric, ca. 2.5 mm long 
and 3/4 mm broad, enclosed in a membrane about twice the length of the seed. 
June -August. (Plate I, Figure 3 a-e). 

Sparse woods, more rarely dry meadows, scrub and rock crevices. — 
European part: V.-Kama; Siberia: all regions except U. Tob. ; Far East: 
all regions except Kamchatka and Sakhalin. Gen. distr. : Mongolia and 
China. Described from Siberia. Type in London. 

Genus 256. ACELIDANTHUS TRAUTV. et MEY.** 
Trautv. et Mey. Fl. Ochot. (1856) 94. 

Perianth persistent in fruit, 6 -parted, the segments distinct at base; 
stamens 6, with capitate anthers; ovary trigonous, 3-lobed in upper part; 
pistils 3, arched-recurved; stigma capitate; seeds numerous, exceeded 
by the membranous envelope. 
10 Flowers bisexual, though unisexual flowers with abortive ovary occur. 

1. A. anticleoides Trautv. et Mey. Fl. Ochot. (1856) 95. — V e r at r um 
anticleoides Taketa et Miyake in Botan. Mag. Tokyo (1910) 253. — 
Ic: Trautv. et Mey. ibid. tab. No. 28. 

Perennial; rhizome short, vertical, densely reticulate -fibrillose in 
upper part by disintegration of leaf bases; stem erect, simple, terete, 
smooth, 25-40 (50) cm long; radical leaves 5 or 6, broadly linear, 
18-24 cm long, (2) 6-10 (12) mm broad, acuminate, entire, glabrous on 
both sides; cauline leaves 2 or 3, smaller; raceme erect, fairly compact, 
10-20 (30) cm long; pedicels of upper flowers 2-4 mm long, those of lower 
flowers up to 7-8 mm long; bracts linear-lanceolate, the upper as long 
as or even longer than flower, the lower not reaching half the length of 
flower; perianth green, glabrous, ca. 1 cm across; segments oblong, 
acute, narrowed at base, 5-7 mm long, 2-7 mm broad; stamens 6; 
capsule glabrous, 8-13 mm long; seeds compressed, ellipsoid, 3-4 mm 
long. July-August. (Plate I, Figure 4 a, b). 

Balds and mountain slopes. — Far East: Uda, Uss. , Sakh. Gen. distr.: 
S. part of Sakhalin. Described from Uda area. Type in Leningrad. 



From Greek a, without, kelis, spot, and anthos, flower, alluding to absence of spots on flower. 
Arranged by O.I. Kuzeneva. 



11 



Genus 257. VERATRUM L.* 

L. Sp. pi. (1753)1044. 

Perianth petaloid, 6-parted to base, wide open, persistent in fruit, 
stamens 6, inserted at the base of perianth segments; anthers reniform, 
1 -celled, opening by an apical slit; pistil with 4 divergent styles; fruit 
a trilocular capsule, splitting into 3 fruitlets opening on the inner side; 
seeds numerous, flattened, winged. 

Flowers bisexual, sometimes with some staminate flowers in same 
inflorescence. 

1. Ovary barely longer than broad; ovule 8-16 in locule; perianth dark- 
colored; pedicels as long as or slightly longer than perianth. Section 
Fuscoveratrum Loes 2. 

+ Ovary much longer than broad; ovules 16-40 in locule; perianth white or 
greenish; pedicels much shorter than perianth. Section Alboveratum 
Loes 2. 

2. Panicle dense; stem stout, with numerous strong leaves; lower leaves 
elliptic 1. V. nigrum L. 

+ Raceme loose; stem slender, with 1 or 2 leaves to 3 cm broad; 

2. V. Maackii Rgl. 

3. Leaves densely whitish pubescent underneath; panicle pyramidal due 

to elongated lower branches 3. V. dahuricum (Loes.) Turcz. 

+ Leaves quite glabrous or with scattered tomentum; panicle narrow. . . 4. 

4. Perianth segments 3-6 mm broad, more or less rounded at tips. 
4. V. Lobelianum Bernh. 

"•" Perianth segments 2 — 3 mm broad, acutish 5. 

5. Inflorescence more or less spreading, loose 

5. V. calyciflorum Kom. 

+ Inflorescence narrow or spiciform 6. 

6. Stems 50-150 cm long 6. V. oxysepalum Turcz. 

+ Stems 20-50 cm long 7. V. Misae (Sirjaew.) Loes. 



Section 1. FUSCOVERATRUM Loes. fil. , Verhandl. des botan. Ver. 
Brand. 1 (1926) 140.— Ovary barely longer than broad; ovules 8 to 16 in 
each focule. 

1. V. nigrum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 1044; Ldb. Fl. Ross. VI, 208; Shmal'g. 
Fl. II, 512; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 586. -Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 
Vol.X (1848) tab. 423; Syreishch. , Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 231. 

Perennial, 60-100 (130) cm tall; rhizome strong, stout, vertical, with 
numerous stringy root fibers, the upper part densely clothed in blackish- 
brown fibers (remnants of disintegrated leaf sheaths); stem terete, erect, 
covered in upper part with soft hairs; inflorescence rachis subtomentose; 
cauline leaves glabrous, plaited; lower leaves broadly elliptic, short- 
acuminate, 20-25 (39) cm long, 8-18 (20) cm broad, decreasing in size 
acropetally, the middle ones narrower, the upper linear-lanceolate; 
inflorescence a many-flowered branched panicle or rarely a simple raceme, 
25-65 cm long; pedicels as long as to slightly longer than perianth, white - 
tomentose, subtended by a lanceolate puberulous -margined bract, this 
shorter than the pedicel; perianth wide open, blackish-red, 1.0-1.5 cm in 

* Arranged by O.I. Kuzeneva. 



diameter; segments oblong-elliptic, 0.5-0.7 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm broad, 
subentire, the inner narrower than the outer; stamens half as long as 
perianth; capsule ovoid, trigonous, 1.5-2 mm long, 0.8-1 cm broad. 
June -August. 

Dry glades and water meadows, mountain slopes, scrub, and rarely 
broad-leaved woods .— European part: U.V., U. Dnp., M. Dnp. , V.-Don, 
Bl.; W. Siberia: Ob (S. ), Irt. , Alt.; E. Siberia: Yen., Lena-Kol. (only 
surroundings of Kirensk), Ang.-Say. , Dau. , Far East: Ze.-Bu. , Uss.; 
Centr. Asia: Balkh. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur. (mountains of Switzerland 
and N. Italy), Balk.; Jap.-Ch. Described from Europe. Type in London. 

Note. The rhizome contains the alkaloid "nervin". 

2. V. Maackii Rgl. in Regel' and Maak. , O. Rast. Ussur. strany 
(1861) 169. —V. nigrum var. Maackii Maxim, in herb. — Ic: Regel' 
and Maak, ibid., t. XI, f. 7-14; Kom. andAlis., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. 
kr. I (1931) 110. 

* Perennial; rhizome short, straight, with a dense tuft of stringy roots, 

the upper part clothed in remnants of disintegrated membranous leaves or 
more often in blackish-brown fibers; stem erect, (60) 75-100 (125) cm long, 
rather smooth at base, tomentose in upper part; leaves elongate -lanceolate, 
narrowed toward base, acuminate, smooth on both sides, with prominent 
veins underneath, the lower 2 or 3 (4) larger, 20-45 cm long and (1.5) 
2-3 (4) cm broad, the upper smaller, linear to narrowly lanceolate, 
2-12 cm long and 0.3-1.0 cm broad, the leaves gradually decreasing in 
size acropetally, the uppermost resembling the bracts; panicle simple or 
in lower part compound, up to 45 cm long, with spreading branches; 
pedicels slender, as long as or longer than perianth, 0.6-1.5 cm long, 
more or. less tomentose; bracts green lanceolate, long-acuminate, shorter 
than pedicel; perianth dark red (var. viridiflora Kom. occurs with 
small green flowers); perianth segments elliptic, elongate, obtusish to 
acutish, entire, spreading in anthesis, becoming reflexed, persistent, 
ca. 0.5 cm long; stamens half the length of perianth segments; anthers 
reniform; capsule smooth, ovaloid-elongate, 1 .5-1 .8 cm long, trigonous, 
with persistent linear styles; stigma oblong. July- August. (Plate I, 
Figure 6a). 

Water meadows and woods, scrub, rarely exposed ridges. — Far East: 
Ze.-Bu. Gen. distr.: Jap.-Ch. Described from Ussuri River. Type in 
Leningrad. 

Section 2. ALBOVERATRUM Loes. fil. , Verhandl. des botan. Ver. 
Brand. (1926) 136. — Ovary much longer than broad; ovules 16 to 40 in 
each locule. 

3. V. dahuricum (Turcz.) Loes. Verhandl. des botan. Ver. Brand. 
(1926) 134.— V. album var. dahuricum Turcz. Fl. baic.-dah. II 
(1861) 230. 

Perennial; rhizome short, stoutish, with numerous stringy roots; 
stem erect, stout, terete, 50-100 (120) cm long, 1 -2.5 cm in diameter, 
in upper part densely pubescent like the inflorescence, with remnants of 
leaf sheaths at base; leaves numerous, densely pubescent beneath, 
whitish, tomentose when young, the lower elliptic, short -acuminate, 



10-20 (25) cm long, 5-10 cm broad (the 1 or 2 lowest smaller), 
acropetally diminishing in size and becoming increasingly lanceolate; 
panicle large, 30-65 cm long; pedicels 0.2-0.4 cm long, many times 
shorter than perianth, pubescent; bracts ovate, exceeding the pedicel, 
0.4-0.7 cm long; perianth (1.4) 1.8-6.2 cm in diameter, white to yellowish- 
white or initially greenish-white; segments elliptic, narrowed toward 
base, denticulate, rarely subentire, densely pubescent outside, 
(0.7) 0.8-1.2 cm long, 0.3-0.6 cm broad; outer segments somewhat shorter 
and broader than the inner, 0.4-0.7 cm long; fruit 2-2.5 cm long and 
ca. 1 cm broad. July- August. (Plate I, Figure 5, a-c). 
13 Water meadows and glades. — E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (solely SE), Dau. ; 

Far East: Ze.-Bu. , Uss. Gen. distr. : Jap. -Ch. Described from Dauria. 
Cotype in Leningrad. 

4. V. Lobelianum Bernh. in Schrad. N. Journ. 2, 11(1807)356; Loes. 
in Fedde, Repert, sp. nov. XXIV 4-13 (1927) 64; Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 
587.— V. album var. Lobelianum Shmal'g. , Fl. II (1897).— 

V. album j3 floribus viridibus Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 208.— 
Exs.: Fl. polon. exs. No. 580. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1848) 938. 

Perennial; rhizome short, stoutish, with numerous stringy roots; 
stem erect, stout, terete, 70-170 cm long, 2-3 cm thick, clothed at base 
in disintegrated leaf sheaths, often fibrillose, the upper part of stem and 
inflorescence pubescent; leaves numerous, plaited, covered beneath with 
short hairs, the lower broadly elliptic, short -acuminate, 15-25 cm long, 
10-15 cm broad, gradually diminishing in size acropetally, the uppermost 
lanceolate; inflorescence paniculate, 20-60 cm long; pedicels several 
times shorter than perianth segments, 2-3 mm long, pubescent; bracts 
rounded-ovate to rarely ovate, short -acuminate, several times the length 
of pedicel, 3-5 mm long; bracts whitish or yellowish-green, ca. 2.5 cm 
in diameter, open; leaves elliptic, narrowed at both ends, ungiculate, 
round-tipped, serrulate, slightly pubescent outside, 8-13 mm long, 
4-6 mm broad; inner segments narrower and longer than the outer; 
stamens shorter than perianth segments; capsule ovoid, trigonous, 
ca. 2.5 cm long and 1 cm broad. June-August. 

Water meadows and wet glades. — European part: Kar.-Lap., Dv.-Pech., 
U.V., V.-Ka., U. Dnp. , M. Dnp. , V.-Don, Transv. ; Caucasus: Cisc. , 
Dag., W., E. and S, Transc; W. Siberia: Ob, U. Tob. , Irt. , Alt.; 
E. Siberia: Yen., Ang.-Say., Dau.; Far East: Ze.-Bu.; Centr. Asia: 
Balkh., T. Sh. Gen. distr.: Centr. Eur., Med., W. Balkans. Described 
from Switzerland. Type in Vienna (?). 

Note. A poisonous plant, especially when young. The rootstock, 
"rhizoma veratri", contains the alkaloids nervin and veratroidin, used in 
medicine. 

5. V. calyciflorum Kom. Sp. nova, in Addenda III, 733.— 

V. Escholtzii Asa Gray. var. Kom. Fl. Mansh. 1(1901)434. 

Perennial; rhizome short, thickened, with numerous roots; stem erect, 
70-150 cm long, clothed at base in disintegrated leaf sheaths; leaves 
numerous, thin, the lower broadly elliptic, gradually becoming lanceolate 
in acropetal direction, the upper arachnoid with short scattered hairs; 
inflorescence a loose raceme with distant long spreading branches and 



10 



tomentose rachis; pedicels short; perianth dark green; segments narrowly- 
lanceolate, often dentate, acute, glabrous within, tomentose outside, the 
outer 1 -nerved, the inner 3-nerved; stamens half the length of perianth 
segments. June -July. 

Wood clearings and banks of forest streams, in shade.— Far East: 
Uss. Gen. distr. : Manchuria. Described from Uss. Type in Leningrad. 

6. V. oxysepalum Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou (1840) 79; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 209. — V. album subs, oxysepalum Hulten Fl. of 
Kamtch. I (1927) 233. - V. album Kom. Fl. Kamtsch. 1(1927)291, 
nonL.-V. album var. Lobelianum Kom. Fl. Mansh. 1(1901)433. 

Perennial; rhizome short, thickened; stem erect, terete, 
50-150 (200) cm long, in upper part often tomentulose; leaves numerous, 
elliptic, acuminate, 15-27 cm long, 5-12 cm broad, gradually 
diminishing in acropetal direction, mostly glabrous, rarely somewhat 
tomentulose; inflorescence compact, (15) 25-40 (60) cm long; pedicels 
1-2 (3)mmlong; bracts (4) 6-10 mm long, ovate; flowers 8-12 (15) mm 
in diameter; petals oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 8-12 mm long, 
2-3 mm broad, finely denticulate, greenish; stamens half the length of 
perianth; capsule ovoid -trigonous. June-August. 

Meadows, scrub, wood margins, and glades. — E. Siberia: Lena-Kol. , 
Ang.-Say. , Dau; Far East: Kamch. , Okh. , Ze.-Bu. , Uda, Uss., Sakh. 
Endemic. Described from Kamchatka. Type in Kharkov. 

Note. Forms displaying transition toward V. Lobelianum occur 
in addition to typical samples. 

7. V. Misae (Sirjaev) Loes. fnFedde, Repert, sp. nov. XXIV, 4-13 
(1927) 65; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 5B^ — V. a-tbum var. Misae Sir. 
in Acta Bot. Bohem, Vol. II (1923) 41. 

Perennial; rhizome with numerous stringy roots; stem clothed in 
remnants of leaf sheaths, partly fibrillose, erect, 20-40 cm long, 4-8 mm 
thick, in inflorescence tomentulose; leaves elliptic, short -acuminate, 
glabrous on both sides, ciliolate -margined, the lower 4-9 cm long and 
1-4 cm broad, gradually diminishing and becoming lanceolate in acropetal 
direction; inflorescence paniculate -spiciform, 5-8 (18) cm long, 3-4 cm 
broad; pedicels short, tomentose; bracts ovate, greatly exceeding the 
pedicel; perianth yellowish-green, with elliptic crenate segments; 
stamens half the length of perianth segments. July- August. 

Boggy meadows, wet tundras, banks of rivers and lakes, and thin 
broad -leaved woods. — Arctic. : Arc. Eur., Arc. Sib., Chuk.; European 
part: Kar.-Lap., Dv. -Pech. Endemic. Described from Ob Gulf and Taz 
Bay. Type in Bryunne [?]. 

Note. A species well defined in the northern belt, but with various 
transitional forms that link it with V. Lobelianum. The transitional 
plants have greater overall size and larger and more spreading 
inflorescence, although some are large but have a peniculate -spiciform 
inflorescence. 



11 



15 Genus 258. MERENDERA* RAMOND.** 

Ramond in Bull. Soc. philom. 11(1798) 178, t.12 

Perianth large, infundibular; segments distinct to base, unguiculate, 
the limb narrow, oblong, sometimes with filiform or toothlike appendages 
at base, the claws long, linear-filiform, longer or shorter than the limb; 
stamens inserted at base of perianth segments; anthers oblong or linear, 
basifixed or versatile; ovary trilocular, with numerous ovules; styles 3, 
distinct, filiform; fruit a septicidal capsule, dehiscing from the top 
downward; seeds globose. 

Cormatose plants, the linear leaves always appearing together with 
flowers and enclosed in a spathe. 

1. Corms poorly developed, stalked; tunic thin, of few layers; teeth at 

the base of petal limbs rather short, filiform 

1. M. sobolifera C. A.M. 

"*" Corms well developed, without soboles 2. 

2. Corm tunics delicate, membranous; flowers solitary 3. 

+ Corm tunics stiff, coarse; flowers several 4. 

3. Stem lateral; flowers light pink; leaves linear-lanceolate; limb of 
perianth segments always with long filiform teeth at base; anthers 
yellow, oblong, to 2 mm long 2. M. Raddeana Rgl. 

"*" Stem arising from the center of the corm; flowers solitary, white; 
leaves linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate, obtuse, shorter than to as 
long as flower; limb of perianth segments oblong, obtuse, exauriculate; 

anthers yellow, linear, to 8 mm long, basifixed 

3. M. hissarica Rgl. 

4. Limb of perianth segments auriculate; anthers small, oblong, versatile, 
1.5-2 mm long 5. 

+ Limb of perianth segments exauriculate; anthers linear, 8-10 mm long, 
basifixed 7. 

5. Flowers white as a rule, rarely yellowish -white 

6. M. candidissima Miscz. 

*•" Flowers varying shades ranging from white to bright pink 6. 

6. Leaves at anthesis shorter than flowers; flowers commonly pink, rarely 

16 whitish; limb of perianth segments 2-3 times the length of claw; teeth 
at base of limb short or absent, mostly confined to inner segments; 
spathe long 4. M. trigyna (Ad. ) G. Woron. 

"*" Leaves greatly exceeding the flowers at anthesis; flowers mostly white 
or scarcely pinkish; claw of perianth segments more than 3 times the 
length of limb; teeth at base of limb well developed, very short; spathe 
very short 5. M. Eichleri (Egl. ) Boiss. 

7. Corms large, 3-4 cm in diameter; flowers large; limb 2.5-4 cm long; 
filaments 2-3 mm long, one -third to one -fourth the length of anther. 
7. M. robusta Bge. 

+ Corms smaller, 2-2.5 cm in diameter; limb of perianth segments 
15-18-25 mm long; filaments up to 4 mm long; anthers twice the 

length of filament; leaves narrower, canaliculate 

8. M. Jolantae E. Czerniak. 



From Spanish name for Colchi cum — Quita mariendas which Mere nd era resembles. 
Arranged by E.G. Chernyakovskaya . 



12 



1. M. sobolifera C.A.M., Ind. Sem. Horti Petrop. I (1835) 34; Miscz. 
in Fl. cauc. crit. 11(1912)92-94; Grossg. , Fl. Kavk. I, 189.— 
Bulbocodium hastulatum Friv. in Reg. Flora (1836) 434. — 
Colchicum soboliferum Stef . , Monogr. Gatt. Colchicum (1926) 44. 

Perennial, 8-20 cm tall; corm ca. 1 cm, covered with delicate brown 
tunics, attached to a horizontal or oblique stalk with numerous soboles; 
leaves 3, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, more or less flattened, delicate, 
distinctly nerved, glabrous, 3-5 mm broad, appearing together with 
flowers and usually exceeding them; flowers 1 or 2, pink; perianth 
segments with a linear-elliptic obtusish limb, 17-25 mm long, 2.5 mm 
broad, sagittate at base by descending linear auricles, the filiform claws 
twice the length of limb; stamens half as long as the limb; anthers 2-3 mm 
long, ellipsoid, brown, versatile; capsule small, ovoid-oblong, to 18 mm 
long. January-March. (Plate II, Figure la). 

Alpine meadows, at altitudes of 2100-2400 m. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. 
Turkm., Pam. -Al. (E. Bal'dzhuan); Caucasus: E. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Bal.-As. Min., Iran. Described from Khoi area in Iranian Azerbaijan. 
Type in Leningrad. 

2. M. Raddeana Rgl. Gartenfl. (1881) 293; Miscz. Fl. cauc. -crit. 
11(1912)94-95; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 189. — C . caucasicum 
v. Raddeanus (Rgl. ) Stef. , Monogr. Gatt. Colchicum (1926) 44. — 
Ic: Rgl. Gartenfl. t. 1057, t.l. 

Perennial, 7-13 cm tall/ corms small, ovaloid, with delicate 
submenbranous cinnamon-brown tunics; stem lateral; leaves linear- 
17 lanceolate to lanceolate, 4-12 mm broad, subobtuse; perianth pale pink, 
drying pale violet; limb of perianth linear-elliptic, obtusish, to 6 mm 
broad, always with long mostly filiform teeth at base; stamens half as long 
as the limb; anthers yellow, oblong, 2 mm long, 3 times the length of 
filament. Fl. March-April. 

Alpine meadows, mountain slopes and passes, near the snowline, at 
altitudes of 2400-3170 m. — Caucasus: S. Transc. (Nakhichevan, Lake 
Gokcha area), Talysh. Gen. distr. : N. Iran. Described from Sabalan 
and Khorzan Pass near Qazvin. Type in Leningrad. 

3. M. hissarica Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 645. — C ol chic urn 
hissaricum Stef., Monogr. (1926)23. 

Perennial, up to 10 cm tall; corms medium size, 2-3 cm long, 
1-1.5 cm broad, oblong, the brown membranous tunics slightly exceeding 
the corm; leaves 2, oblong-lanceolate, 8-10 mm broad, canaliculate, 
nearly flat, subfalcate, rarely straight, spreading, obtuse, smooth- 
margined, shorter than or rarely equaling to slightly exceeding the flower; 
flowers solitary, white; limb of perianth segments oblong, obtuse, 
1.5-2 cm long, 3-5 mm broad, exauriculate, the filiform claw 1.5-2 times 
the length of limb; anthers yellow, narrowly linear, 8 mm long, twice 
the length of filament, one -third shorter than the limb; ovary oblong; style 
filiform, slightly exceeding the stamens; stigmas small, capitate. Fl. May, 
June, July. 

Mountains in the alpine zone, passes near the snowline, at altitudes 
of 2400-4000 m. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. , T. Sh. Endemic. Described 
from Pam.-Al. (Mura Pass). Type in Leningrad. 



13 



4. M. trigyna (Adams) Woron. in Schedis ad Fl. cauc. exs. inA.H.P. 
XXVIII (1912) 431; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 190.- Bulbocodium 
trigynum Adams in Web. et Mohr. Beitr. z. Natrk. 1(1805)49; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 205. — M. caucasica M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. 11(1808)293, 
426 et III (1819) 281; Miscz. in Fl. cauc.-crit. II (1912) 95-97.— 
Bulbocodium caucasicum Shmal'g. , Fl. II (1897) 511 . — 

C. caucasicum Spreng. Stef. Monogr, (1926) 43-44. — M e r e nde r a 
caucasica v. euryphylla Bordz. in Herb. — Ic: M.B. Cent. pi. 
rar. ross. I (1810) t. 50; Bot. Mag. (1839) t. 3690. — Exs. : Fl. cauc. exs. 
No. 258. PI. or. exs. No. 28. 

Perennial, 8-12 cm tall; corm ovoid, 1-2 cm long, 1-1.5 cm in 
diameter, clothed in short rigid blackish-brown tunics, stems arising 
from the center of the corm; leaves 2-4, linear-lanceolate, 3-4 mm long 
(after flowering to 1 cm broad), canaliculate, falcate, acuminate, thickish, 
glabrous, shorter than to about equaling the flower at anthesis; spathe 
long, equaling the perianth tube; flowers 1-5, commonly pink, the color 
varying greatly in intensity from dark to pale pink, rarely whitish; perianth 
18 segments oblong-lanceolate, 2-2.5 cm long, 5-7 mm broad, the teeth at 
the base of limb short or absent or sometimes the limb with a single tooth; 
limb 2-3 times as long as the filiform claw; anthers ovoid, versatile, 
1.5-2 mm long; capsule oblong-ellipsoid, pointed at both ends . Fl. 
January-April. 

Dry mountain slopes, at altitudes of 1500-1800 m and in plains.— 
Caucasus: W. , E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr, : Arm. -Kurd., Asia Minor, 
N. Persia. Described from E. Transcaucasia — "hab. in Cauc. circa, 
castellum Georgo-politanum et in Iberia merid. " Type in Leningrad. 

5. M. Eichleri (Rgl. ) Boiss.Fl. Or. V (1884) 168; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 
190. — Bulbocodium Eichleri Rgl. Gartenfl. XXVII (1878) 294 et in 
A.H.P. V, 633. — M. caucasica var. Eichleri Baker in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. XVII (1879) 439.— Bulbocodium caucasicum Shmal'g., Fl. II 
(1897) 511 p. p.— M. caucasica var. Eichleri (Rgl. ) Baker in Miscz. 
Fl. cauc. crit. II (1912) 97. — C olchicum caucasicum Spreng. Stef. 
Monogr. Gatt. Colchicum (1926) 43. — Ic. : Rgl. Gartenfl, (1878) t. 952. 

Perennial; corm ovoid-oblong, larger than in the preceding species, 
1.5-2.5 cm across, with blackish-brown stiff tunics; spathe very short; 
stems short; leaves 8-18 mm broad, linear-ovate, canaliculate, acuminate, 
greatly exceeding the flower already at anthesis; flowers commonly white 
or faintly rose; perianth segments mostly acuminate, with short teeth at 
the base of limb; claw 3 times the length of limb; stamens shorter than 
the limb; anthers with sagittate appendages. March-April. 

Wet mountain slopes, 600-1800 m. — Caucasus: Cisc. (Kislovodsk, 
Pyatigorsk), Dag., E. Trans. Endemic. Described from vicinity of Baku 
according to Eichler's collections. 

6.* M. candidissima Miscz. ex Grossh. , Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 190. 

Perennial; corm with numerous stiff coarse black tunics; stem usually 
central; leaves sublanceolate, obtuse, lustrous, bright green, shorter 
than to equaling the flower; perianth white, rarely dingy white. 

* This species was referred by E.G. Chernyakovskaya.to M. trigyna Woron. as a synonym, and has 
been included by the editors in the manuscript. 



14 



Caucasus: Tal. Endemic. Described from Zuvant. Type in Tiflis 
[Tbilisi]. 

Note. We do not have at our disposal either full description or 
herbarium material. The species is included in the "Flora" solely for 
the sake of a full inventory and in consideration of the fact that the 
endemism for Talysh is beyond doubt. Hence the importance of this species 
which is related to the two preceding ones within the general system of 
the genus Merendera. 

7. M. robusta Bge. in Mem. Sav. Etr. Petersb. VII (1854) 515; Boiss. 
Fl. Or., V, 169.— Bulbocodium robustum Rgl. in A.H.P. VI (1879) 
491. — B. persicum |3 turkestanicum Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXX (1881) 

19 294. — Me r e nde r a Badghysi Korsh. in Mem. Ac. Petersb. VIII, IV, 
No. 4 (1896) 99. — C olchivum robustum Stef . , Monogr. (1926)24.— 

■ Ic: Gartenfl. XXX (1881) t. 1508. Opred. rast. okr. Tashk. (1923), 
Figure 89. — Exs. : HFR, No. 156. 

Perennial; corm large, ovoid-oblong, flattened, 2, 3-4 cm across, 
clothed in coriaceous blackish-brown tunics prolonged into a long tube 
enveloping the base of stem; leaves 3-6, appearing together with and 
somewhat exceeding the flowers, linear to linear-lanceolate, 1-2.5 cm 
broad, slightly spreading, glabrous, with a cartilaginous softly scabrous 
margin, acuminate, many-nerved, the lowest leaf sometimes subdistant; 
flowers 2 or 3 (-8), white or pink; limb of perianth segments oblong- 
elliptic, 25-30 mm long, 5^6 mm broad, exauriculate; claws narrowly 
linear to subfiliform, 2-3 times the length of limb; stamens about half the 
length of limb; anthers linear, greenish-yellow, 6-10 mm long, 3-4 times 
the length of filament, basifixed; capsule oblong, 2-3 cm long, the fruitlets 
short-beaked; seeds 20-40, globose. February-March. (Plate II, 
Figure 2 a, c). 

Sandy and sandy-clayey hills; sands and sandy-clayey and solonchak 
plains. — Gentr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., KaraK., Kyz. K. , Pam.-Al., Amu D., 
Syr D. , Balkh. (Chu). Gen. distr. : India, Baluchistan. Afghanistan, 
Described from the sands of Syr D. and Kyz. K. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The following observations were made by A.I. Vvedenskii on 
a large number of plants (more than 150 specimens) grown in the Botanical 
Garden of Tashkent from corms collected near Kushka: Flower white at 
first, gradually turning pink, rarely pale pink to start with. Limb of 
perianth variable in size and shape. Measurements of a large number of 
specimens gave the following petal dimensions: 25X6, 35V 11, and 
40X9 mm, the outer segments somewhat broader and longer; all acute or 
obtuse. Similar observations were carried out on M. Jolantae 
E. Czerniak, in which the dimensions fluctuated within the range 15X5 mm 
to 18X3 mm. 

8. M. Jolantae E. Czerniak. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXIX (1930) 
193. 

Perennial, 13 — 15 cm tall in flower, up to 30 cm in fruit; corm oblong- 
ovoid, 2-2.5 cm broad, clothed in thin dark cinnamon-brown tunics 
prolonged into a short tube enveloping the stem; spathe pale membranous, 
obliquely truncate; leaves 3-5-(l0), narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 
coriaceous, canaliculate, slightly attenuate, subobtuse, 4-12 mm broad, 



15 



glaucescent, glabrous, scaberulous -margined, developing together with 
and somewhat shorter than the flowers; flowers 1-3, white; limb of 
20 perianth segments linear -lanceolate, obtusish, 20-25 mm long, 4-6 mm 
broad, exauriculate, the linear -filiform claw twice the length of limb; 
stamens about half the length of limb; anthers linear, basifixed, 8-9 mm, 
long, 2-3 times the length of filament; filaments white, 3-4 mm long; 
capsule ca. 1.5 cm long, the valves long-beaked. March, in mountains 
June. (Plate II, Figure 3). 

Clayey slopes and gypseous hills. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Endemic. 
Described from Kopet Dagh from Razarash. Type in Leningrad. 



Genus 259. BULBOCODIUM* L.** 

L. Coroll. Gen. (1737) 6. 

Perianth petaloid, large, 6 -parted; segments distinct, the long narrow 
claws forming a tube and joined by teeth on either side of limb base; 
stamens inserted at limb base; filaments slender; anthers versatile; 
pistil with 1 sessile trilocular many-ovuled ovary and 1 apically 3 -fid style; 
capsule oblong, 3-valved; seeds globose. Tuberous plants. 

1. B. versicolor (Ker.-Gawl.) Spreng. Syst. veg. 11(1825)40.— 
Colchicum versicolor Ker.-Gawl. Bot. Reg. (1821) t. 571. — 
Bulbocodium vernum M. B. Fl. taur.-cauc. I (1808) 261.— 
B. ruthenicum Bge. Ind. Sem. H. Dorp. 12 (1837) 11; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, 206; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 511. — Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 955; 
Fl. Yugo-Vost. Ill (1929) 376, Figure 173. 

Perennial; tuber ovoid, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, with dark brown 
membranous tunics; leaves 3-4, with flowers, lance-linear, not more 
than 1 cm broad, upright, subobtuse, canaliculate, glaucous, glabrous, 
elongated after flowering; flowers pink or pinkish-lilac, obtusish, 
2.5-3 cm long, the limb barely longer than the narrow claw, with a pair 
of obtuse auricles at base; stamens one -third to half the length of limb; 
23 anthers yellow, oblong; capsule 15-17 mm long, oblong, acuminate; 
style long, 3-fid at the top. Fl. March-April. (Plate II, Figure 6, a). 

Steppes, slopes, commons, scrub, woods, wet glades, and water 
meadows. In the USSR in the steppe regions.— European part: M. Dnp. , 
V.-Don, Trans. , Bl. , L. V. For the Caucasus there are only literary 
records (Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 170; Mishchenko in Fl. cauc. crit. II, 1912, 
102; Grossg. , Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 190). — Cisc. and Dag. Gen. distr. : 
W. and E. Med. Described from S. Russia. 



From Greek bolbos, tuber, and kodion, membrane, referring to membranes of the tunic covering 

the tuber. 

Arranged by E.G. Chernyakovskaya. 



16 



(21) 




Plate II 

1. Merendera sobolifera C.A.M.; la) perianth segments.- 2. M. robusta Bge. : 2a) fruit; 
2b) perianth.- 3. M.Jolantae E. Czern. , perianth segments.- 4. Colchicum Szovitsii c'.A.M. 
perianth segments.- 5. C. nivale Boiss. etHuet., flower.- 6. Bulbocodium versicolor Spreng, 
flower; 6a) fruit.- 7. Colchicum serpen tinu m Woron. . 7a) fruit; 7b) perianth segments; 7c) style 
and stamens.- 8. C.umbrosum Stev. 



17 



Genus 260. COLCHICUM* (TOURN.) L.** 

Col chi cum (Tourn. Inst. 346, t.181, 182); L. Gen. pi. ed . 1(1737) 107; ed . 5(1754) 159.- 
Synsiphon Rgl. inA.H.P. VII (1879) 490. 

Flowers and leaves inclosed in a spathe; flowers large, bisexual; 
perianth infundibular -campanulate, with a long cylindric tube and 6 -parted 
limb; stamens shorter than perianth segments, the 3 inner shorter than 
the outer, all inserted in perianth throat; style 1, with 3 distinct styles; 
stigmas clavate; ovary trilocular; fruit an ovoid-globose to ovoid-oblong 
septicidal capsule; stems numerous; bulbs coated with brown sheaths 
(tunics) prolonged into a fairly long tube enveloping the lower part. 

Note. Colchicum species are poisonous and infest pastures (Fedch., 
Rast. Turk. 221). The seeds (Semen Colchici) have medicinal value. 
Nearly all species deserve a place in gardens for their decorative flowers. 

1. Flowers and leaves appearing together in spring 2. 

"*" Flowers appearing in fall; leaves and capsules in the spring of the 

following year 8. 

2. Leaf margin rough -ciliate; filaments sometimes villous at base 

1. C. Biebersteinii Rouy. 

+ Leaf margin always smooth; filaments never villous 3. 

3. Bulbs small, 1-2 cm long, more or less cylindric 4. 

+ Bulbs larger, thickened at base 5. 

4. Bulbs subcylindric, the tunics thin and delicate, the outer brown, the 
inner reddish-brown, lustrous; leaves 3, narrowly linear, canaliculate, 

24 2-4 mm broad; flowers 1-4, pale pink; perianth segments oblong- 

lanceolate, 2-2.5 cm long, with a very slender tube; anthers small 
(2 mm long), linear, drying blackish-green— filaments 4-5 times the 

length of anther 2. C. serpentinum (Woron.) Miscz. 

"* Bulbs oblong, 1.5 cm long, 1 cm in diameter, with coriaceous 

cinnamon-brown tunics; leaves 2, very rarely 3, short -lanceolate, 
subobtuse to obtuse, 4-15 mm broad, canaliculate at flowering, at 
length broadly elliptic, 15-20 mm long, 6-9 mm broad, twice the length 
of stamens; anthers 2-3 mm long, yellow; filaments 2-3 times the 
length of anther 3. C. nivale Boiss. et Huet. 

5. Flowers pink or violet; rarely white and then perianth segments 
narrowly linear 6. 

"•" Flowers yellow or white, with a blackish- violet stripe on the black. . . 7. 

6. Bulbs large, to 3 cm in diameter, with blackish-brown tunics; leaves 
2-3, broadly lanceolate, to 2 cm broad; flowers pink; perianth segments 
elliptic -oblanceolate, obtusish, 2.5-3 cm long, 8-10 mm broad, with 

a short thick tube 4. C. Szovitsii Fisch. et Mey. 

"*" Bulb 2.5 cm in diameter; leaves 1-3, narrowly linear; perianth 

segments ca. 2 cm long, narrowly linear, whitish, the tube slender. 
5. C. zangezurum Grossh. 



A generic name derived from Greek K oik his (a region by the Black Sea, ancient Colchis), where 
this plant is very common. The Russian name of the genus, Osennik , alludes to some of the species 
which flower in late fall; their ovary winters and then develops into mature capsule with the appearance 
of leaves [From Russian osen , fall]. 
Arranged by E.G. Chernyakovskaya. 



7. Leaves 2-7, linear, scarcely developed at flowering time, 3-10 mm 
broad; flowers 1-4, mostly 1 or 2; perianth segments lance -oblong, 
obtuse, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 5 mm broad; anthers basifixed, narrowly 

linear, 9-10 mm long, 3 times the length of filament 

6. C. Regelii Stef. 

+ Leaves 3-4, lanceolate, canaliculate to nearly flat, 8-10 mm broad; 
flowers 1-3; perianth segments 1.5-2.5 (3) cm long, 5-7 mm broad, 
linear-oblanceolate, obtuse; anthers yellow, erect, narrowly linear, 
many times the length of filament 7. C. luteum Baker. 

8. Flowers 1-5, small; leaves 3-5, thickish, lance-lorate, obtuse, 

15-22 mm broad; bulbs medium size, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, subglobose, 

the blackish coats prolonged into a long thin tube 

8. C. umbrosum Stev. 

+ Flowers and bulbs larger . . 9. 

9. Flowers pale lilac, medium size (fairly large); styles very slender, 
subfiliform, but slightly attenuate upward, many times the length of 
stamens; bulb to 3 cm in diameter, ovoid, fairly large, the coriaceous 

blackish-brown tunics prolonged into a long slender tube 

9. C. laetum Stev. 

+ Flowers very large, pinkish-purple or violet; styles thick, straight at 
the top; bulb large, oblong, up to 5 cm long, 3-4 cm broad, the dark 
cinnamon-brown membranous to subcoriaceous tunics prolonged into 
a long and broad tube 10. C. speciosum Stev. 

1. C. Biebersteinii Rouy in Bull. Soc. Bot. France LII (1905) 646; Stef. 
Monogr. Gatt. Colchicum (1926)36-37; Vul'f . , Fl. Kryma I, c, 3 (1930) 
5-7. — C. bulbocodioides M. B. Fl. taur.-cauc. 1(1808)293, nonBrot.; 
Stev. in Mem. Soc. nat. Moscou VII (1829) 267 p.p.; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 510.- 
C. montanum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 250 p. p. ; Miscz. in Fl. cauc. 
crit. (1912)111, aonL.-Ic. : Stev. op. c.t.16. 

Perennial, 10-15 cm tall; bulb very small, 13-20 ram long, 1-1.5 cm 
in diameter, ovoid, the coriaceous tunics prolonged into a short neck; 
spathe long, membranous; leaves commonly 3, recurved, linear- 
lanceolate, canaliculate, more or less rough-margined, ciliate or glabrous, 
often narrowly cartilaginous -bordered, 4-8 mm broad; flowers 1-8, 
pinkish-violet, medium size; perianth 18-24 mm long, oblong-elliptic, 
obtusish, 10- 15 -nerved, the slender tube many times longer than the limb; 
stamens about half the length of perianth; filaments thickened toward base, 
often tomentose; anthers violet -brown, oblong-linear; styles straight, 
with terminal stigma; capsule globose, 12-18 mm long, short -acuminate. 
January -March. 

Slopes and steppes, in clay soils. — European part: Bl. , Crim. 
Gen. distr. : Asia Minor, France, Bulgaria, Dobruja. 

2. C. serpentinum Miscz. in Fl. cauc. crit. 11(1912)114. 
Perennial, 11-13 cm tall, flowering with leaves; bulbs small, 1-2 cm 

long, 5-8 mm in diameter, subcylindric; tunics short, thin, membranous, 
brownish-cinnamon-colored; leaves 2-3, narrowly linear, 2-4 mm broad, 
slightly recurved, canaliculate, strongly recurved to contorted after 
flowering; spathe long, pale, membranous, obliquely truncate; flowers 1-4, 



19 



pale pink; perianth segments 2 (2.5) cm long, oblong-lanceolate, the very 
slender tube 3-4 times the length of perianth; stamens half as long as the 
perianth; filaments thickened at base, gradually attenuate, orange, drying 
pale pinkish-violet; anthers 2 mm long, linear, drying blackish-green, 
the filaments 4-5 times as long as anthers; styles exceeding the stamens, 
filiform, straight. January-February. (Plate II, Figure 7, a-e). 

Mountain slopes, among shrubs. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. 
26 Described from former Artvin District of Batumi Region, where it occurs 
on slopes above the Lomashenskii nursery. Gen. distr. : Asia Minor. 
Type in Leningrad. 

3. C. nivale Boiss. et Huet ex Stef. Monogr. (1926)35-36.— 

C. Szovitsii var. nivale Boiss. et Huet in Boiss . Diagn. pi. ser. II, 
4 (1859) 122 — Me re nde r a nivalis Stapf in Denkschr. Akad. Wien I 
(1885)18. — C. bifolium FreyetSint. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. IV (1896) 
198. — C. Szovitsii var. bifolium Bordz. in Acta Horti Tifl. XVIII, 
2 (1919) 489. 

Perennial; bulb small, oblong, 1.5 cm long, 1 cm broad, with short, 
coriaceous, cinnamon-brown tunics; spathe short, membranous, ovately 
truncate, colored; leaves 2 or rarely 3, short-lanceolate, obtusish to 
acutish, 4-15 mm broad, subcanaliculate in flower, at length broadly linear 
and subexplanate, glabrous, cartilaginous -margined; flowers solitary or 
rarely 2, pinkish or white; perianth segments broadly elliptic, the outer 
sometimes auriculate at base, 15-20 mm long, 6-9 mm broad, 
7-15-nerved, obtusish, twice the length of stamens, the thick tube 
3-4 times as long as perianth; filaments subulate, with thickened orange 
base; anthers 2-3 mm long; yellow; filaments 2-3 times as long as anthers; 
styles straight, with capitate stigma; capsule oblong, 15 mm long. March- 
May. (Plate II, Figure 5). 

Alpine meadows, up to 300 m, on thawed snow patches. — Caucasus: 
S. Transc. Gen. distr.: Turkish Armenia and NW. Iran. Described from 
Turkish Armenia. Type in Geneva. 

4. C. Szovitsii Fisch. et Mey. in Index Sem. Petrop. (1835)24; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 205; Miscz. in Fl. cauc. crit. II (1912) 112-114; Stef. 
Monogr. (1926) 25-27. 

Perennial, 22 cm tall in flower; bulb fairly large, to 3 cm in diameter, 
the coriaceous cinnamon-brown tunics prolonged into a long tube; leaves 
2 or 3, to 2 cm broad, suberect, with a flat or sometimes undulate glabrous 
margin; flowers with leaves, 1-4, whitish-pink; perianth segment obtusish, 
elliptic -lanceolate, 2.5-3 cm long, 8-10 mm broad, 9- or 10-nerved, the 
stout tube 4 times as long as the segments; stamens 7-10 mm long, 
one-third the length of perianth segments, thickened at base; anthers 
ellipsoid, 3 mm long, yellow; filaments glabrous; styles straight; capsule 
ovoid, large, 3.5-4 cm long; fruitlets long-beaked. March-April. (Plate II, 
Figure 4). 

Subalpine and alpine meadows. — Caucasus: S. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr. 
N. Iran. Described in 1829 from Somkhetiya, Arekligeduk mountains, 
from collection of Shovits. Type in Leningrad. 



20 



5. C. zangezurum Grossh. , Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 191. 

27 Perennial; bulb large, to 2.5 cm in diameter; tunics coarse, blackish- 
brown; leaves 1-3, narrowly linear; flowers 1 or 2, slender-tubed; 
perianth segments to 2 cm long, narrowly linear, whitish. 

Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described by A. A. Grossheim from 
live specimens grown from bulbs collected in Zangezur, on dry mounds in 
Araks Valley. 

Note. Not having seen the specimens, we doubt the distinctiveness 
of this species. It is not known whether the type plant still exists. Stefanov 
refers it conjecturally to C. nivalis. 

6. C. Regelii Stef. in Monogr. Gatt. Colchicum (1926) 22-23.— 
Synsiphon crociflorum Rgl., A.H.P. IV (1879) 491 . — 

C. crociflorum Rgl., A.H.P. VII (1880) 385, nonSchott. et Kotschy 
(1854). — C. crociflorum var. typicum et var. stenophyllum 
Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII (1884) 646. — C. Kesselringii Rgl. A.H.P. VIII 
(1883) 646. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. t. 8055; Opred. rast. okr. Tashk. I (1923), 
Figure 90. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-oblong, 1-3 cm long, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, 
the blackish-brown membranous to subcoriaceous tunics prolonged into a 
rather long tube; leaves 2-7, linear, appearing with flower, scarcely 
developed or rather short in flower, spreading, canaliculate, subobtuse 
to subacute, at length lance -linear, flat, subcoriaceous, 3-10 mm broad, 
the margin smooth or rarely denticulate; flowers 1-4, mostly 1 or 2; 
perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 5 mm 
broad, white, with a blackish-violet dorsal stripe, twice as long as stamens, 
the tube to 10 cm long, more or less violet -tinged; anthers yellow, 
basifixed, narrowly linear, 9-10 mm long, twice the length of filaments. 
February-May (July). 

Mountains, from 2000 to 3800 m, in mountain passes of the alpine and 
subalpine zones, descending onto mounds in the foothills and submontane 
plains. — Centr. Asia: Syr D. (Tashkent, Chirchik Valley), Pam.-Al. , 
T. Sh. Endemic. Described from the vicinity of Tashkent. Type in 
Leningrad. 

Note. Regel (1. c. ) notes two varieties: a typicum — many-flowered 
forms with lance-oblong perianth segments (Chu and Narym river valleys) 
and j3 stenosepalum — al-or rarely 2 -flowered form with sublinear 
segments. (E. Bukhara, Darvaz). 

7. C. luteum Baker in Gard. Chron. VII (1874) 34; Stef. Monogr. (1926) 
21-22. — C. Albert i Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII (1883) 647. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. 

t. 6153; Fedch., Rast. Turk. (1914)220, Figure 152. — Exs.: Herb. Fl. 
As. med. No. 51. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-oblong, flattened, 1.5-3 cm long, 1-2.5 cm broad, 
the brownish membranous tunics mostly prolonged into a tube 5-10 cm 
long enveloping the lower part of the stem; leaves (2) 3-4, short and 

28 canaliculate at flowering time, at length linear -ligulate, to 15 cm long, 
8-15 mm broad, subobtuse, glabrous -margined; flowers 1-3, yellow with 
leaves, the yellowish or violet tube 3-7 mm long; perianth segments 
1.5-2.6 (3) cm long, 5-7 mm broad, erect, bright yellow, unicolor or 

do rsally violet -tinged at base, linear-oblanceolate, obtusish; anthers 



2! 



yellow, basifixed, narrowly linear, many times the length of filament; 
styles filiform, yellow; capsule ovoid, to 2\ cm long; fruitlets long- 
acuminate. Fl. April-July. 

Near thawing snow, in mountains and on glaciers, at 1800 to 4000 m.— 
Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al., W. Tien. Shan. Gen. distr. : Tibet, India, 
Baluchistan, Afghanistan. Described from Kashgar (Yarkend). 

Note. Two-leaved 1 -flowered forms of W. Tien Shan (Narym River 
valley) were separated by A. Kegel into a distinct species, C. Alberti 
Rgl. (A.H.P. VIII, 647). This species differs little from the type; similar 
2 -leaved and 1 -flowered forms occur, side by side with typical plants, 
in others areas (Zeravshan valley, former Namangan County, E. part of 
Tadzhik SSR). The Darvaz forms differ to some extent in having broader 
leaves (up to 2 cm broad), larger bulbs and broader perianth segments. 

Note. This plant is considered as poisonous and dangerous to cattle 
in Kirghizian pastures. 

8. C. umbrosum Stev. in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. de Moscou I (1829) 
268; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 204; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 510; Miscz. Fl. cauc. crit. 
11(1912)109; Stef. Monogr. (1926)64. — C. autumnale M. B. Fl. taur.- 
cauc. 1(1808)292, nonL.-Ic: Stev. op. cit. t. 14. — Exs.: Herb. Fl. 
cauc. No. 162; Fl. cauc. exs. No. 355. 

Perennial, 11-15 cm tall in flower, 20-28 cm in fruit; bulb medium 
size, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, subglobose, somewhat asymmetrical at base; 
tunics blackish, membranous, prolonged into a slender tube; leaves 3-5, 
rather thick, lance-lorate, obtuse, 15 cm long, 15-22 mm broad; flowers 
1-5, small, appearing in fall; perianth segments elliptic -oblanceolate, 
lilac or pale purple, to 2 cm or rarely 2.5-3 cm long, the tube 5-6 times 
the length of the limb; stamens less than half the length of perianth; anthers 
yellow, hyaline -margined; style barely exceeding or rarely equaling the 
stamens, slightly curved at the top; mature capsule ellipsoid-oblong, to 
4 cm long, acuminate, narrowed toward base. Fl. August -September; 
fr. April-May (Plate II, Figure 8). 

Foothills and mountains, in the subalpine and timber zones, shady 
meadows, under trees, glades among shrubs, and mountain slopes.— 
European part: Crim; Caucasus: Cisc. , W. Transc. , Dag. Gen. distr.: 
Asia Minor. Described from the vicinity of Yalta. Type in Helsinki. 

29 9. C. laetum Stev. in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou VII (1829) 262, 

separat. p. 66; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 204; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 510; Miscz. in Fl. 
cauc. -Crit. 11(1912)110-111; Stef. Monogr. (1926)65. — C. autumnale 
M.B.F1. taur.-cauc. I (1808)293 (quoad pi. cauc.). — Ic. : Stev. op. cit. 
t. 13; Rgl., Gartenfl. (1862) t. 379. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, fairly large, ca. 3 cm in diameter; tunics 
coriaceous, blackish-brown, prolonged into a fairly long slender tube; 
leaves 4, ligulate, pale green, the lowest subobtuse, broader than the 
others, the upper acute; flowers 1-3, fairly large, pale lilac or purple; 
perianth segments lanceolate to elliptic; commonly up to 4 cm long, obtuse, 
the throat glabrous, the tube 3-4 times the length of limb; stamens about 
half the length of perianth segments; anthers linear, yellow, to 6-8 cm 
long; styles very slender, linear, nearly straight, slightly thicker and 
scarcely curved at the top, many times the length of stamens; capsule ovoid, 



22 



to 2 cm long, borne on a very short stipe, obtuse at base, acuminate at 
the top. Fl. August-September; fr. April. 

Meadows and steppes. — European part: L. V. , L. Don; Caucasus: 
Steppe parts of Cis. , Dag. Endemic. Described from the Caucasus (In 
campis ad Terek circa Casaccorum oppidum). Type in Helsinki; cotype in 
Leningrad. 

10. C. speciosum Stev. in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou VII (1829) 
265; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 204, p.p.; Miscz. in Fl. cauc. crit. II (1912) 106; 
Stef. Monogr. (1926) 80. — C. speciosum var. lenkoranicum Miscz. 
I.e., 108. — C. lenkoranicum Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 191. — 
C. hyrcanicum Woron. in Schedis ad Herb. Fl. Cauc. (1914)62. — 
Ic: Bot, Mag. t. 6078. Stev. op. cit. t. 15. — Exs. : HFR.No. 841; Fl. 
cauc. exs. No. 276; PI. or. exs. (1928) No. 328; Herb. Fl. cauc. No. 161. 

Perennial, 20-60 cm tall; bulb large, oblong, to 5 cm long and 3-4 cm 
broad, the dark cinnamon-brown membranous to subcoriaceous tunics 
prolonged into a long and broad tube enveloping the lower part of stem; 
stems leafy in fall; leaves 4, broadly oblong, subobtuse, 18-25 cm long, 
3.5 cm broad, the lower larger, ovate, to 7 cm broad, the long sheath 
clasping the stem; flowers 1-3, rarely 4, very large, the tube broad; 
perianth segments 5-6.5 cm long, 15-22 mm broad, broadly oval to 
elliptic, obtusish, pinkish -purple to violet, glandular in throat; stamens 
about half the length of perianth segments; anthers linear, 8-12 mm long, 
yellow; style exceeding the stamens, straight at the top; stigma unilateral; 
capsule ellipsoid, to 3 cm long. Fl. August -October; fr. June-July. — 

Subalpine woods, gullies, mountain slopes, wood margins, and meadows, 
ay 1800-3000 m. — Caucasus: Cisc, W. and E. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr. : 
Turkish Lazistan, N. Persia. Described from Transcaucasia (Iberia, 
Steven). Type in Helsinki and in Leningrad. 

Note. The Lenkoran type, recorded by Mishchenko as a variety 
(var. lenkoranicum Miscz.), differs insignificantly from the typical 
species C. speciosum Stev. The differences reported, such as the 
larger flowers and perianth segments to 7 cm long, as well as the larger 
bulb, are not enough to establish a distinct species, as in the typical 
species both flowers and bulbs range in size from small to large. The 
typical form is not confined to Talysh, but spreads over the whole of 
N. Persia, and thus the claim of independent standing for the Lenkoran 
form is unjustified. This claim is further weakened by the fact that 
Yu.N. Voronov considered the Persian and Talysh Colchicum as a new 
species, C. hyrcanicum Woron., although he gave no description of it. 

As regards Abkhazian material (especially from Tsebel'da Valley), it 
differs to such an extent that, on the basis of drawings made from live 
material collected in the Tsebel'da district, the late Yu.N. Voronov set it 
up as a distinct species, C. liparochiadys Woron. A characteristic 
feature of this species is the obcordate bulb, 5 cm long and 3.5-4 cm broad, 
borne on an obtusely rostrate offshoot, the thin membranous cinnamon- 
brown lustrous tunics prolonged into a tube 3-3.5 cm long terminating in 
a spinose tooth; flowers 2-3-4, relatively small, the narrow perianth 
segments 3-5 cm long and the tube relatively slender; anthers linear, 
6 mm long. F. August- September-October. 

Woods. — Caucasus: W. Transc, Abkhazia, Tsebel'da, Amtkel natural 
boundary and Umur, near Chisshir, at 1800 m; Yur'evskoe. 



23 



*C. autumnale L. Sp. pi. (1753)485; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 204; 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 510. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. I, 66. 

Perennial; bulb to 3 cm in diameter, the blackish-brown tunics 
prolonged into a' long tube; flowers in fall, in larger number; perianth 
segments lilac -rose, elliptic, obtuse, tomentose within; styles half the 
length of perianth segments, recurved, the lateral stigmas decurrent; 
leaves 3 or 4, linear-lanceolate, flat, erect, to 30 cm long. 

Wet meadows. — Gen. distr. : Outside USSR: W. Poland, Lithuania, 
Volhynia. 

Note. The specimen from the Prichernomorskii District, Kherson 
area, which appears in the Russian herbarium as C. autumnale L. is 
none other than C. umbrosum Stev. More promising is Besser's report 
for the [former] Ovruch Country in Volhynia. 



Subfamily 2. Asphodeloideae VENT. 

Rootstock giving rise to radical leaves and a scape; inflorescence a 
terminal raceme; anthers introrse; tip of filament intruding into a pit on 
the outer or inner side of anther; capsule loculicidal. Asphodeline, 
the only genus with a leafy stem, is also characterized by jointed pedicels. 



31 Key to Genera 

1 . Flowers infundibular or campanulate 2 . 

■*■ Flowers rotate or the lower part of perianth segments united into a tube. 

3. 

2. Stems leafy; stamens unequal, the three inner ones longer and fertile; 
capsule often with 1 -seeded cells 261. Asphodeline Rchb. 

■*■ Stems leafless; stamens equal; seeds at least 6 in each cell 

262. Eremurus M.B. 

3. Flowers rotate, in a branched often paniculate inflorescence 

263. Anthericum L. 

"•" Flowers infundibular, more or less tubular at base, in a short terminal 
raceme, or 1-8 large flowers opening in succession 4. 

4. Flowers blue, lilac or white; leaves distinctly petiolate 

264. Funkia Spreng. 

"*■ Flowers yellow or orange; leaves broadly linear, sessile 

265. Heremocallis L. 



Genus 261. ASPHODELINE* RCHB. 

Rchb. Fl.Germ. Excurs. (1830)116. 



Flowers white or yellow, in rather dense racemes; pedicels twin or 
ternate, jointed at the middle; bracts membranous; perianth segments 
oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, connate at base into a short tube, spreading, 

* Asphodel-like in Greek; asphodel , meaning free from want, was the name of Asphodelus 
ramosus L., mentioned by the Greek authors Homer and Hesiod. 
** Arranged by E.G. Chemyakovskaya. 

24 



1 -nerved, the lowest relatively distant from the others, narrower and 
tapering at base; stamens inserted in perianth tube; filaments unequal, 
declined-ascending, dilated at base, concave, surrounding the ovary; 
ovary 3-locular, with 2 triquetrous ovules in each locule; style filiform; 
stigma very small, subcapitate; capsule coriaceous, the valves transversely 
grooved or rugose; seeds cuneate -triquetrous. Rhizomatose herbs with 
leafy stems; leaves numerous, linear-subulate, narrowly 3-angled, 
membranous sheathing at base. Ornamental flowering plants, deserving 
introduction into cultivation. Some of them, such as A. lute a, have long 
been grown in Europe. 

1. Annual, 10-15 cm tall; stem nearly always branched above the middle; 
inflorescence a fairly loose, short 4-10-flowered raceme; flowers 

3 2 white, small; perianth leaves 8 mm long; pedicels equal bracts. 

1. A. dendroides (Hoffm.) G. Woron. 

■* Perennials 2. 

2. Flowers white, large, ca. 2 cm long; large plants, in a very dense 
tassellate raceme, the large silvery membranous bracts covering the 
flowers; leaves 1-2 mm broad; stem densely leafy up to the 
inflorescence 2. A. taurica (Pall.) Kunth. 

+ Flowers yellow 3. 

3. Stem more or less uniformly leafy up to the inflorescence; leaves 

ca. 4 mm broad, 3-angled, the margin glabrous; raceme dense, long; 
flowers yellow, large, 2-2.5 cm long; bracts ovate, exceeding the 

pedicel; roots fleshy, thick . . ; 3. A. lutea Rchb. 

+ Stem leafy only at base and not above the middle, leafless below the 

inflorescence 4. 

4. Stem leafy only at base; leaves thin, linear, rough-margined; raceme 
fairly loose; flowers pale yellow, large, ca. 2 cm long; perianth 

segments about as long as pedicels, narrowly linear 

4. A. tenuiflora (C. Koch) Miscz. 

"*" Stem leafy one -third its length from base or up to the middle, 
conspicuously sulcate; leaves upright, subappressed, subulate, 
ca. 1 mm broad, crowded about the middle of stem; raceme loose; 
perianth 1.5-2 cm long, much longer than pedicel, yellow; perianth 

segments narrowly lanceolate, green-banded on the back 

5. A. tenuior (Fisch.) Ldb. 

1. A. dendroides (Hoffm. ) G. Woron. ex Grossh., Fl. Kavkaz. I (1928) 
192. — A nt he r i cum dendroides Hoffm. in Comment. Soc. phys. med. 
mosq. I (1802) 43. — Asphodelus proffer M. B. Fl. taur. -cauc. (1808) 
280 et III, 269.— Asphodel in e prolifera Kunth Enum. IV (1843) 563; 
Ldb. FL Ross. IV, 193; Miscz. in Fl. cauc.-crit. 11(1912)124-125.— 
Ic: Buxb. Cent. II, p. 34, t.36. — Exs. : Herb. Fl. cauc. No. 57. 

Annual; roots very thin, short, subvertical; stems 10-15 cm long, 
more or less branched above the middle, the upper part densely leafy, 
the lower part with few distant leaves; leaves linear -subulate, very thin, 
membranous -dilated at base, amplexicaul, finely membranous -margined; 
inflorescence branches longer than leaves; racemes loosely 4-10-flowered; 
bracts small, deltoid, subulately long-acuminate, hyaline -membranous; 
pedicels solitary or the lower ones twin, jointed at the middle, equaling 



25 



the bracts; stamens subequal, shorter than perianth; capsule small, ovoid- 
globose, 5 mm in diameter, slightly thickened at base; seeds very small, 

33 elongate -triquetrous, ca. 4 mm long, 1.5 mm broad, furrowed, laterally 
concave, punctate. Fl. May. (Plate V, Figure l). 

Dry stony slopes, stony steppes, and as weed in fields. Caucasus: 
S. and E. Transc. Endemic. Described from Georgia. Type in Berlin. 

2. A. taurica (Pall.) Kunth Enum. IV (1843) 561; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
193; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 484; Miscz. in Fl. cauc.-crit. II (1912) 123.— 
Asphodelus tauricus Pall., Nova Acta Petrop. X (1792) 309. — 
Ic: Redoute. Lil. t.470; Gard. Chr. Ser. Ill, XXI (1897) 175. — Exs. : 
Fl. cauc. exs. No. 29. 

Perennial; root fibers slender; stems stout, 40-60 cm long, simple; 
leaves densely covering the stem up to the inflorescence, linear-subulate, 
1-2 mm broad, dilated at base, broadly hyaline-margined, amplexicaul; 
inflorescence a very dense simple raceme up to 25-30 cm long, made 
silvery by the large appressed ovate long-cuspidate hyaline bracts covering 
the flowers; pedicels thickened, the lower mostly ternate, jointed about 
the middle; flowers white; perianth segments oblanceolate-spatulate, 
ca. 2 cm long, white, brownish-green-banded; filaments unequal, three 
times the length of anther; capsule ovoid to subglobose, ca. 8-10 mm 
long, the valves flat obtusish rugose; seeds oblong-triquetrous, blackish, 

5 mm long, 3 mm broad, 2 in each cell, with 3 dorsal grooves, punctate - 
papillose on the sides. Fl. May. (Plate III, Figure 1 a, b). 

Dry stony exposed places in the subalpine and alpine zones, woody 
mountain slopes, passes and gullies. — European part: Crimea; Caucasus: 
W. Transc. (Novorossiisk); Cisc. and S. Transc. (Kuban). Gen. distr. : 
Bal.-As. Min. Described from Crimea. Type in Leningrad. 

3. A. lutea (L. ) Rchb. Fl. Germ. exsc. (1830) 116; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
193; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 484; Miscz. in Fl. cauc.-crit. II (1912) 120.— 
Asphodelus luteus L. Sp. pi. (1753) 309. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 
X, t. 1121 (2848); Fedch. and Fler., Fl. Evr. Rossii (1910) 229, 

Figure 158.— Exs.: Fl. cauc. exs. No. 28. 

Perennial; root fibers numerous, fleshy, thick, tufted; stem stout, 
up to 60-70 cm long, simple, leafy from base; leaves uniformly distributed 
right up to inflorescence, pugioniform, rather thick, 3 -angled, ca. 4 mm 
broad, sulcate, imbricate, ascending, triangularly dilated at base into a 
membranous sheath, the margin smooth or almost imperceptibly roughened; 
raceme long, dense, elongate, simple; bracts shorter than flowers, ovate, 
hyaline, cuspidate, the cusp exceeding the pedicel; lower pedicels twin or 
in 5's, jointed at or below the middle, straight; flowers large, greenish- 
yellow, with a green nerve; perianth segments narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 

34 ca. 2-2.5 cm long; capsule oblong-globose, large, to 12 cm long, the 
valves irregularly and coarsely rugose; seeds fairly large, tetrahedral, 

6 mm in diameter, grayish-brown, with 2 dorsal grooves, minutely 
papillose on the dies, 2 in each cell. Fl. April-May (March). (Plate III, 
Figures 3 a, 3 b). 

Stony mountain slopes, rocks, exposed places, woods and scrub, rarely 
steppes, at 700-1100 m. — European part: Crimea; Caucasus: W. and S. 
Transc. Gen. distr.: Med. and Bal. -As. Min. Described from Europe 
(Dalmatia and islands of the Adriatic). 



26 



4. A. tenuiflora (C . Koch) Miscz. in Fl. cauc.-crit. II (1912) 122.— 
Asphodelus tenuiflorus C. Koch in Linnaea XXII (1849) 26 1 . — 
Asphodeline tenuior Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 193 (p.p., quoad pi. 
Kochian.). 

Perennial; root fibers slender; stems 18 cm long, simple, slender, 
striate, leafy only at base; leaves very narrow, thin, setaceous, 
glaucescent, about reaching the first flower, dilated at base, the margin 
more or less roughened; raceme very loose, simple; bracts 1 cm long, 
lanceolate, long-acuminate; flowers pale yellow, the lower ternate, the 
others twin or solitary; perianth segments with a green nerve, ca. 2 cm 
long, slightly longer than pedicel, narrowly linear; immature capsule 
obconical, pointed. Fl. June. 

Rocks, ca. 900 m. According to Mishchenko — Caucasus: S. Transc, 
Armenia and former Kars Region, Otlinskii District. Endemic. Described 
from Armenia. Type in Tiflis. 

5. A. tenuior (Fisch. ) Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 193 (excl. syn. 

C. Kochii); Shmal'g., Fl. II, 484; Miscz. in Fl. cauc.-crit. II (1912) 121.— 
Asphodelus tenuior Fisch. Cat. pi. h. Gorenk. p. a. 1812, 9.— 
Ic. : Bot. Mag. t. 2626 (1826). 

Perennial; root fiber slender; stem simple, slender, sulcate, leafy up 
to the middle; leaves thin, subulate, ca. 1 mm broad, crowded about the 
middle of the stem, membranous -dilated at base, rough-margined; 
raceme loose, simple, elongate; 'bracts hyaline, 16-18 mm long, deltoid- 
based or lanceolate, long-cuspidate, the lower slightly exceeding the 
flower, the upper shorter than or equaling the leaves; lower pedicels twin 
or ternate, the others twin or solitary, jointed at or above the middle; 
flowers 1.5-2 cm long, much longer than pedicels; perianth segments 
yellow, green-banded on the back, 1.5-2 cm long, narrowly lanceolate; 
capsule globose, 6-8 mm long, the valves rugose on the back; seeds small, 
2 in each cell, oblong-triquetrous, 4 mm long, 3 mm broad, grayish-brown, 
37 marbled, with 3 transverse dorsal folds, concave on the sides, alveolate. 
Fl. April-May. Fr. June -July. 

Stony mountain slopes, about 800 m and taluses. Caucasus: Cisc. , 
S. Transc. Endemic. Described from Mt. Beshtau. Type in Leningrad. 



Genus 262. EREMURUS* M. B. ** 
M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. 111(1819) 269; O.Fedtsch. Eremurus, Kritische Uebersicht der Gattung, Zapiski 
Akad. Nauk, VIII ser., Vol. XXIII, No. 8 (1909). 

Flowers white, rose, dingy red, yellow or brown, solitary in axils of 
bracts; perianth campanulate or cupuliform, withering and persistent or 
finally caducous; perianth segments distinct or connate at base, 1 -nerved 
or 3-5-nerved (the nerves more readily discernible on dried plants); 
stamens 6, hypogynous, sometimes exceeding the perianth; filaments 
filiform or dilated toward base; anthers oblong to linear, dorsifixed near 
base; Ovary 3 -celled; style filiform; stigma minute; capsule subglobose, 
membranous or subligneous, smooth or rarely cross -wrinkled, 3-celled, 



From Greek eremos, desert, and ura, tail, i.e., desert tail. 
Arranged by B.A. Fedchenko. 



27 



135) 




Plate III 

1. Asphodeline taurica Kunth; la) bract, lb) flower.- 2. Anthericum ramosum L. 
2a) flower.- 3. Asphodeline lutea Rchb. flower, 3b) fruit. 



28 



loculicidally 3-valved, 3-4 seeds attached on either side of the septum; 
seeds irregularly acutely triquetrous; with hard testa, often winged, the 
wing narrow or (especially in the case of upper seeds in each division) 
broad; rhizome short, the neck often covered with membranous or 
fibrillose remnants of old leaves; roots crowded, fleshy, cylindric or 
fusiform; leaves all radical, often numerous, linear-triquetrous, carinate 
beneath, narrow or broad, flat or canaliculate above; scape erect, simple, 
leafless, sometimes very tall; flowering raceme elongate, large; bracts 
commonly membranous; pedicels mostly jointed at the end. 

1. Capsule cross-wrinkled 2. 

"*" Capsule smooth, not ribbed 4. 

2. Flowers rosy, dark-striped 3. E. Regelii Vved. 

"*" Flowers yellow, tawny-brown or white 3. 

3. Flowers pale yellow; capsule globose; seeds unicolor, tawny-brown. 
1. E. spectabilis M.B. 

"*" Flowers white; seeds gray, black-spotted; capsule pointed 

2. E. tauricus Stev. 

!38 4. Leaves densely tomentose 5. 

+ Leaves glabrous, sometimes ciliate-margined or slightly pubescent 

beneath 7. 

5. Flowers narrowly campanulate, reddish-brown, subtended by broad 
white bracts 9. E. comosus O. Fedtsch. 

+ Flowers broadly campanulate, large, white or rosy 6. 

6. Inflorescence dense, many-flowered; perianth segments white, with 

a yellow spot at base 13. E. Kaufmanni Rgl. 

"•" Inflorescence rather loose, few -flowered; perianth segments whitish- 
rose 14. E. Korovini B. Fedtsch. 

7. Perianth segments finally involute 8. 

+ Perianth segments finally spreading or reflexed, not involute 11. 

8. Pedicels longer, subhorizontally spreading in fruit 9. 

"*" Pedicels shorter, appressed to stem 10. 

9. Flowers broadly campanulate; outer perianth segments yellowish- 
greenish, the inner ones white (flowers as a whole white) 

7. E. sogdianus (Rgl.) Benth. et Hook. 

+ Flowers narrowly campanulate, perianth dark orange 

6. E. Korshinskii O. Fedtsch. 

10. Flowers white, greenish outside; filaments nearly black; pedicels 
thickened in upper part 4. E. turkestanicus Rgl. 

+ Flowers stramineous or yellowish-brown; pedicels jointed in upper 

part 5. E. altaicus (Pall.) Stev. 

11. Bracts linear -filiform, naked 12. 

+ Bracts linear or lanceolate, ciliate 13. 

12. Flowers yellow 10. E. stenophyllus (Boiss. et Buhse) Baker. 

+ Flowers white or rose 11. E. Olgae Rgl. 

13. Flowers narrowly tubular-campanulate, reddish-brown; pedicels short, 
thick, erect 8. E. inderiensis (MB. ) Rgl. 

"•" Flowers broadly campanulate; perianth segments spreading; pedicels 
longer, slender, divergent 14. 

14. Leaves narrow, 3 -angled, not more than 1 cm broad 15. 

+ Leaves broader (not less than 1.5 cm broad), flat or applanate- 

triquetrous 19. 

15. Flowers yellow v . . . . 20. E. luteus Baker. 



29 



+ Flowers white or rose 16. 

16. Capsule not more than 10 mm in diameter; flowers not more than 

15 mm in diameter 23. E. bucharicus Rgl. 

;9 ■+ Capsule more than 10 mm in diameter; flowers more than 15 mm in 

diameter 17. 

17. Perianth segments white, with a green nerve . . .22. E. Capusii Franchet. 
"•■ Perianth segments rosy, rarely white, with a dark nerve 18. 

18. Capsule globose 18. E. anisopterus (Kar. et Kir.) Rgl. 

+ Capsule ovaloid 19. E. kopetdaghensis M. Pop. 

19. Flowers yellow 21. E. Saprjagajevi B. Fedtsch. 

+ Flowers white or rose 20. 

20. Plants not more than 1 m tall; capsules large, more than 3 cm in 
diameter 21. 

"•" Plants from 1.5 to 4 m tall; capsules not more than 2 cm in diameter. 
12. E. robustus Rgl. 

21. Flowers white 22. 

+ Flowers rosy-red 15. E. Alberti Rgl. 

22. Leaves green, smooth 16. E. lactiflorus O. Fedtsch. 

+ Leaves glaucescent, rough-margined 

17. E. Hilariae M. Pop. et Vved. 



Section 1. EUEREMURUS O. Fedtsch. I.e. 22. —Perianth segments more 
or less erect, 3 -nerved, finally involute; stamens longer than perianth. 

1. E. spectabilis M.B.F1. taur.-cauc. Ill (1819)269; O. Fedtsch. 
I.e., 24, No. 1. — E. caucasicus Stev. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. IV 

I (1832)251; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 190. — Exs . : Hohenaker No. 3444, 2612.— 

Ic: M. B. Cent. pi. rar. ross. tab. 61. 

Perennial, 100-200 cm tall; roots fleshy, fusiformly thickened, to 
2 5 cm long; collar surrounded by fibrillose remnants of old leaves and 
membranous sheaths; leaves 6-15, obliquely ascending, glabrous, acute, 
glaucescent, not more than 4.5 cm broad, the margin smooth or somewhat 
rough; scape suberect, to 1 cm thick; raceme dense, to 80 cm long, many- 
flowered; bracts linear-subulate, ciliate; pedicels at anthesis thickened 
at the end, arched-recurved in fruit; capsules appressed to scape; perianth 
funnelform-campanulate, to 9 mm long; segments oblong-linear, yellowish; 
stamens twice the length of perianth; style recurved; capsule globose, 
ca. 12 mm across, distinctly rugose-plaited; seeds commonly 3 in each 
cell, triquetrous, scarcely winged, finely cross-wrinkled. May-June. 
(Plate IV, Figure l). 
40 Stony slopes. — European part: Crim; Caucasus: Cisc. , W. , S. and E. 

Transc; Centr. Asia; Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : Asia Minor, Iran. 
Described from N. Caucasus, between the Kuma and Sablya rivers. Type 
in Leningrad. 

Note. Contains up to 30% gum (arabinic acid derivative) and yields 
glue of good quality. The young leaves are edible. 

2. E. tauricus Stev. in Bull. Soc. Natur. Moscou IV (1832)253; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 191; Vul'f, Fl. Kryma II, 10.— E. spectabilis f. 
tauricus Lallem. in Ind. sem. h. Petrop. (1846) 68. — Ic. : Stev. I.e. 
tab. 7. 



1920 



30 



Perennial, 80-180 cm tall; roots fleshy, fusiform, to 25 cm long; collar 
surrounded by fibrillose remnants of old leaves and membranous sheaths; 
leaves 6-15, obliquely ascending, glabrous, acute, glaucescent, not more 
than 4.5 cm broad, the margin smooth or somewhat rough; scapes suberect, 
to 1 cm thick; raceme dense, up to 80 cm long, many-flowered; bracts 
linear-subulate, ciliate; pedicels thickened upward at anthesis, arched- 
recurved in fruit; capsules appressed to scape; perianth funnelform- 
campanulate, to 9 mm long; segments oblong-linear, white, green-banded; 
stamens twice the length of perianth; style recurved; capsule pointed at 
the top, ca. 12 mm across, distinctly rugose-plaited; seeds triquetrous, 
gray, with a black spot and brownish-black stripes. May. 

Rocks and mountain taluses. — European part: Crimea. Endemic. 
Described from Crimea. Type in Helsinki. 

3. E. Regelii Vved. in Sched. ad Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 331. Trudy 
Sr. Az. Gos. Univ., ser. VIII, part 3 (1928). — E. t u r c e s t a n i c u s 
Rgl. in Gartenfl. (1880) 2, tab. 997, non Regel in Gartenfl. (1873) 260 et 
A.H.P. 11(1873)424, 427. — E. spectabilis var. marginatus 

O. Fedtsch. , I.e.— Exs. : H.F.A.M. No. 331.— Ic: O. Fedtsch. I.e., 
tab. 1 (sub. E. spectabilis); Gartenfl. (1880) tab. 997. 

Perennial, 80-180 cm tall; roots fleshy, fusiform, to 40 cm long; 
collar surrounded by hairy remnants of old leaves and membranous sheaths; 
leaves 6-15, obliquely ascending, glabrous, to 5 cm broad, the margin 
smooth or rough; scape suberect or flexuous at the end, to 1 cm thick; 
raceme dense, many-flowered, up to 80 cm long; bracts linear-subulate, 
ciliate; flowering pedicels thickened at the end, obscurely jointed, 
commonly brownish-purple; fruiting pedicels arched-recurved; capsule 
appressed to scape; perianth funnelform-campanulate, to 9 mm long; 
segments narrowly lanceolate, rose, with a broad dark brownish-purple 
band, the margin ferruginous -rimmed; stamens about twice the length of 
41 perianth; filaments cinnamon-brown; anthers reddish; style brown, 

recurved; capsule pointed at the top, coarsely membranous-rugose; seeds 
brown. April-May. (Plate IV, Figure 2). 

Note. On account of the large size of roots and their high starch 
content as well as the occurrence of the plant in large concentrations, it is 
of considerable industrial importance for the production of glue. 

4. E. turkestanicus.Rgl. in A.H.P. II, 2 (1873)424, 427. — O. Fedtsch. 
I.e., 41.— E. altaicus var. brachystemon Rgl. in Katal. Turkest. 
Otdel. Politekhn. Vyst. (1872)8, No. 425.— Ic. : O. Fedtsch., I.e., tab. 
No. 2. 

Perennial, 50-100 cm tall; roots to 18 cm long; scape to 8 mm thick; 
raceme fairly loose, few-flowered; bracts linear from lanceolate base, 
lanuginose; pedicels erect at base, subappressed to scape, thickened and 
divergent at the end; outer perianth segments greenish-yellow, white 
margined, with a green upward brown band; inner segments broader, white, 
with a yellowish -green nerve; in drying outer segments distinctly 5 -nerved, 
the inner 3 -striped; filaments blackish-purple, subulate, finally exceeding 
the perianth; ovary green, smooth, obtusely trigonous; capsule smooth, 
pyriform; seeds gray, narrowly winged, irregularly cross -wrinkled. June. 

Mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. , Pam.-Al. Described from 
Basmandinskoe Ravine. Type in Leningrad. 



31 



5. E. altaicus (Pall. ) Stev. in Bull. Soc. Natur. Moscou IV (1832) 255; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 191; O. Fedtsch. I.e., 44, No. 3. -Asphodelus 
altaicus Pall, in Acta Acad. Petrop. sp. a II (1779) 858, tab. 19.- 
Ic: O. Fedtsch., I.e. tab. 3; Pall. I.e. 

Perennial, 50-120 cm tall; roots to 20 cm long; collar with few fibers 
derived from old leaves and membranous sheaths; scape cylindric, 
sometimes scape and flowering pedicels reddish-brown (var. 
purpurascens O. Fedtsch.); leaves lorate, to 3 cm broad, carinate, 
the margin smooth or rough; raceme densely many-flowered, sometimes 
with up to 7 00 flowers (var. multiflorus O. Fedtsch.); bracts linear- 
filiform from broad base; stipes much longer (especially in var. 
multiflorus O. Fedtsch.), horizontally spreading; perianth campanulate, 
yellow or partly brown (var. fuscus O. Fedtsch.), sometimes 
stramineous, larger (var. pallidus O. Fedtsch.); segments obtuse, 
finally involute; filaments exceeding the perianth; capsule globose, smooth; 
seeds triquetrous or irregularly 4 -angled, dark, narrowly winged. June. 
(Plate IV, Figure 3). 
42 Mountain slopes. — W. Siberia: Irt. , Alt.; Centr. Asia: Dzung.;T. Sh. , 

Pam.-Al. Gen. distr. : Mong. Described from Altai foothills, along the 
Uba River, a tributary of the Irtysh. Type in Geneva. 

6. E. Korshinskii O. Fedtsch. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2-me ser. IV, 8 
(1904) 771 et in Mem. Ac. Petrop. (1909) 56. — Ic. : O. Fedtsch., I.e., 
tab. 4. 

Perennial, 60-120 cm tall; roots slender, numerous; collar densely 
surrounded by remnants of old leaves; scape cylindric, smooth, in drying 
ribbed in upper part; leaves broadly linear, green; raceme short, fairly 
loose, to 10 cm broad, strongly attenuate upward; bracts lance -filiform 
from broad base, brown, ciliolate -margined, much shorter than pedicels 
of partially opened flowers; pedicels to 3 cm long, slender, ascending 
at an acute angle, jointed at the end; perianth to 15 mm long, broadly 
campanulate, dingy orange, at length brownish, abruptly narrowed at joint; 
perianth segments flat, finally involute, obscurely nerved; stamens 
l2-2-several times the length of perianth; ovary smooth, globose, June. 
(Plate IV, Figure 13). 

Meadows in upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. 
Described from Darvaz. Type in Leningrad. 

7. E. sogdianus (Rgl.) Benth. et Hook, f . , Gen. plant III, (1888)787, 
No. 62. — S e Ionia sogdiana Rgl. et Herd, in Bull. Soc. Nat. de Moscou, 
II (1868) 458. — Exs. : H. F. A.M. No. 2. — Ic. : O. Fedtsch. 1. c. tab. 5; 

Rgl. et Herder I.e. tab. VI bis. 

Perennial, 60-120 cm tall; roots crowded, to 15 cm long; collar 
surrounded by remnants of old leaves; scape cylindric, tomentulous or 
largely glabrous (var. subglaber Rgl.); leaves linear, carinate, 
tomentulous (var. typicus Rgl. ) or glabrous and merely scabrous - 
margined (var. subglaber Rgl.); raceme loose, few-flowered, to 10 cm 
broad; bracts small, subulate from broad base, membranous, lanuginous- 
ciliate; pedicels to 8 cm long, terminally nodding in flower, becoming 
erect in fruit; bracts to 15 mm long, narrowed at base, the outer segments 
lanceolate yellowish -green, the inner broad white; stamens of opening 



32 



flowers equaling the perianth, later greatly elongating; capsule subglobose, 
to 7 mm long, minutely appressed-hairy; seeds gray, very narrowly 
winged. June. 

Slopes of foothills and mountains. — Centr. Asia: T.Sh., Pam.-Al. 
Endemic. Described from Karatau, near Boroldai. Type in Leningrad. 



Section 2. AMMOLIRION Kar. et Kir. (pro genere). — Perianth narrowly 
tubular -campanulate; segments 3-5-nerved, finally scarcely inflexed; 
filaments short, barely exserted. 

43 8. E. inderiensis (M.B.)Rgl. in A. H. P. II, 2(1873)427; O. Fedtsch. 

I.e., 61.— E. spectabilis f. inderiensis M. B. Fl. taur.-cauc. Ill 
(1819) 270 in adnot. — A s phode lu s inderiensis Stev. in Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Moscou IV (1832) 257. — Ammolirion Steveni Kar. et Kir. in 
Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou XV (1842) 515.— Ic. : O. Fedtsch. I.e. tab. 6. 

Perennial, 80-120 cm tall; roots slender, to 30 cm long; collar 
densely covered with remnants of old leaves; scape cylindric, glabrous 
(var. glaber Rgl. ) or more or less short -pubescent (var. Steveni 
Rgl. ), as long as or sometimes shorter than the leaves, bracteate in upper 
part; leaves linear, carinate, the margin rough, smooth or tomentulose; 
raceme fairly dense, to 40 mm broad; bracts lanceolate, finely ciliate, 
longer than pedicels; pedicels jointed, upright -ascending, subappressed 
to scape; perianth cylindric -campanulate, narrowed at base, dingy purple, 
each segment with a broad green band and 3 nerves; segments narrow, 
obtuse, finally slightly involute; stamens finally somewhat exceeding the 
perianth; capsule globose, ca. 1 cm in diameter, smooth; seeds broadly 
winged. May-June. 

Sands. — W. Siberia: Irt. ; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. , Kara K. , 
Kyz. K. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd., Iran., Dzu.-Kash. Described from 
Inderskie Mountains, on left bank of Ural River. Type in Leningrad. 

9. E. comosus O. Fedtsch. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2-meser., IV (1904) 
No. 8.— Ic: O. Fedtsch. I.e., tab. 7. — Exs.: B. Fedch. , Gerb. Turk. 
FL, No. 56. 

Perennial, 60-100 cm tall; collar with few sheaths; scape slender, 
beset with numerous bracts; leaves linear, carinate, puberulous; raceme 
fairly dense, narrow; bracts chartaceous, glabrous, broadly lanceolate, 
white, dark-banded, before flowering much longer than buds, forming a 
dense white terminal tuft, at anthesis half as long as pedicel, the margin 
long-ciliate; pedicels ascending at a very acute angle, slender, somewhat 
enlarged upward, obscurely jointed; perianth narrowly campanulate, the 
greenish-pink or carneous segments slightly involute; stamens barely 
exceeding the perianth; capsule glabrous, smooth. June-July. (Plate IV, 
Figure 4). 

Loess and stony slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from Gissar, near Faizabad; Darvaz near 
Kalaikhumb. Type in Leningrad. 



33 



Section 3. TROCHANTUS O. Fedtsch., 1. c .— Perianth broadly 
campanulate; segments spreading, 1 -nerved, at anthesis linear -subulate, 
glabrous. 

10. E. stenophyllus (Boiss. et Buhse) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XV 
(1877) 281. — Am mol i r ion stenophyllus Boiss. et Buhse, in Nouv. 

44 Mem. Soc. Natur. Moscou (i860) 218. — E. aurantiacus Baker in 

Journ. Linn. Soc. XV (1879) 285. — E. Bungei Baker in Journ. of Botany 
XVII (1879) 17. — Ic. : O. Fedtsch., Eremurus, tab. 8. — Exs.: B. Fedch. , 
Gerb. Turkest. Flory No. 1. 

Perennial, 50-80 cm tall; roots slender, 3-4 mm long and to 5 mm 
thick (var. pilosa O. Fedtsch.); collar densely surrounded by remnants 
of old leaves and membranous sheaths; scape cylindric, 3-4 mm thick; 
leaves subtriquetrous, narrowly linear, sometimes broader (var. Bungei 
O. Fedtsch.), rough -margined, sometimes (var. pilosa O. Fedtsch.) 
with short hairs on the veins; raceme dense or very dense (var. Bungei 
O. Fedtsch.), cylindric, to 4.5 cm in diameter; bracts subulate -filiform, 
half the length of pedicel; pedicels horizontal, jointed at the end; perianth 
broadly campanulate; segments 10 mm long, spreading, bright golden- 
yellow; filaments yellow; anthers orange; style yellow; ovary smooth, 
yellow; capsule globose, small, ca. 8 mm in diameter; seeds small, not 
compressed at the top. June-July. 

Stony slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. , 
Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : Iran., Ind.-Him. Described from Elburz Range 
between Askol and Firuzkuh. Type in Leningrad. 

11. E. Olgae* Rgl. inA.H.P. II (1873) 425-430. - He nn in gia Olgae 
Rgl. in Katal. Turkest. Otd. Politekhnich. Vystavki vMoskve (1872) 7.— 

E. Aschersoni O. Kuntze, A.H.P. (1887) 243. — Exs. : HFRNo.1869.— 
Ic: O. Fedtsch. I.e. tab. 9; Regel' in A. P. Fedchenko, Putesh. v 
Turkest., part 12, Plate 9. 

Perennial, 60-160 cm tall; roots fusiform, thickened at base, to 35 cm 
long; collar surrounded by fibrillose leaf remnants and hyaline sheaths; 
scape slender, cylindric, glabrous; leaves glaucous, narrowly linear, 
membranous -margined, 2-15 mm broad; raceme long but not very dense, 
subcylindric in outline or much narrowed upward (var. australis 
B. Fedtsch. ); bracts glabrous, filiform -subulate, membranous at base, 
shorter than pedicels; pedicels subhorizontally spreading, jointed at the 
end, sometimes (var. australis B. Fedtsch.) the lower much longer 
than the upper (to 60 mm and from 25 mm, respectively); perianth whitish- 
rose, subrotate, the lobes 1 -nerved, 12 mm long; stamens pale, equaling 
47 the perianth; capsule globose, 10-12 mm in diameter, smooth, glabrous; 
seeds gray, narrow -winged. June- July. (Plate IV, Figure 5). 

Loess slopes of foothills and mountains. — Centr. Asia: T.Sh., Pam.-Al. , 
Amu D. , Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Zeravshan 
Mountains. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The roots contain dextrin and are therefore used for glue 
production. The flowers are very decorative and the species is 
horticulturally one of the most valuable within the genus Eremurus; 
it is unfortunately somewhat less hardy than the larger but less graceful 
E. robustus Rgl . 

* Named for O.A. Fedchenko who wrote a monograph of the genus Eremurus. 

34 



(45) 




Plate IV 

I. Eremus spectabilis M.B.— 2. E. Regelii Wed.— 3. E. altaicus (Pall.) Stev.— 

4. E. comosus O. Fedtsch.— 5. E. Olgae Rgl.— 6. E. robustus Rgl., aspect.- 7. E. Kaufmanni 
Rgl.- 8. E.Alberti Rgl.- 9. E. lactiflorus O. Fedtsch.- 10. E. anisopterus Kar. et Kr.- 

II. E. Korovini B. Fedtsch.— 12. E. k op e t d a gh en s is M. Pop.— 13. E. Korshinskii O. Fedtsch.: 
annotations for all flowers: a) flower; b) bract; c) capsule. 



35 



Section 4. HENNINGIA Kar. et Kir. (1842). — Bracts linear or 
lanceolate, ciliate; perianth subpatent, the 1 -nerved segments finally 
convergent. 

12. E. robustus Rgl. in Gartenflora XXII (1873) 275; O. Fedtsch. I.e., 
92 No. 11. — Henningia robusta Rgl. et Herd, in Bull. Soc. Natur. 
Moscou (1869) 457 et in adnot. ad. No. 1091, p. 457. — Ic. : Gartenflora 
XXII (1873) tab. 769; O. Fedtsch., I.e., tab. 11. 

Perennial; roots fleshy, stout, cylindric, longer than in other 
Eremurus species (up to 150 cm); scape stout (to 22 mm thick), 
cylindric, glabrous, slightly glaucescent; leaves glaucescent, initially 
triquetrous, in age carinate, to 75 cm long, 7 cm broad, rough-margined; 
raceme dense, very long, many-flowered (with up to 800 flowers); bracts 
linear from enlarged base, densely lanuginous -villous; pedicels straight, 
spreading, jointed at the end; perianth broadly campanulate, to 2 cm in 
diameter; segments rose, pale rose (var. pallidus O. Fedtsch.), rarely 
white (var candidus O. Fedtsch.), lanceolate, the inner broader; 
filaments equaling the perianth; ovary yellowish, smooth; capsule globose, 
ca. 2 cm in diameter; seeds gray, broad-winged. June-July. (Plate IV, 
Figure 6). 

Mountain meadows — Centr. Asia: T. Sh., Pam.-Al. Endemic. 
Described from the foothills of Talgar in the Trans-Ili Ala Tau at altitudes 
of 400-1000 m. Type in Leningrad 

Note. The roots are used for extraction of glue. Boiled roots are used 
for food and they are fairly palatable when young. A good honey plant. 
It develops in cultivation even more luxuriantly than under natural conditions 
and belongs among the most beautiful Central Asian perennials that have 
been introduced into cultivation. It displays marked winter hardiness in the 
Moscow Region, while in Leningrad it suffers to some extent from 
excessive moisture. 

13. E. Kaufmanni Rgl. inA.H.P. II (1872) 425 et 430. — He nnin gi a 
Kaufmanniana Rgl. in Katal. Turkest, Otd. Politekhn. Vyst. v Moskve 
(1872). — Ic: Regel', Liliaceae in A. P. Fedchenko, Putesh. v Turkest. , 
Plate III; O. Fedtsch. Eremurus, tab. 13. 

Perennial, 50-90 cm tall; roots fleshy; collar densely surrounded by 
48 black fibrillose remnants of old leaves; scape densely tomentose, in upper 
part bracteate; leaves linear-lanceolate, to 2 cm broad, densely tomentose, 
raceme dense; bracts linear -filiform; pedicels divergent, straight, rather 
slender, jointed at the end; perianth campanulate, white; segments 
yellowish at base, thin, lance -spatulate; filaments dilated at base; style 
white; ovary globose, yellowish; capsule globose, to 10 mm in diameter, 
thin-walled; seeds cinnamon-brown to gray, broad-winged. June. (Plate IV, 
Figure 7). 

Mountain meadows. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from 
Zeravshan. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. One of the most beatiful and graceful species of the genus 
Eremurus, difficult to grow. Foreign horticultural firms show much 
interest in this plant, but everything offered in their catalogues under the 
name E. Kaufmanni refers to various other species. 



36 



14. E. Korovini B. Fedtsch. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 733.— 
E. Kaufmanni O. Fedtsch., Monogr. Eremurus p. 123 p.p. (quoad 
plantam e Kendyr-aus). 

Perennial, 60-80 cm tall; roots numerous, not much thickened; collar 
densely surrounded by black fibrillose remnants of old leaves; scape in 
lower one -fourth short -pubescent, then glabrous, to 8 mm in diameter; 
leaves short-pubescent, linear, subacute, to 30 cm long, to 15 mm broad, 
not reaching the base of inflorescence; raceme fairly loose, 20-30 cm 
long, 4-6 cm in diameter at flowering; bracts linear-lanceolate, white- 
membranous, dark-banded, the margin sparsely ciliate; pedicels obliquely 
ascending, slender, jointed at the end, at anthesis slightly longer than 
flowers; perianth broadly campanulate; segments whitish-rose, thin, 
15-18 mm long and ca. 5 mm broad; filaments slender, white, dilated 
toward base, yellowish, style white, filiform; ovary globose; capsule 
globose, 10 mm ca. in diameter, thin-walled. (Plate IV, Figure 11). 

Centr. Asia: T. Sh. Endemic. Described from W. Tien Shan: Kendyr- 
auz and Angren River valley, 3200 m. 

Note. Worth introducing into cultivation as a decorative plant. 

15. E. Alberti Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 668; O. Fedtsch. I.e. 
No.15-.-Ic: A.H.P. VIII, tab. VI; O. Fedtsch. I.e., tab. 15. — Exs.: 
H. F. A.M. No. 330. 

Perennial, 90-100 cm tall; roots crowded, stout; collar densely clothed 
in fibrillose remnants of old leaves and membranous sheaths; scape in 
drying ribbed, smooth; leaves narrowly linear -lanceolate, flat, to 1.5 cm 
broad; raceme fairly loose; bracts white -membranous, gradually attenuate 
from lanceolate base; pedicels slender in flower, ca. 30-35 mm long, 
49 divergent, finally thickening, horizontally spreading; bracts dingy-red, the 
segments narrowly oblong-lanceolate; stamens shorter than perianth 
segments; capsule ovoid-globose, ca. 23 mm long and 20 mm broad, 
narrowed toward the top, smooth, thick-walled; seeds gray, broad-winged, 
large, the wing ca. 1 cm long. (Plate IV, Figure 8). 

Loess foothills, clay hills, and stony mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al., Amu D. Endemic. Described from the slopes of the south of 
Kulyab in the Khodzhamumyk mountains, 3000 m. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. One of the most graceful species of the genus Eremurus, 
deserving introduction into cultivation. 

16. E. lactiflorus O. Fedtsch. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2-me ser. , IV, 
No. 8 (1904) 779. — Henningia Aucheriana Rgl. (non Boiss) in Bull. 
Soc. Natur. Moscou, 11(1868)138, No. 1091. — Ic. : O. Fedtsch. in Bull. 
Herb. Boiss. I.e., p. 774; O. Fedtsch., I.e. tab. 16. 

Perennial, 55-100 cm tall; roots crowded, fleshy, slender; collar 
clothed in membranous sheaths and sparse fibrillose remnants of old 
leaves; scape faintly reddish, bracteate in upper part; leaves glaucescent- 
green, linear, to 4 cm broad, becoming reddish at base in fruit; raceme 
loose, few -flowered (becoming many-flowered in cultivation and then 
bearing up to 100 flowers); bracts linear from lanceolate base, brownish, 
with a dark nerve; pedicels subhorizontal, jointed; unopened flowers 
reddish; open flowers spreading, to 35 mm in diameter; perianth segments 
mealy-white, yellowish at base, red-nerved on the back, finally convergent 



37 



at the tips; stamens longer than perianth, white, yellow at base, 3 longer 
than the others; style white; ovary glabrous, smooth, yellow; capsule 
very large (larger than in all other species), trigonous-globose, ca. 3.5 cm 
in diameter, strongly inflated, smooth, reddish in maturity; seeds gray, 
broad-winged. April-May. (Plate IV, Figure 9). 

Stony mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. Endemic. Described from 
Chimgan area. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. One of the most beautiful species of Eremurus, deserving 
particular attention on the part of horticulturists. Stands up well to cold 
winters and flowers much earlier than the other species. 

17. E. Hilariae * M. Pop. et Vved. in Opred. rast. okr. Tashkenta I 
(1923)58; Schedae ad H. F. A. M. fasc. 1, decembr. (1924). — Exs. : 

H. F. A.M. fasc. I, No. 1. 

Perennial, 30-90 cm tall; roots fleshy, slender; collar clothed in 
membranous sheaths and sparse fibrillose remnants of old leaves; scape 
cylindric, bracteate in upper part; leaves glaucous or canescent, broadly 
50 linear, to 25 mm broad and up to 40 cm long, the margin and veins rough; 
raceme finally loose, few- or many-flowered; bracts linear from 
lanceolate base, with a dark nerve, the margin long-ciliate; pedicels 
obliquely ascending to subhorizontally spreading, about the length of flower; 
open flowers to 35 mm in diameter; perianth segments white, yellowish 
at base, oblong, obtuse, finally convergent; stamens barely exceeding the 
perianth, 3 shorter than the rest; ovary glabrous, smooth; capsule very 
large, nearly as in the preceding species, ca. 2 cm and more in diameter, 
April. 

Stony and clayey-gypseous slopes. — Centr. Asia: Syr D. Endemic. 
Described from the vicinity of Kaplanbek, from Kyngrakh hill (NE of 
Tashkent). Type in Tashkent; cotype in Leningrad. 

18. E. anisopterus (Kar. et Kir. ) Rgl. inA.H.P. 11(1873)429; 

O. Fedtsch. I.e., 141. — Henningia anisoptera Kar. et Kir. in Bull. 
Soc. Nat. de Moscou XV (1842) 518, No. 829.— E. Korolkovi Rgl. in 
A.H.P. Ill (1875) 116. — Ic. : O. Fedtsch., I.e., tab. 17. 

Perennial, 35-70 cm tall; roots fusiform; collar clothed in membranous 
sheaths and fibers; scape pubescent at base, then glabrous; leaves 
narrowly linear, triquetrous, to 65 cm long, smooth, the margin rough; 
raceme loose, open; bracts membranous, lanceolate, broader at base; 
pedicels ascending in flower, commonly spreading in fruit, jointed at the 
end; perianth globose -campanulate; segments finally convergent, white 
to pale rose, dark-spotted at base, the nerves pubescent on the inside; 
stamens shorter than perianth; capsule globose, to 20 mm in diameter, 
smooth, with stiff valves; seeds strongly rugose, broad-winged. April-May. 
(Plate IV, Figure 10). 

Wet sands. — Centr. Asia: Balkh. , Syr D. , Kyz. K. ; Kara K. 
Gen. distr. : Iran., Dzu.-Kash. Described from sands between Sassyk- 
paustau spring and Arganaty. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The dextrin content in the roots of this species is particularly 
high and thus lends itself well to production of glue employed with plant 



Named for Prof . I. A. Raikova, explorer of the Pamirs. 



38 



substances in the making of dishes for oil (both from vegetable and 
animal source). 

19. E. kopetdaghensis M. Pop. in Flora Turkmenii, part 1 (1932) 257. 
Perennial; base of leaves and stem surrounded by thin hyaline sheaths; 

stem cylindric, glabrous, ca. 60 cm long, twice the length of leaves; leaves 
smooth, lustrous, narrowly linear, 3-4 mm broad; raceme loose, 
especially after flowering; bracts crisp-ciliate on the margin, lance-linear, 
shorter than stipe; fruiting pedicels subhorizontal, turning upward at the 
ends; jointed just below the flower, 2-3 cm long; flowers wide open, rose, 
51 large; segments 15-17 mm long, dark-nerved on the back, not involute 
in drying; capsule ovaloid, ca. 15 mm long. (Plate X, Figure 12). 

Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Endemic. Described from area of Margyz 
village, NW of Trgoi, dry riverbed of the salty stream Adzhidere. Type 
in Leningrad. 

20. E. luteus Baker in Journ. of Botany. XVII (1879) 17; 

O. Fedtschenko, I.e., 150. — Ic: O. Fedtsch. I.e., tab. XIX; Regel in 
A.H.P. VIII, tab. XIX. 

Perennial; roots cylindric, long; collar densely fibrillose; leaves 
numerous, erect, or subpendent, narrowly linear, yellowish above, rough- 
margined, shorter than stem; scape stout, cylindric, smooth, 20-30 cm 
long; bracts lance-linear, acuminate, ciliate -margined, shorter than 
pedicels; pedicels straight, spreading, 2-5 cm long, jointed at the end, 
becoming thickened and more spreading in fruit; perianth yellow, markedly 
irregular, the spreading segments oblong-linear; filaments unequal, 
shorter than perianth; capsule upright, smooth, oblong-clavate; seeds 
rugose, broad-winged. 

Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd., Iran. Described 
from N. Persia. Type in London. 

21. E. Saprjagajevi B. Fedtsch. sp. n. in Addenda, p. 733. 
Perennial, 90-140 cm tall; roots to 20 cm long; collar with numerous 

fibrillose remnants of old leaves; leaves lorate, to 2.5 cm broad, faintly 
carinate, smooth-margined; raceme initially fairly dense, becoming loose, 
many-flowered; bracts linear-filiform from broadly lanceolate base, 
ciliate-margined; pedicels at first erect, slightly shorter than bracts, 
jointed at the end, at length elongating to nearly twice the length of flower 
and divergent from it at an acute angle; perianth yellowish-rose; segments 
ca. 15 mm long, lanceolate, with 1 distinct nerve, initially forming a 
narrow tube, finally somewhat spreading, not involute; filaments at first 
shorter than perianth, at length slightly excerted; ovary globose. July. 

Subalpine zone, on stony ground. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al., mountains 
to the south of Shurabad. Endemic. Described from Tadzhikistan, city of 
Shurabad, 12 km south. Type in Leningrad. 

22. E. Capusii Franchet in Ann. Sc. Natur. XVIII (1884) 260.— 
E. luteus O. Fedtsch. I.e., 150 (pro parte). — E. baissunensis 
O. Fedtsch. in Not. Syst. H.B.P. I, 3 (1921) 9. 

Perennial; roots thickened, cylindric; collar densely hairy, in upper 
part densely clothed in translucent scales; leaves to 30-40 cm long, 



39 



52 6-12 mm broad, rough-margined; scape glabrous, cylindric, shorter 
than leaves; inflorescence fairly loose, not elongating; bracts lance - 
acuminate, finally shorter than pedicels, the margin fimbriate -ciliate; 
flowering pedicels ca. 25 mm long, spreading, some subarcuate -recurved; 
perianth white; segments obovate -lanceolate, 1-nerved, obtuse, after 
anthesis spreading, ca. 1.5 cm long; stamens about equaling the perianth; 
capsule ovoid -globose, smooth, the base of style extended into a point. 
April-May. 

Mottled strata in low mountains. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. , Amu D. 
Endemic. Described from the deserts between Kalif and Karakamor. 
Type in Leningrad. 

23. E. bucharicus Rgl. inA.H.P. VII (1884) 670; O. Fedtsch. , I.e., 
No.20.-E. Suworowi Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 672. — 
E. parviflorus Rgl. inA.H.P. IX (1886) 609. — Ic. : A.H.P. VIII, 
tab. XX, tab. VI (E. Suworovi); O. Fedtsch. I.e. tab. 18; O. Fedchenko 
in B. Fedchenko Fl. Az. Ross., part 3, Plate 15. 

Perennial; roots crowded, stout, fusiform, to 15 cm long; collar 
clothed at base in membranous sheaths and fibrillose remnants of old 
leaves; scape erect, glabrous or at base short -pubescent, cylindric, to 
40 cm long; leaves about as long as or longer than scape, triquetrous, 
distinctly carinate, glabrous, the margin in upper part somewhat rough; 
raceme loose, up to 75 cm long; bracts linear -filiform from broad base, 
sparsely hairy on the margin; pedicels three to several times the length 
of bracts, obliquely ascending, reddish on the outside; flowers somewhat 
nodding; perianth segments wide open, all with 1 purple nerve; outer 
segments oblong, whitish-ferruginous on both sides, to 4 mm broad, 
1.5 cm long; inner segments elliptic, broader, white on both sides, drying 
yellowish; filaments slender, one -third shorter than perianth, yellow; 
anthers orange; capsule ovoid-globose, abruptly narrowed toward base, 
initially smooth, finally somewhat rugose, ca. 15 mm long and 13 mm 
broad; seeds triquetrous, reticulate -rugose, broad-winged at the top. 
June -July. 

Wooded mounds in the foothills and in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: Amu D. , Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from Gazi-Mailik 
mountains. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The various species of Eremurus are liable to hybridize. 
The species particularly prone to hybridization are E. robustus Rgl. , 
E. Olgae Rgl., E. stenophyllus (Boiss. et Buhse) Baker and 
E. spectabilis M.B. Eremurus hybrids have already gained wide 
distribution in gardens. In identifying Central Asian Eremurus plants, 
one should bear in mind that these may include specimens of hybrid origin, 
with intermediate characteristics. 



53 Genus 263. ANTHERICUM * L.** 

L. Sp. pi. (1753)310. 

Perianth white, rotate; segments 6, spreading, all 3 -nerved; stamens 
naked, filiform; ovary with 4-8 seeds in each locule; capsule globose or 

* From Greek anthericon, rich in flowers. 
** Arranged by E.G. Chernyakovskaya. 



40 



slightly 3-lobed, coriaceous; seeds angled, black. Plants with fibrous 
roots; inflorescence branched or branched-paniculate; pedicels slender, 
jointed below the middle; stems leafless, simple or branched; leaves 
narrowly linear, confined to stem base. 

1. A. ramosum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 310; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 195; Shmal'g., 
Fl. II, 483.— Ornithogalum ramosum Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill (1778) 278.— 
Phalangium ramosum Poir. Encycl. V (1804) 250. — A nt h e r i c u s 
ramosus Asch. et Gr. Synops . 111(1905)48. — A. ramosum var. 
simplex Kling. Fl. v. Preuss. (1849)412; Miscz. Fl. cauc. crit. 35 
(1912) 133; Asch. et Gr. Ill, 49; var. fallax Label. Arch. V. Fr. 
Naturg. Mekl. XIII (1859) 53. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. t.1055; Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 
t. 1114; Fedch. and Fler. , Fl. Evrop. Rossii, Figure 159.— Exs. : HFR 
No. 139. 

Perennial, glabrous plants, 40-75 cm tall; rhizome short, oblique; 
root fibers numerous, fleshy, cylindric; leaves 10-12, linear, to 6-8 mm 
broad, 50-60 cm long, canaliculate, green, flat, glabrous, erect, 
attenuate toward apex; stems terete, slender, leafless; inflorescence 
paniculate with remotely flowered branches; bracts small, subulate, green, 
to 2 mm long; perianth white, 10-13 cm long; segments distinct, 3 -nerved 
on the back, oblong-lanceolate, the lower twice as broad as the rest; 
stamens filiform, white, the inner longer, exceeding the perianth segments; 
style filiform, straight, recurved at apex, always exserted from the fading 
flower; capsule small, globose, 5 mm in diameter, obtusely lobed; seeds 
black, angled, to 3 mm long. June-July. (Plate III, Figure 2, a). 

Stony mountain slopes, gullies, scrub, pine and oak woods, birch 
groves, exposed places; meadow, steppe and chalky slopes, ravine slopes, 
along rivers and in river floodplains. — European part: U. Dnp. , M. Dnp. , 
Bl. , U. Don, Crim; Caucasus: Cisc. (Kislovodsk), according to Grossheim: 
Kuban, Terek, Baku. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur. to S. Sweden and Denmark 
in the north; France, Iberian Peninsula, N. Italy, N. part of Balkan 
Peninsula, Poland, Galicia, Lithuania, Baltic States. Described from 
W. Europe. 

Note. The form var. simplex Kling. (v. fallax), noted by many 
authors, with a simple unbranched inflorescence, occurs together with the 
typical form (Kiev Region, Belorussia, Crimea, Pyatigorsk); 
Anthericum has been in cultivation since 1597. 



54 Genus 264. FUNKIA SPRENG.** 

Spreng. Syst. II, 40.-Hosta, Tratt. Obs. 11, 56. 

Perianth large, 4.5-5 cm long, infundibular, 6-parted; segments short, 
triangular-tipped, erect, all equal; stamens 6, filiform, distinct, naked, 
inserted at perianth base, equal, about the length of perianth and slightly 
exserted, somewhat curved; anthers linear-oblong, slightly emarginate 
at apex, biparted at base, dorsifixed and versatile; ovary sessile, oblong, 
6-grooved, 3-locular; ovules numerous (10-30), biseriate; style filiform, 
furrowed-triquetrous, turned outward, curved, slightly exserted; stigma 

" Named for the pharmacist H.G. Funk (1771-1839), an expert on plants of S . Germany. 
** Arranged by E.G. Chernyakovskaya. 



41 



capitate; capsule linear-oblong, coriaceous, trigonous; seeds numerous, 
compressed, winged at the top, black, lustrous, very finely puncticulate. 
Stemless herbs with fibrous roots; leaves radical, long-petioled, ovate to 
oblong, acuminate, herbaceous, reticulate-veined, the petioles sheathing 
at base; scapes simple, bearing a terminal many-flowered raceme; flowers 
large, lilac or bluish, pedicellate; bracts solitary. 

Cultivated for the beautiful flowers. Growing satisfactorily in the open. 
Some of the species have medicinal use. 
1. Leaves broadly ovate, rounded at base, with 6-8 subsidiary nerves. 

1 . F. ovata Spreng. 

■* Leaves lanceolate, narrowed toward base, 3- or 4 -nerved, rarely 

7 -nerved 2. F. lancifolia Spreng. 

1. F. ovata Spreng. Syst. II 240; Baker Gard. Chron. (1868) 1015; 
Kom. Fl. Manchzh. I (1901) 443. — F. ovata var. a Kunth Enum. IV 
(1843) 591. — He m e r o c all is coerulea Andrews. Bot. Rep. tab. 6.— 
Hosta coerulea Tratt. Tab. I, 189; EnglerinNat. Pflanzenfam. II, 

5, p. 40. — Ic: Andrews Bot. Rep. tab. 6; Bot. Mag. 1806, t. 894; Redoute' 
Lil. tab. 106. 

Perennial; leaves green, broadly ovate, often subcordate -ovate, 
cuneate at base, tapering into a long petiole; acuminate at base, very large, 
12-20 cm long, 7-10 cm broad; with 6-8 subsidiary nerves; pertioles 
winged, to 25 cm long; flowering scape to 85 cm long; raceme loosely 
10-12-flowered, longer than the leaves; bracts solitary, ovate, hyaline- 
membranous, acuminate, about twice the length of pedicel, the lower 
ca. 15-22 mm long, 6-11 mm broad; pedicels 6-9 mm long, the lower 
55 nutant; flowers to 5.5 cm long, initially spreading, at length nodding; 

perianth pale lilac or more often dark lilac -azure, slender-tubed, plaited 
upward, the segments to 8 mm broad; capsule pendulous, 27-40 mm long. 
August. (Plate V, Figure 3, a, b). 

Rocky and stony river banks, near ponds and lakes.— Far East: Sakh. , 
at Lake Traitsisk. Gen. distr. : Japan, Manchuria. In N. China only in 
cultivation. Described from Japan. 

Note. Cultivated in China for the sake of the roots which are used 
as a remedy for toothache. 

2. F. lancifolia Spreng. Syst. II (1825) 41; Baker, Gard. Chron. (1868) 
1015; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 368; Kom. Fl. Manch. I (1901) 
471. — F. ovata var. jS Kunth. Enum. IV (1843) 592. — Hosta 
lancifolia (Thunb.) Engl. , Nat. Pflanzenfam. II, 5, p. 40. 

Perennial; leaves green, lanceolate, 9-11 cm long, 2-2.5 (4.5) cm 
broad, 4-7-nerved; petioles 5-6 cm long, winged; scape 30-40 cm long; 
raceme rather densely 8-16-flowered; bracts solitary, to 10-12 mm long, 
lanceolate, long-acuminate, at base to 4 mm broad; pedicels 7-10 mm long, 
the lower nutant; perianth pale lilac, 4-5.5 cm long, slender tubed; 
capsule pendulous. August. (Plate V, Figure 2, a). 

Rocks, river banks, overgrown sand dunes. In Manchuria on mountain 
slopes and at forest borders.— Far East: Uss. , Tumyn-gan River basin; 
on Amur at village of Kinneli. Gen. distr. : Japan, Korea, Sakhalin, and 
Manchuria. Described from Japan. 

Note. The leaf breadth in this species is subject to variation. 
Specimens with 7-nerved leaves up to 4.5 cm broad, but with smaller flowers, 



42 



occur side by side with narrow -leaved forms. Similar small-flowered forms 
predominate everywhere in the USSR, the length of flower being 4-4.5 cm, 
less than in Korea and Japan. 



Genus 265. HEMEROCALLIS * L.** 

Syst. ed. 1(1735), Sp . pi. ed . 1(1753)324. 

Perianth large, infundibular, deeply 6 -parted, curved-tubular at base; 
segments equal, oblong -spatulate, spreading; stamens inserted in throat 
at base of segments, filiform, recurved; anthers linear-oblong, dorsifixed; 
ovary sessile, oblong, obtusely trigonous, with numerous biserially 
arranged ovules in each locule; style filiform, long, recurved; stigma 
capitate; capsule coriaceous, obovoid, obtusely trigonous, rugose, 
56 narrowed at base, 3-celled, 3-valved; seeds 6-12 in each cell, borne in 
2 rows, ovate, angled, black, lustrous; fibrous roots short, fleshy; 
leaves all radical, linear; inflorescence a terminal double cincinnus passing 
into a panicle; flowers large, yellow, orange or reddish-orange. 

Ornamental plants with beautiful flowers, widely grown in gardens. 

1. Flowers fragrant, yellow or orange 2. 

"*■ Flowers inodorous, rufous, the inner segments with membranous - 

undulate margin and transversely anastomosing nervature 

1. H. fulva L. 

2. Inflorescence branched, many-flowered; stems long; all flowers long- 
pediceled; nerves of inner perianth segments not anastomosing; bracts 
hyaline, small 2. H. flava L. 

"*" Inflorescence simple, few -flowered; stems equaling or slightly 

overtopping the leaves; flowers subsessile; nerves of perianth segments 
anastomosing 3. 

3. Flowers bright orange; perianth tube 10-15 mm long; bracts broad, 

nearly covering the perianth tube; leaves 10-18 mm broad 

3. H. Middendorffii Trautv. et Mey. 

■+ Flowers yellow 4. 

4. Flowers yellow, subsessile; bracts equaling the pedicel; perianth tube 

not more than 1 cm long; leaves 14-18 mm broad 

4. H. Dumortieri Morren. 

"*" Flowers pale yellow, solitary or 2 or 3; perianth tube elongated; 

pedicels 5-5.4 mm long; bracts small; leaves 4-7 mm broad 

5. H. minor Mill. 

1. H. fulva L. Sp. pi. ed. 2 (1762)462; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 483; Kunth 
Enum. IV, 588; Miscz. , Fl. cauc. crit. 11(1912) 136. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. 
Germ. t. 1113; Bot. Mag., t. 64. 

Perennial; stems long; radical leaves narrowly linear, carinate, acute, 
slightly shorter than stems, 12-30 mm broad; cauline leaves few, very 
short, scalelike; flowers 6-12, not fragrant, to 7 cm long, dark yellow, 
rufous -reddish within; perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, the 
inner wavy-margined, all with numerous transversely anastomosing 
longitudinal nerves; pedicels short; bracts small, lanceolate. June. 

* From Greek hemera, day, andcallos, beauty, implying beauty of the day (Miller, 1797). 
** Arranged by E.G. Chernyakovskaya. 



43 



(57) 




Plate V 

1. Asphodeline dendroides (Hoffm. ) Woron.- 2. Funkia lancifolia Spreng.; 2a) flower. 

3. F. ovata Spreng. leaf and fruiting inflorescence; 3a) flower; 3b) capsule and bract. - 

4. Hemerocallis flava L. inflorescence. 



44 



Wet swampy places and coastal meadows.— Caucasus: S. and W. Transc, 
59 Tal. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., Med., Iran., Jap.-Ch. Described from 
E. India. The original provenience of this as well as of many widely 
cultivated species, is so far unknown. Numerous garden varieties, 
especially from Japan, are known. 

2. H. flava L. Sp. pi. ed. 1 (1753) 324, ed. 2 (1762) 462; Kunth. Enum. 
IV, 588; Ldb. Fl. Alt. II, 39, Fl. Ross. IV, 194; Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill 
(1929)591; Kom., Fl. Manchzh. 1(1901)473; Kom. and Al. , Opred. rast. 
Dal'nevost. Kr. 1(1931)361; Fl. Zabaikal. (1931 ) 148. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. 

t. 19; Redoute Lil. t. 15; Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1112. 

Perennial; rhizome short, vertical, bearing below numerous stringy 
root fibers; stem leafless, 30-70 cm long; inflorescence branched; leaves 
all radical, broadly linear, long-acuminate, about equaling or shorter than 
the stem, 5-15 mm broad; flowers 2-8; pedicels shorter than perianth, 
27-54 mm long; bracts hyaline, small, lanceolate; flowers fragrant, 
. bright yellow, all long-pediceled, the pedicels 7-9 cm long; perianth 
deciduous, funnelform, deeply cleft to 3/4 into 6 spreading segments, 
tubular at base; outer perianth segments lanceolate, somewhat narrower 
than the inner ones, oblong-elliptic, ca. 2 mm broad, acuminate, straight- 
margined, without cross-anastomosis; segments 3-4 times the length of 
tube; capsule ovoid to ovaloid, obtusely trigonous, cross -wrinkled, 
ca. 2.5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm broad-; seeds ovoid-trigonous, sharply 
ribbed, black 4-5 mm long. End of May —beginning of July. (Plate V, 
Figure 4). 

Forest water meadows or rarely steppe meadows, river valleys, 
meadow slopes, dry glades, shores of rivers and lakes, margins of pine 
and birch woods . — W. Siberia: Ob, Irt. , Alt.; E. Siberia: Yen., Lena- 
Kol, Ang.-Say. , Dau. ; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss. ; Caucasus; S. Transc. 
Gen. distr.: Atl. Eur., Med., Jap.-Ch. Described from Hungary. 

Note. Our herbarium contains Lagovskii's specimen from 
S. Transcaucasia (station of Kodi between Tiflis [Tbilisi] and Erivan) 
which is in very poor state of preservation. Mishchenko (Fl. cauc. crit. 
v. 35, 1912, 136) considers the occurrence of this species in Transcaucasia 
very likely. 

3. H. Middendorffii Trautv. et Mey. Fl. ochot. (1856)94, No. 321; 
Maxim. Prim. Fl. Amur. (1859) 283; Kom., Fl. Manchzh. (1901) 439.— 
Ic: Rchb. Gartenfl. t. 522; Kom. andAlis., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kr. 
(1931) Plate 111. 

Perennial; root fibers large, cylindric; rhizome oblique, stout; leaves 
all radical, sheathing at base, the collar clothed in remnants of dead 
leaves, very long, 6-13 (18) mm broad, the lower 2 or 3 broader (23 mm), 
about equaling the stem, long-acuminate, pendulous, flat, glabrous, and 
smooth; stems leafless; inflorescence simple; flowers 3 or 4, subsessile, 
6 bright orange, fragrant, gathered in a terminal head; bracts large, to 

2.5-3 cm long, broad, enveloping the inflorescence, rounded-ovate, long- 
acuminate, half as long as to equaling the perianth tube; perianth 
funnelform, 9 cm long, the tube 10-15 mm long; segments reflexed at the 
tip, flat, oblong, acuminate, all equal, many-nerved, the inner 15-21 mm 
broad, membranous -margined and slightly anastomosing, the outer 



45 



12-15 mm broad, not anastomosing; capsule 2.5-3 cm long, obovoid, 
obtuse, cross -wrinkled, nearly covered by the bract . May-June -August . 

Meadows, mountain slopes, broad-leaved woods, scrub, and meadows. — 
Far East: Ze.-Bu. , Uda, Okh., Uss., Sakh, Gen. distr. : Manchuria. 
Described from Okhotsk coast, Uyakon Bay. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. According to the report of V. L. Komarov (1. c. ), the Chinese 
relish this plant for food, cooking it together with millet. The same is 
reported by Miller (Diet. 1797). 

4. H. Dumortieri Morren, Horticulteur Beige II (1834) 195; Baker. 
Journ. Lin. Soc. XI 359; Kom. Fl. Manchzh. I (1901) 439; Fl. Zabaikal. 
(1931) 148. — H. graminea |3humilior Maxim. Prim. Fl. Amur (1859) 
285. — Ic. : Morren I.e. tab. 43. 

Perennial; leaves 14-18 mm broad, about equaling the stem; flowers 
2 or 3, subsessile, very short -pediceled; yellow, fragrant; bracts broadly 
lanceolate, about equaling the pedicel; perianth 4.5-5.5 cm long, the tube 
5-7 mm long; outer segments 9-11 mm broad, the inner 11-14 mm broad, 
obtuse, membranous -margined; root fibers with fleshy bulges. May. 

E. Siberia: Dau. ; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Okh. Gen. distr.: Manchuria, 
Japan. Described from Amur (Albazin V 1855, Maak). 

5. H. minor Mill. Diet. (1797) No. 2; Kom., Fl. Manchzh. 458; Kom. 
andAlis., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kr. I (193 1) 362; Fl. Zabaikal. (1931) 
148. — H. graminea Andr. Bot. Rep. tab. 244; Kunth. Enum. IV, 588; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 194; Maxim. Prim. Fl. Amur. (1859) 285. — H. graminifolia 
Schlecht. Abh. zu Halle, n.F., Bd. I Quart. Ill, 15. — H. pumila Salisb. 
Genera, p. 81 . 

Perennial; leaves shorter than to about equaling the stem, ca. 7 mm 
broad; inflorescence simple; pedicels ranging in length from 7 to 54 mm; 
flowers pale yellow, solitary or 2 or 3, fragrant, 7-9 cm long; outer 
perianth segments 9-11 mm broad, the inner ones broader and more obtuse, 
membranous -margined, sparsely anastomosing; bracts small, lanceolate; 
capsule oblong, ca. 3-5 mm long. June-July. 

Water meadows, elevated wet places with sandy soil; forest glades, 
mountain slopes, and scrub. — W. Siberia: Ob; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., 
Dau., Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss. Gen. distr.: Manchuria, Japan, Korea, 
and N. China. Described from Siberia. 



Subfamily 3. AUioideae ENGLER 

Bulbose plants, rarely with short rhizomes; inflorescence a compound 
umbel consisting of abbreviated spirals, enclosed before opening in a spathe 
consisting of 2 broad, sometimes connate, more or less membranous leaves 
[bracts], these sometimes narrow or the inflorescence consisting of a 
solitary flower. 

Key to Genera 

1. Inflorescence of 1 or few flowers, covered in bud by narrow bracts; 

perianth yellow, rarely whitish or red 266. Gagea Salisb. 

46 



62 



Inflorescence a many -flowered capitate compound umbel, enclosed in 
bud within a membranous spathe; perianth rose, purple, white, or 
rarely yellow 267. Allium L. 



Genus 26 6. GAGEA SALISB.** 

in Konig u. Sims. , Ann. of Bot. II (1806) 555. 

Perianth segments 6, biseriate, yellow inside and lustrous, rarely 
whitish outside, commonly with a broad green dorsal band, sometimes 
reddish or dark purple, persistent in fruit, more or less indurescent and 
accrescent; stamens 6, inserted at base of perianth segments; anthers 
basifixed; capsule mostly 3-angled, 3-locular; seeds oblong-obovoid, 
terete or flat; bulbose herbs; inflorescence racemose-umbellate. 

Economic importance. Species of the genus Gage a are of no economic 
importance. Massive development of these plants may often be observed 
in secondary habitats, especially in cultivated fields, so that they may be 
considered as weeds. However, in view of their small size and ephemeric 
character, as well as their flowering in early spring, they do not represent 
a serious menace as weeds. 

1. Stigma 3 -parted (Section Plecostigma (Turcz.) Pasher) 2. 

+ Stigma undivided, capitate 3. 

2. Stigma 3-parted to base; taller plants with more southerly distribution 
(Altai, S. and E. Siberia) 73. G. pauciflora Turcz. 

+ Stigma parted only one -third the length; smaller plants with more 

northerly distribution (Yakutia, E. Siberia) 

74. G. provisa Pascher. 

3. Leaves differentiated into 1 or 2 radical leaves and the cauline leaves 
just below inflorescence [floral leaves], thus a long leafless portion of 
stem present between bulb and inflorescence (Section Nudiscaposae 
Terr., partly subgenus Platyspermum (Boiss. ) Miscz.) 4. 

"*" Leaves more or less uniformly distributed up the stem, alternate; 
distinct floral leaves absent (Section Foliatae Terr, and partly 
subgenus Platyspermum (Boiss.) Miscz.) 54. 

4. Bulbs 3, each in separate sheath, differing in size (Series 
Tribulbosae Terr., Subsection Dispathaceae Terr.) 5. 

"•" Bulbs 1 or 2, in common sheath, or numerous small bulblets developing 
at base of bulb within the same sheath 7. 

5. Perianth segments 15-18 mm long, oblong, obtusish; plants commonly 
larger (Poland) 37. G. pratensis (Pers.) Roem. et Schult. 

+ Perianth segments 10-13 mm long, acute or obtuse; plants commonly 
smaller 6. 

6. Radical leaf linear, curved -undulate; perianth segments lanceolate, 
acute (Crimea) 39. G. transversalis Stev. 

"*" Radical leaf linear-lanceolate, smooth; perianth segments oblong-linear, 
obtusish (W. and SW Ukraine) 38. G. Paczoskii Zap. 

7. Perianth segments attenuate -acuminate at apex, not cucullate, commonly 
grayish-yellow (Series Eureticulatae Pascher) 8. 



Named for the English amateur botanist Thomas Gage, 1781-1820, who worked in Suffolk, Ireland, 

and Portugal. 

Arranged by A. A. Grossgeim. 



47 



63 



+ Perianth segments not attenuate -acuminate, obtuse or obtusish or 

acute and then commonly more or less distinctly cucullate 19. 

8. Radical leaves flat, grasslike 9. 

+ Radical leaves narrow, 5-angled beneath 11. 

9. Perianth segments abruptly narrowed at apex and acuminate; high- 
mountain plants, 3-5 cm tall (Soviet Central Asia) 

45. G. hissarica Lipsky 

"*■ Perianth segments gradually and finely long-acuminate; plants of 

lowlands and the middle mountain zone 10. 

10. Perianth segments 14-20 mm long; larger plants (Turkmenia) 

43. G. rigida Boiss. et Sprun. 

"•" Perianth segments 8-12 mm long; smaller and more delicate plants 

(Sov. Centr. Asia) 44. G. graminifolia Vved. 

11. Bulblets present in axils of floral leaves (Centr. Asia) 

47. G. Bergii Litv. 

■+ No bulblets in axils of floral leaves 12. 

12. Pedicels at length arched-recurved (Centr. Asia) 

46. G. divaricata Rgl. 

+ Fruiting pedicels erect 13. 

13. Collar above the bulb sheathing the lower part of stem, nearly reaching 
the inflorescence 14. 

+ Collar above the bulb undeveloped 16. 

14. Bulb commonly with slender readily detachable white underground 
offshoots terminating in white bulblets; collar coarsely fibrous; radical 
leaf coarse, linear (Transc.) 53. G. commutata C. Koch. 

+ Underground offshoots none; radical leaf slender; collar finely 

reticulate 15. 

15. Radical leaf filiform; collar delicately reticulate; plants commonly 

in tufts 55. G. tenuifolia (Boiss.) Fom. 

■+ Radical leaf narrowly linear; collar more coarsely reticulate; plants 

solitary 54. G. reticulata (Pall.) Roem. et Schult. 

16. Flowers and leaves commonly glabrous; perianth segments enlarged 
about the middle; plants of middle and upper mountain zones (Cauc. , 
Turkm.?) 17. 

+ The outside of flowers, pedicels and leaves more or less pubescent; 
perianth segments gradually attenuate; plants of plains and lower 
mountain zone; bulb tunics not entwined in root fibers, fibrillose and 
ruptured at the top (Centr. Asia) 52. G. pseudoreticulata Vved. 

+ Bulb tunics densely entwined in root fibers 18. 

17. Radical leaf 1-3 mm broad; inflorescence 1 -3-flowered; flowers 
12-15 mm long 50. G. Alexeenkoana Miscz. 

"*" Radical leaf 0.5-1 mm broad; flowers 10-11 mm long (S. Transc. ). 

51. G. Caroli-Kochii Grossh. 

18. Root fibers slender; relatively delicate plants with thin leaves 

48. G. ucrainica Klokov. 

"•" Root fibers coarse, thick; relatively coarse plants, with delicate 

narrowly linear leaves 49. G. taurica Stev. 

19. Inflorescence subtended by one well developed floral leaf; other leaves 
in inflorescence inserted higher up, small, bractlike, or wanting 
(Subsection U n i s p at h a c e a e Terr.) 20. 



48 



64 



65 



+ Inflorescence commonly subtended by two floral leaves, of these one 
much longer than the other; other leaves in inflorescence, when 
present, small, bractlike, borne on pedicels (Subsection 
Un i s pat hac e ae Terr.) 33. 

20. Perianth segments with saccate declined nectaries (Centr. Asia). 
14. G. sacculifera Rgl. 

"•" Perianth segments never with saccate nectaries at base 21. 

21. Radical leaves fistulous 22. 

"•" Radical leaves flat, sometimes very narrow, linear, but not fistulous. 

23. 

22. Radical leaves 2, greatly overtopping the inflorescence; perianth 
segments pale yellow (Transc. ) 1. G. spathacea Salisb. 

+ Radical leaf 1; perianth segments lemon-yellow (S. Transc. ) 

2. G. Joannis Grossh. 

23. Inflorescence compound, corymbose, with branched pedicels and 
strongly developed lower joint; flowers commonly numerous, small, 

6-8 mm long; radical leaf 1; bulb solitary (Centr. Asia) 

13. G. Popovii Vved. 

"*" Inflorescence umbellate; pedicels not branched, but usually with 

pronounced lower joint 24. 

24. A common sheath enclosing a large bulb and numerous small bulblets 

at its base 25. 

"*■ A common sheath enclosingtwo bulbs, one large, the other much 

smaller or sometimes absent ., 26. 

25. Bublets forming a ring around the base of the bulb; radical leaf 
lanceolate, broad (N. Siberia) 4. G. granulosa Turcz. 

* Bulblets in a bundle on the side of the bulb; radical leaves narrowly 

linear (E. Siberia, Far East) 5. G. hiensis Pascher. 

26. Radical leaf narrowly linear, 1-2 or rarely up to 10 mm broad. 
27. 

"•" Radical leaf lanceolate, flat, (5) 8-12 mm broad 32. 

27. Bulb solitary, oblong-ovoid; outer tunics fibrous, often reticulately 
split, produced into a short collar 28. 

+ Bulb ovoid; tunics coriaceous, not produced into a collar 29. 

28. Delicate and slender plants; flowers solitary or 2 or 3, pale yellow; 
perianth segments 6-8 mm long; bracts close to floral leaf and not 

separated from it by an internode (Turkmenia) 

11. G. kopetdagensis Vved. 

+ Stronger and taller plants; flowers 3-7, bright yellow, violet -reddish 
on the outside; perianth segments 10-11 mm long; a pronounced 
internode present between floral leaf and bract (mountainous 
Tadzhikistan) 12. G. Korshinskyi Grossh. 

29. Inflorescence one-third to one-half the length of stem; floral leaf 
markedly different from radical leaves, broadly lanceolate, 5-12 mm 
broad 3. G. minima (L. ) Ker-Gawl. 

"*" Inflorescence two-thirds (rarely one -half) the length of stem; floral 
leaf not markedly differing in breadth from radical leaves; plants of 
Soviet Central Asia 3 0. 

30. Bulb solitary; radical leaf 1-1.5 mm broad; small, delicate plant 

2-5 cm tall (mountainous Tadzhikistan) 10. G. minuta Grossh. 



49 



+ Bulbs 2, rarely the smaller second bulb abortive; radical leaf 

1.5-2 to 10 mm broad 31. 

31. A small plant, 3-7 cm tall; radical leaf 1-2 or rarely to 5 mm broad; 

perianth segments to 10 mm long (SW Siberia, Tien Shan) 

9. G. filiformis (Ldb.) Kunth. 

+ A larger plant, up to 20 cm tall; radical leaf to 10 mm broad; perianth 

segments 14-16 mm long (mountains of Soviet Central Asia) 

8. G. pseudoerubescens Pascher. 

32. Stem strong; inflorescence branches flexuous -geniculate (Centr. Asia). 
7. G. dshungarica Rgl. 

+ Stem slender; inflorescence branches not flexuous (S. Transc. , Mtn. 
Turkm. ) 6. G. confusa Terr. 

33. Bulb 1 (Series Unibulbosae Terr.) 34. 

+ Bulbs 2, one large, giving rise to leaf, the other giving rise to stem, 

small, situated on the side of the larger bulb (Series Dibulbosae 
Terr.) 44. 

34. Radical leaf hollow, triquetrous, with cylindric cavity (Centr. Asia). 
25. C. triquetra Vved. 

"•" Radical leaf not hollow, flat or carinate 35.. 

35. Radical leaf linear to broadly linear, to 5-7 mm broad, narrowly 
linear, ecarinate 36. 

+ Radical leaf narrowly linear, distinctly carinate, canaliculate above. 

39. 

36. Radical leaf 7-10 (to 15) mm broad, long, abruptly attenuate at apex, 

minutely cucullate; flowers to 18 mm long 

15. G. lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl. 

"*" Radical leaf mostly narrower; flowers smaller 37. 

37. Stem 8-10 times as long as inflorescence; fruiting pedicels not 
recurved (Siberia, Far East) 17. G. longiscapa Grossh. 

+ Stem 3-4 times as long as inflorescence 38. 

38. Fruiting pedicels arched-recurved 16. G. erubescens Bess. 

~* Fruiting pedicels obliquely ascending (Caucasus) 

18. G. Helenae Grossh. 

„ 39. Plants pruinose throughout, the bloom rubbing off easily; radical leaf 
2-3 (4) mm broad; floral leaf and pedicels commonly pubescent 

(Caucasus) 23. G. Chanae Grossh. 

+ Plants shining or dull green, without bloom 40. 

40. Flowering pedicels as long as or slightly longer than the flowers; 
flowers few, 8 mm long; stems slender, 3-9 cm long (N. part of 
Centr. Asia) 20. G. Fedtschenkoana Pascher. 

+ ^Flowering pedicels longer than and sometimes several times the length 
of flowers 41 . 

41. Perianth segments enlarged in upper one-third, attenuate toward apex, 
obtusish, yellow tinged with orange; green lustrous plants (Crimea, 
Caucasus) 24. G. Germainae Grossh. 

"*" Perianth segments oblong-linear, not attenuate, yellow, not tinged with 
orange 42 . 

42. Perianth segments to 19 mm long; lower floral leaf distinctly 3 -nerved 

on the back; stems to 20 cm long (N. part of Centr. Asia) 

21. G. Capusii Terr. 



50 



67 



"*" Perianth segments 8-12 mm long 43. 

43. Bulb tunics light brown .... 19. G. pusilla (Schmidt) Roem. et Schult. 
"* Bulb tunics dark tawny-brown (Centr. Asia) 22. G. parva Vved. 

44. Radical leaf fistulous, solitary or radial leaves 2 (Subsection 
Fistulosae Terr.) 45. 

+ Radical leaves not fistulous, semicylindric, canaliculate above 

(Subsection Arvenses Terr.) 51. 

45. Perianth segments very obtuse, scarcely attenuate toward apex, 

15-20 mm long; radical leaves mostly 2 (Crimea) 

26. G. fistulosa Ker-Gawl. 

+ Perianth segments lance -elliptic, more or less attenuate toward apex; 
radical leaf mostly solitary 46. 

46. Perianth segments 8-10 (12) mm long 47. 

"* Perianth segments 12-15 mm long 48. 

47. Pedicels densely pubescent; flowers 2-4, bright sulfureous 

30. G. sulfurea Miscz. 

"•" Pedicels glabrous or slightly pubescent; flowers 1 or 2 (rarely 3), 

lemon-yellow 29. G. glacialis C. Koch. 

48. Inflorescence 1- or 2- (3)-flowered; perianth segments obtuse, slightly 
attenuate toward apex, bright yellow; floral leaves always shorter than 

inflorescence; bulb tunics gray (N. Urals) 

27. G. samojedorum Grossh. 

■* Inflorescence commonly many-flowered, but depauperate in some 

forms; perianth segments acutish or rarely obtusish 49. 

49. Perianth segments emarginate or obliquely truncate, always more or 
less obtusish (Centr. Asia) 31. G. emarginata Kar. et Kir. 

" + Perianth segments never emarginate, tapering toward apex, acutish 

or rarely obtusish 50. 

50. Plants of N. Kazakhstan and Trans volga area; bulb tunics tawny-brown; 

stem, radical leaf and pedicels thick, coarse 

32. G. mirabilis Grossh. 

"*" Plants of high mountains of Caucasus and Transcaucasia; bulb tunics 
commonly light brown, rarely dark brown; stem, radical leaf and 
pedicels slender 28. G. anisanthos C. Koch. 

51. Radical leaves filiform, greatly overtopping the inflorescence; perianth 

segments very obtuse, bright yellow (former Artvin area) 

33. G. tenuissima Miscz. 

+ Radical leaves narrowly linear or flat; perianth segments more or less 
tapering toward apex 52. 

52. Radical leaves flat, 3-5 mm broad; low depressed many-flowered 
plants; inflorescence commonly as long as or shorter than the stem; 
bulblets usually produced at base of floral leaves; perianth segments 
obtuse, bright golden-yellow (Crimea) 36. G. Granatelli Pari. 

+ Radical leaves narrowly linear, carinate beneath, canaliculate above; 
inflorescence commonly 2-3 (and more) times as long as the stem; 
perianth segments subacute, yellow 53. 

53. Perianth segments 15-16 mm long, long-attenuate acuminate, reflexed 
at the tip 34. G. arvensis Dum. 

+ Perianth segments ca. 12-14 mm long, slightly acuminate or obtusish, 
the tip not recurved 35. G. dubia Terr. 



51 



54. Ovary pyriform, narrowed at base into a distinct stipe (Subsection 
Stipitatae Pascher) 55. 

+ Ovary exstipitate, ovoid 59. 

55. Bulblets present (rarely wanting) in the axils of upper leaves; slender 

small-flowered plants (Centr. Asia) 

71. G. gageoides (Zucc. ) Vved. 

"*" Bulblets in leaf axils wanting 56. 

56. Perianth segments 4-5 mm long; floral leaf broad; plants 3-5 cm tall, 
rarely taller (Centr. Asia) 72. G. minutiflora Rgl. 

68 "*" Perianth segments relatively long; floral leaf narrowly linear; mostly 
taller plants 57. 

57. Radical leaves slenderly capillary; cauline leaves somewhat broader, 

flowers few (l or 2, rarely 3) (Centr. Asia) 

70. G. capillifolia Vved. 

+ Radical leaves coarser, narrowly linear; flowers commonly numerous . 
58. 

58. Flowers pale yellow; stipe of ovary and of capsule indistinct; secondary 
bulblets faveolate -pitted (Centr. Asia) 69. G. ova Stapf. 

+ Flowers golden-yellow; ovary and capsule distinctly stipitate; 
secondary bulblets none or, if present, then minutely papillose 
(S. Transc, Centr. Asia) 68. G. stipitata Merkl. 

59. Seeds cylindric (Section Foliatae Terr.) 60. 

"•" Seeds flat (Series Euchloranthae) 62. 

60. Perianth segments narrowed upward, obtusish, relatively small; 
pedicels long (Crimea) 42. G. Heldreichii Terr. 

"*" Perianth segments enlarged upward (spatulate), very obtuse, 

relatively large; pedicels very short 61. 

61. Taller plants, 3-6-flowered (S. Ukraine) .... 40. G. Szovitsii Bess. 
+ Usually very low plants, with 1, rarely 2 or 3 flowers (Crimea) 

41. G. Callieri Pascher. 

62. Lower leaf fistulous 63. 

"*" Lower leaves not fistulous 64. 

63. Bulbs 2, one larger, the other smaller, in a common sheath; tunics 
blackish-brown (Centr. Asia) 57. G. Chomutovae Pascher. 

"*" Bulb 1, with a compact lateral bundle of small bulblets within the same 

sheath; tunics light blackish to tawny-brown (S. Transc. ) 

56. G. improvisa Grossh, 

64. Bulb produced into a rather long collar 65. 

+ Collar wanting or obsolescent 68. 

65. Collar long, reaching to or above the middle of stem, coarse; perianth 

segments 10-12 mm long, obtuse (S. part of Centr. Asia) 

60. G. Alberti Rgl. 

+ Collar short, usually not exceeding 1 cm in height 66. 

66. Upper cauline leaves very short, slenderly filiform, with bulblets 

in their axils, differing markedly from the radical and lower cauline 

nonbulbilliferous leaves- 66. G. pamirica Grossh. 

69 "*" Transition from lower to upper leaves gradual; no bulblets in the 

axils of upper leaves 67. 

6 7. Commonly glabrous, bright green plants; radical leaf greatly 
overtopping the inflorescence; perianth segments golden -yellow 
(S. Siberia) 64. G. altaica Schischk. et Sumn. 



52 



"*" Puberulent, dull green plants; radical leaf greatly overtopping the 
inflorescence; perianth segments dull almost greenish yellow. (Kopet 
Dagh) 59. G. anisopoda M. Pop. 

68. Bulblets formed in the axils of cauline leaves 

65. G. bulbifera (Pall.) Roem. et Schult. 

+ No bulblets in leaf axils 69. 

69. Bulb tunics fibrous, readily separating into fibers 66. 

"*" Bulb tunics firm, coriaceous 72. 

70. Flowers light nearly whitish yellow; perianth segments 9-15 mm long, 
enlarged in upper one -third, acute or subacuminate (S. part of Centr. 
Asia) 63. G. Vvedenskyi Grossh. 

+ Flowers bright yellow or golden-yellow; perianth segments obtusish. 

71. 

71. Inflorescence few-flowered; perianth segments golden-yellow, 5-9 mm 
long (Centr. Asia) 61. G. Olgae Rgl. 

"*" Inflorescence few-flowered; perianth segments yellow, 9-12 mm long 
(S. part of Centr. Asia) 62. G. afghanica Terr. 

72. Lower cauline leaves flat, enlarged at base; radical leaves commonly 

2, filiform; perianth segments not accrescent 

67. G. tenera Pascher. 

+ Lower cauline leaves narrowly linear; radical leaf mostly 1; perianth 

segments mostly strongly accrescent after anthesis 

58. ,G. chlorantha (M. B. ) Roem. et Schult. 



Subgenus I. E'JGACEA Pascher in Lotos, N.F., XXXIV (1904) 110.— 
Seeds globose, subhorizontal [?], with pale or tawny testa, slightly 
furrowed longitudinally. 



Section 1. NUDISCAPOSAE Terr, in Mem. 2 Soc. Bot. France (1905; 
11.— Stem leafless from base to inflorescence, except for 1 or 2 floral 
leaves subtending the inflorescence; inflorescence subumbelliform. 



Subsection 1. UNISPATHACEAE Terr, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. V (1905) 
1064. — Floral leaf 1; inflorescence commonly jointed at base, branched; 
a small secondary bulb or numerous small bulblets produced in addition 
to main bulb or sometimes the bulb solitary. 



Series Euspathaceae Terr, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1064.— 
70 Umbel simple, peduncled; floral leaf distant from inflorescence; radical 
leaves fistulous; perianth segments lanceolate, obtusish, whitish or rose. 

1. G. spathacea (Hayne) Salisb. in Koenig et Sims. Annals Bot. , II 
(1806)556; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 140, p. p. — O r n i t h o ga lum 
spathaceum Hayne in Ust., Ann. Bot. XXI (1797) 11. — Ic. : Redoute 
Liliaceae, t. 242; Rchb. Ic. No. 1039 (1848); Hegilllust. Fl. d. 
Mitteleuropa II, 209, f. 330. — Exs . : Fl. exs. Reipubl. Boh.-Slov. No. 597. 



53 



Perennial; bulbs 2, one much larger than the other; tunics grayish, 
membranous; stem glabrous, 6-20 cm long; radical leaves 2, very long, 
greatly overtopping the stem, narrowly linear, fistulous, flat or slightly 
concave above, convex beneath; floral leaf oblong-lanceolate, 6-9 mm 
broad at base, cucullate, equaling or shorter than inflorescence; 
inflorescence with internode, 2-4-flowered; pedicels short -bracteolate; 
perianth segments elongate -lanceolate, obtuse, lemon-yellow, green 
outside, 10-13 mm long; stamens half the length of perianth; anthers 
oblong; ovary subglobose. April-May. (Plate VI, Figure 3, a, b). 

Shady woods and scrub. — European part: U.V., U. Dnp. (rare). 
Gen. distr. : Scand, Centr. Eur. , Atl. Eur. Described from England. 
Type in London (?). 

2. G. Joannis Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 734; tab. XLIV, 
figure 2, a-c. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, medium size; secondary bulb small, commonly 
darkish, foveolate-rugulose, brown; stem 3-5 cm long, weak; radical leaf 
solitary, half as long again as inflorescence; narrowly linear, 1.5-2 mm in 
diameter, fistulous; floral leaf 1, lanceolate, shorter than to equaling the 
inflorescence; upper leaves very small, linear-subulate; inflorescence 
branched, few -flowered; pedicels slender, 2-3 times the length of flower; 
perianth segments yellow, faintly greenish outside, 2-10 mm long, oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse or subobtuse; stamens half the length of perianth 
segments; anthers very small, rounded -ovoid; capsule oblong-obovoid, 
one-third shorter than perianth segments. June. (Plate VI, Figure 15, a,b). 

Meadows and near melting snow. Type in Baku. 



Series Minimae Terr., Bull. Herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1064.— 
Inflorescence branched; pedicels bracteolate; radical leaves not fistulous; 
radical leaf commonly 1, narrow; perianth segments acute or subacute, 
sometimes ciliate at base. 



Cycle Euminimae Terr., Bull, del'herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1064. — Radical 
leaf solitary, linear to narrowly lanceolate, flatfish, erect. 

3. G. minima (L. ) Ker-Gawl. in Journ. Roy Inst. I (1816) 180; Miscz., 
Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 146; Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 594.- 
71 G. minima Schult., Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1053) 639; Boiss. Fl. Or. V 

(1884)207; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 503. — O r n i t h o ga lu m minimum L. Sp. 
pi. (1753) 306. -Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. (1848) t. 1040; Syreishch. , 111. 
Fl. Mosk. gub. (1906) 234. — Exs. : Herb. norm. edit, ab Dorfler. 
No. 5187; Fl. exs. Austro-Hung. No. 3, 489; HFR, No. 923. 

Perennial; bulbs 2, very unequal, in common sheath of brown scales; 
stem glabrous, 7-15 cm long, or up to 20 cm (v. robusta Piotrovski); 
radical leaf solitary, narrowly linear, flat to subcanaliculate, narrowed 
at both ends, 1-3 mm broad; lower internode floriferous, usually distinct, 
to 2 cm long; pedicels slender, long, with a minute bracteole at base, 
glabrous or with scattered pubescence (v. rufula Terr.); perianth 
segments yellow or whitish (v. albiflora Zinger), greenish or somewhat 



54 



rufous outside (v. rufula Terr.), 10-15 mm long, linear-lanceolate to 
oblong, acuminate; stamens one -half to two -thirds the length of perianth, 
broadly elliptical; capsule obovoid. April-May. (Plate VI, Figure 9). 

Woods, scrub, wood margins, and rarely meadows. — European part: 
Dv.-Pech. , Lad.-Ilm., U. V. , V.-Ka., U. Dnp. , M. Dnp. , V.-Don, 
Transv. , Bl. , Crim., L. Don; Caucasus: Cisc. ; W. Siberia: U. Tob. 
Gen. distr. : Scand. , Centr. Eur., Bal. -As. Min. Described from Europe. 
Type in London. 

4. G. granulosa Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, t. XXVII, No. 3. 
(1854)112; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib., pt. 3 (1929) 596 . — G. rufescens Rgl. 
Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. (1862)28.— G. minima v. paradoxa (an 
species nova) S. Illitschevsky, Flora okolits' Poltavy (1927) 28.— 

G. granulosa v. s e pt e n t r i o n a 1 i s Perf. Nov. vidy i razn. gus . 
luka. Mater, po izuch. i ispol'z. proiz. sil Sev. Kraya, pt . Ill (1921).— 
G. borealis Perf. ibid.— G. granulosa v. elatior Pascher Bull. 
Soc. Nat, Moscou. XIV (1907) 358. — Ic. : Perfil'ev, Journ. Soc. Bot. 
Russie. XII, pt. 3 (1927) 247. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose -ovoid, 5-6 mm in diameter, a ring of 
numerous small bulblets at base inclosed within a common sheath; tunics 
dark brown; stem 10-30 cm long, slender, whitish at base; inflorescence 
sometimes with a strongly developed internode (v. borealis (Perf. ) 
Sch.); radical leaf solitary, green, glabrous, flat, 4-9 mm broad, tapering 
at both ends, narrowly cucullate, 1.5 cm long; lower floral leaf 6-10 mm 
broad, with a narrow hood 2-3 cm long; second leaf subopposite, much 
shorter than narrower; inflorescence 1-5 -flowered; pedicels unequal; 
perianth segments yellow, green- or rufous -striped on the outside, 
12-18 mm long, lanceolate, attenuate upward, obtusish, rarely enlarged 
at apex and rounded -obtusish (v. s e p t e nt r i o n a 1 i s Perf.). April-May- 
June. (Plate VI, Figures 4, a-c, 5). 

Woods and scrub. — Arctic: Arc. Eur.; European part: Dv.-Pech., 
Lad.-Ilm., U. V. , V.-Ka., U. Dnp., M. Dnp. (Poltava), V.-Don. (Kharkov); 
W. Siberia: Ob, Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. Endemic. Described 
from [former] Tomsk Province. Type in Kharkov. 

5. G. hiensis Pascher in Lotos (1904) 126. — G. Terraccianoana 
Pascher in Fedde, Repert. sp. nov. II (1906) 58. 

Perianth; bulb medium size, ovoid, with a crowded sublateral bundle 
of small bulblets; tunics gray or brownish; stem 8-15 cm long, slender; 
inflorescence (one-sixth) one-fourth to one-third the length of stem; 
radical leaf solitary, flat, narrowly linear, 0.75- 1 .5 (2-3) mm broad, 
overtopping the inflorescence; floral leaf narrowly lanceolate; inflorescence 
2-8-flowered; pedicels slender, 3-4 times the length of flower; perianth 
segments 6-9 (10) mm long, narrowly lanceolate, the outer slightly 
tapering, acute, pale yellow within, greenish outside. April-May. (Plate VI, 
Figure 6 a, b). 

Grassy slopes and bottomland woods.— E. Siberia: Dau. ; Far East: 
Ze.-Bu., Uss. Endemic. Described from Dauria (?). Type in Leningrad. 

Note. In his description, Pascher reports this species from Central 
Asia, while in a later publication he records it from Altai and Manchuria. 



55 



(73) 




Plate VI 

1. Gagea sacculifera Rgl.: flower in side view.- 2. G. dshun garica Rgl.: 2a) perianth 
segments.— 3. G. spathacea (Hayne) Salisb. : 3a) perianth segments; 3b) cross section of leaf.— 
4. G. granulosa Turcz.: 1) bulb; b) radical leaf; c) perianth segments.— 5. G. granulosa var. 
borealis (Perf.) B. Schischk.: inflorescence.— 6. G. hiensis Pascher : a) bulb; b) perianth segments .- 
7. G. minuta Grossh.- 8. G. confusa Terr. : perianth segments.- 9. G. m i n i m a (L. ) Ker. Gawl.: 
perianth segments.- 10. G. lutea (L. ) Ker-Gawl. : a) radical leaf; b) inflorescence of var. Komarovi 
Grossh.— 11. G. erubescens Bess.: fruiting; a) perianth segments; b) cross section of radical leaf.— 

12. G.Helenae Grossh.; a) cross section of radical leaf; b) perianth segments.— 

13. G. pseudoerubescens Pascher a) cross section of radical leaf; b) perianth segments. - 

14. G. Fed tschenkoana Pascher, perianth segments.- 15. G.Joannis Grossh.: a) cross section 
of radical leaf; b) perianth segments.- 16. G. k opetdaghens is Vved. : bulb.- 17. G. Korshinskyi 
Grossh.; bulb.- 18. G. pamirica Grossh.- 19. G. Vvedenskyi Grossh.: perianth segments. 



56 



The original specimen, however, by which G. hiensis was established, 
originates, according to the label, from Dauria. This is the only herbarium 
specimen with Pascher's label. The later described G. Terrace ia no ana 
does not differ in any way from these samples which also have a lateral 
bundle of bulblets, a characteristic overlooked by Pascher and left out of his 
description. For this reason G. hiensis and the later described 
G. Terrace ianoana were placed by Pascher in different parts of his 
system of the genus. 



Cycle Minimoides Terr., Bull. Herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1064. — Radical 
leaf broadly lanceolate, flat, acute. 

75 6. G. confusa Terr. Bull. Soc. Ort . Palermo II (1904)35; Miscz. , Fl. 
Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 147.— G. minimoides Pascher, Lotos (1904) 
124. — Exs.: PL orient, exs. No. 54. 

Perennial; bulb large, with several small blackish-brown bulblets, 
inclosed within common brown tunics; stem glabrous, 8-15 cm long; 
radical leaf solitary, broadly linear, narrowed at both ends, flat, ca. 
8-12 mm broad, the middle part slightly exceeding the inflorescence; 
floral leaf lanceolate, decurrent, to 10 mm broad, equaling or slightly 
exceeding the inflorescence; upper leaves few, narrowly linear, short; 
inflorescence few -flowered; pedicels long, slender; perianth segments 
pale yellow, green on the outer face, 9-13 mm long, oblong-linear, 
obtusish; stamens one-third to one-half the length of perianth; anthers very 
small, ovaloid; ovary obovoid, trigonous. April-May. (Plate VI, Figure 8). 

Grassy mountain slopes, 1000-3000 m. — Caucasus: E. Transc, Tal. ; 
Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Iran. 
Type in Geneva. 

7. G. dshungarica Rgl. inA.H.P. VI (1879)513. 

Perennial; bulb large, with numerous small pale bulblets within a 
common sheath; bulb ovoid; tunics firm, grayish -rufous; stem firm, 
glabrous, 5-15 cm long; radical leaf solitary, narrowed into a long petiole, 
linear-lanceolate, attenuate toward apex, 4-6 mm broad; floral leaf 
resembling the radical, lanceolate to lance -linear, tapering, acuminate, 
to 4-5 mm broad, commonly shorter than inflorescence; upper leaves 
rather numerous, much smaller, linear to narrowly lanceolate; 
inflorescence many-flowered, branched, the rachis and branches flexuous; 
pedicels medium length, 2-3 times the length of flower; perianth segments 
pale yellow, greenish-yellow on outer face, 6-8 mm long, oblong-linear, 
obtuse; stamens one-third shorter than perianth; anthers rounded-ovaloid. 
May-June. (Plate VI, Figure 2a). 

Grassy mountain slopes, at 2000-3500 m. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., 
Pam.-AL, T. Sh. , Dzu.-Tarb. Endemic. Described from Dzungarian 
Ala Tau. Type in Leningrad. 



Cycle Filiformes Grossh. — Radical leaf solitary, flat, narrowly linear or 
lanceolate; inflorescence slightly shorter than to equaling the stem; 
fruiting pedicels stellately spreading. 



57 



8. G. pseudoerubescens Pascher in Fedde, Repert. sp. nov. II (1906) 
67.— G. filiformi's var. pseudogranulosa Pascher in Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Moscou XIX (1907) 359. 

Perennial; bulbs 2, one large, the other smaller, giving rise to the 
stem; bulb tunics blackish-brown, subcoriaceous; stem 10-20 (35) cm long, 
weak; radical leaf solitary, commonly exceeding the stem flat, linear, 
5-10 mm broad (to 12-13 mm — v. 1 at i f o 1 i a Grossh.), narrowed at both 
76 ends; floral leaf lanceolate, to 15 mm broad at base, long-acuminate, 
equaling or slightly exceeding the stem; next leaf subopposite, minute; 
pedicels sometimes minutely bracteolate; inflorescence many-flowered, 
one-half to two-thirds as long to nearly as long as the stem; pedicels 
slender, many times the length of flower, substellately spreading in fruit; 
perianth segments 8-12 mm long, pale yellow, green outside, acute, the 
inner ones cbtusish; stamens one-third the length of perianth; anthers 
minute, rounded. April-May. (Plate VI, Figure 13, a, b). 

Mountain meadows. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb., Pam.-AL, T. Sh. 
Gen. distr. : India (?). Described from Soviet Central Asia. Type in 
Leningrad. 

9. G. filiformis (Ldb. ) Kunth, Enumer. IV (1848) 237; Ldb. Fl. Ross., 
IV, 139; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 600. — O r n i t h o g a lu m filiforme Ldb. 
Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. IV (1833) 28. — Ic. : Ldb., ibid., t. 392; Rchb. Ic. Fl. 
Germ. (1843) No. 1046. 

Perianth; bulbs 2, one large, the other lateral, very small, giving rise 
to the stem; bulb tunics blackish-brown, coriaceous, slightly fibrillose at 
the top; stem slender, 5-10 cm long; radical leaf solitary, pale green, flat, 
tapering at both ends, narrowly linear, 1-3 mm broad (typical form — 
var. Ledebouriana Pascher) or to 7 mm broad (var. Regeliana 
Pascher); floral leaf commonly broader than the radical, narrowly 
lanceolate, tapering, acuminate, 5-7 mm broad at base, mostly shorter 
than to equaling the inflorescence; next leaf subopposite, minute, narrowly 
linear; pedicels sometimes minutely bracteolate; inflorescence equaling 
or slightly shorter than the remaining part of stem; pedicels rather few, 
slender, much longer than flower, spreading after anthesis; perianth 
segments pale yellow, 8-10 mm long, the outer acutish, the inner obtusish, 
or all segments obtuse (var. obtusata Pascher.); stamens one-third 
shorter than perianth; anthers small, rounded. April-May. 

Slopes. — W. Siberia: Irt., Alt.; Centr. Asia: Balkh. , Dzu.-Tarb. ( ? ), 
Syr D. , Pam.-AL, T. Sh. Gen. distr.: Iran. Described from W. Siberia 
(Bukhtarminsk). Type in Leningrad. 

10. G. minuta Grossh. sp. nova, in Addenda III, p. 734. 

Perennial; bulb small, solitary, ovoid, covered with dark brown 
membranous tunics; stem 2-5 cm long, slender, delicate; radical leaf 
solitary, subcapillary-linear to linear, slightly enlarged toward base; 
floral leaf to 3-4 mm broad, shorter than to equaling the inflorescence; 
upper leaf much shorter, narrowly linear, the internode between the two 
leaves sometimes obsolescent; flower solitary or inflorescence 3-4-flowered; 
pedicels slender, unequal, 2-3 times the length of flower, slightly crisp- 
haired to glabrate; perianth segments 7-9 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, 
acute to subacute, pale yellow within, greenish outside; stamens one-third 



58 



to one -half the length of perianth; anthers one -third to one -half shorter 
than perianth; anthers small, subglobose-ovaloid. March -April. (Plate VI, 
Figure 7). 
77 Slopes in the middle mountain zone, at 600-1800 m. — Centr. Asia: 

Pam. -Al. Endemic. Described from Tadzhikistan. Type in Leningrad. 



Cycle Reticulatoides Grossh. — Bulb tunics forming a short collar, 
reticulate-fibrillose in upper part; radical leaf solitary, narrowly linear. 

11. G. kopetdagensis Vved. in Fl. Turkm. I, 2 (1932) 260. — Ic. : I.e. 
(1932) 102. 

Perennial; bulb small, solitary; inner tunics coriaceous; outer tunics 
coriaceous -fibrous gray, produced into a very short collar, oblong-ovoid, 
15-18 cm long; stem 6-8 cm long, slender; radical leaf subcapillary- 
linear, 1-1.5 mm broad, about twice the length of inflorence; floral 
leaves 2, approximate, the lower narrowly linear, ca. 1.5 mm broad, 
about twice the length of inflorescence; upper leaves much smaller; 
inflorescence 2- or 3-flowered; pedicels slender, glabrous, erect, twice 
the length of flower or longer; perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 
6-8 mm long, pale yellow, scarcely green-tinged outside, distinctly 3-nerved; 
stamens one-third shorter than perianth. July. (Plate VI, Figure 16a). 

Near melting snow in the high mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: Mtn. 
Turkm. Endemic, (probably growing in Iran). Described from Kopet Dagh. 
Type in Leningrad. 

12. G. Korshinskyi Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 735. 
Perennial; bulb small, solitary, oblong-ovate, giving rise to cauline 

leaf, covered with a firm white sheath; inner tunics numerous, gray, 
membranous, outer tunics reticulate -fibrous, produced into a collar 
15-18 cm long; stem 8-15 cm long; radical leaf solitary, exceeding the 
inflorescence, narrowly linear, ca. 2 mm broad, canaliculate above; floral 
leaf solitary, narrowly linear, scarcely enlarged toward base, shorter 
than inflorescence; upper leaves strongly abbreviated, passing into bracts; 
upper leaves and pedicels crisp-haired; inflorescence branched, 
2 -7 -flowered; pedicels erect, unequal, twice the length of flower or longer; 
perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, attenuate toward apex, the outer face 
dull violet -reddish. May- June. (Plate VI, Figure 17). 

Stony slopes in the upper mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
Endemic. Described from Darvaz. Type in Leningrad. 

Cycle Corymbosae Grossh. — Radical leaf solitary, narrowly linear; 
inflorescence strongly branched, many-flowered. 

13. G. Popovii Vved. in Opred. rast. okr. Tashkenta (1923) 62; 
Herbarium Florae Asiae Med. No. 54 (1925). — Ic. : Opred. I.e., Figure 92. 
Exs. - 1. c. 

78 Perennial; bulb-ovoid-subglobose, 8-10 mm long; secondary bulb very 

small; sheaths coriaceous, dark tawny; stem 5-15 cm long; stem and 
leaves cineraceous -green; radical leaf solitary, exceeding the inflorescence, 



59 



narrowly linear; floral leaf overtopping the inflorescence, narrowly 
lanceolate; upper leaves minute, bractlike, inflorescence many -flowered, 
irregularly branched, corymbose, fairly dense; pedicels slender, unequal 
longer than flower, covered with short crisp hairs; perianth segments 
6-8 mm long, linear-oblong, obtuse, yellow within, grayish-green and 
minutely crisp-haired outside; capsule obovoid, half as long again as the 
perianth. March -April. (Plate VII, Figure 11). 

Gravelly and loess slopes in the foothills.— Centr. Asia: Syr D. 
Endemic. Described from the vicinity of Tashkent. Type in Tashkent. 



Cycle Sacculiferae Grossh. — Perianth segments saccate at base. 

14. G. sacculifera Rgl. in A.H.P. VI (1879) 510. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-subglobose, covered with blackish tunics; stem 
5-10 cm long; radical leaf 1, erect, about equaling or slightly exceeding 
the inflorescence, narrowly linear; floral leaf linear -lanceolate, equaling 
or exceeding the flowers; inflorescence 3-5-flowered; pedicels unequal, 
bracteolate; perianth segments 10-12 mm long, oblong, obtuse, with a 
sacciform obtuse downward pointing appendage at base. April. (Plate VI, 
Figure l). 

Mountains. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. Endemic (probably occurring 
also in Dzu.-Kash.). Described from Kuldja. Type in Leningrad. 



Subsection II. DISPATHACEAE Terr., in Mem. 2Soc. Bot. de France 
(1905) 12.— Floral leaves 2, opposite, one longer than the other. 



Series Unibulbosae Terr, in Mem. 2 Soc. Bot. de France (1905) 12. 
Bulb 1; radical leaf 1; stem lateral. 



Cycle Silvaticae Terr, in Bolet. Soc. Aragonens. Cienc. Natur. IV 
(1905) 218. — Radical leaf flat, linear to linear-lanceolate, ecarinate, 
distinctly nerved; capsule globose. 

15. G. lutea (L. ) Ker. -Gawl. in Curt. Bot. Mag., (1809) tab. 1200; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 138; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 267; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 503.— 
Ornithogalum luteum L. Sp. pi. (1753)506, p.p.— G. silvatica 
Loud. Hort. Britann. (1830) 134; Miscz. , Fl. cauc.-cr. II, 4 (1912) 148.— 
Ic: Bot. Mag. t.1200; Syreish. 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 233. — Exs. : Hayek. 
Fl. stir. exs. No. 410; Fl. Exs. austro-hungar. No. 3486; HFRNo. 1192. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, oblong-ovoid, covered with grayish-brown 
tunics; stem 10-30 cm long; radical leaf flat, broadly lanceolate, 7-15 mm 
broad, rather abruptly tapering toward apex, cucullate, exceeding the 
inflorescence; floral leaves 2, unequal, the lower lanceolate, commonly 
79 exceeding the inflorescence, the other smaller, linear-lanceolate to linear, 
commonly shorter than inflorescence; sometimes subfloral internode 
developed, 6-10 mm long (v. Komarowi Grossh. — Kamchatka); 
inflorescence 8-10-flowered; pedicels unequal, glabrous or hairy 



60 



(v. australis Terr.); perianth segments 13-18 mm long, lanceolate, 
obtuse, pale yellow, green outside; stamens about half the length of 
perianth; capsule subglobose, shorter than perianth. March-April. 

Woods, groves, and dense scrub. — European part: Dv.-Pech., 
Lad.-Ilm., U. V. , V.-Ka., U. Dnp. , M. Dnp. , V.-Don, Transv., Bl., 
Crim. , L. Don; Caucasus: Cisc. , E. Transc. ; W. Siberia: Irt., Alt.; 
E. Siberia: Ang. -Say. (rare); East East: Kamch. , Ze.-Bu., Uda, Uss., 
Sakh. Gen. distr. : Scand. , Centr. and Atl. Eur., Jap.-Ch. Described 
from England. Type in London. 

16. G. erubescens Besser in Roem. et Schult. Syst. VII (1829) 545; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 141; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 504. — O r n i t h o ga lu m 
erubescens Besser, Enum. 45 (1822) No. 1390. — G. rubicunda 
Meinsh. Fl. ingr. (1878) 352. — G. reflexa Czern. , Consp. pi. Charcov. 
(1859) 64 in nota. — G. cretacea Sukatschev in schedis. — Ic: Syreishch. 
Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 233. — Exs. : HFR No. 740. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, medium size, covered with brown tunics; stem 
8-18 cm long; radical leaf narrowly linear to linear, flat, ecarinate, 
2-5 mm broad, 3 -nerved beneath, exceeding the inflorescence; floral 
leaves 2, sometimes with an internode 4-5 mm long, the lower equaling 
the flower, narrowly linear, the other shorter; inflorescence 
3 -15-flowered, rarely 3-5-flowered (v. Czernjaevi Alech.); pedicels 
unequal, glabrous or slightly ciliate -pubescent, arched-recurved in fruit; 
perianth segments 11-13 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, yellow within, 
green or reddish outside; stamens one-third shorter than perianth; 
capsule subglobose, concave at the top, half the length of perianth. 
March-April. (Plate VI, Figure 11 a, b). 

European part: Lad.-Ilm., U. V. , V.-Ka. (rare), U. Dnp., M. Dnp. 
V.-Don, Bl. , L. Don (rare). Gen. distr.: Centr. Eur. Described from 
S. Podolia. Type in Kiev. 

17. G. longiscapa Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, 735. 
Perennial; bulb large, ovoid, covered with brown or grayish-brown 

membranous tunics; stem 15 — 25 cm long, slender, delicate, buried deep 
in the soil; radical leaf flat, 3-4 mm broad, exceeding the inflorescence, 
gradually attenuate toward apex, cucullate, sometimes glaucescent; floral 
leaves opposite, very unequal; the larger shorter than inflorescence, 
narrowly linear-lanceolate, to 3-4 mm broad, the smaller linear; 
inflorescence one-eighth to one-fifth as long as the stem, 3-7-flowered; 
pedicels unequal, slender, much longer than flower, erect in fruit; 
perianth segments narrowly linear, 10-12 mm long, obtusish to subacute, 
yellow within, greenish outside; stamens one-third shorter than perianth; 
anthers ovoid-globose; capsule obovoid, half the length of perianth. 
April-May. 

Wet meadows and scrub. — W. Siberia: Irt.; E. Siberia: Ang. -Say.; 
Far East: Uss. Endemic. 

Note. A species needing further study. 

18. G. Helenae Grossh. in Schedae ad Herb, PL orient, exs. Fasc. I, 
VIII (1924) 21. — G. erubescens Miscz. (non Besser) in Fl. Cauc. 

crit. II, 4 (1912) 150, p.p., quoad pi. cauc — Ic: Fl. Tiflisa I (1925) 99.- 
Exs. : 1. c , No. 78. 



61 



Perennial; bulb small, 5-8 cm long, ovoid, clothed in dark tawny tunics; 
stem 10-15 cm long, weak; base of stem and of radical leaf red; radical 
leaf rounded dorsally, ecarinate, slightly canaliculate above, 2-4 mm 
broad, exceeding the inflorescence; floral leaves opposite, the lower 
lanceolate, enlarged toward base, equaling the inflorescence, cucullate; 
inflorescence 3-7 (9)-flowered; pedicels long, unequal; perianth slightly 
open; segments 10-12 mm long, pale yellow within, green outside, enlarged 
at the middle, narrowed toward base and toward apex, obtusish; capsule 
ovoid, about half the length of perianth; fruiting pedicels obliquely 
ascending. April-May. (Plate VI, Figure 12 a, b). 

Scrub and borders of woods in the middle mountain zone. — Caucasus: 
Cisc, E. Transc. Endemic. Described from Georgia. Type in Tiflis. 



Cycle Pusillae Terr. Bol. Soc. Aragon. Sienc. nat. IV (1905) 220.— 
Radical leaf narrowly linear, distinctly carinate beneath, more or less 
canaliculate above; capsule obovoid, narrowed toward base. 

19. F. pusilla (Schmidt) Roem. et Schult. Syst. Veget. VII (1829) 543; 
Ldb. Fl. Riss. IV, 138; Shmal'g. Fl. II, 503; Miscz. , Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 

4 (1912) 153, p. p. — Or nit hogalum pusiilum Schmidt, Fl. Bohemica 
(1793) 339. — G. podolica Schult. Syst. veget. VII (1829) 545; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 139.— Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1044. — Exs. : Fl. exs. 
Austro-Hungar. No. 3487; HFRNo.1637. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, ovoid, covered with light brown tunics; 
sometimes the bulb oblique and furnished with a small subsidiary bulblet 
(var. obliqua Kerner); stem 7-8 cm long, delicate, rarely up to 
10-17 cm long with numerous flowers (var. luxurians Terr. - 
f. ho rt en sis Alech. ); plants green throughout, not pruinose; radical 
leaf narrowly linear, 1.5-2 (3) mm broad, carinate beneath, canaliculate 
above, exceeding the inflorescence; floral leaves opposite, glabrous, 
rarely floral leaves and pedicels densely ciliate-hairy (f. villosa Terr.), 
the lower narrowly lanceolate, exceeding the inflorescence; inflorescence 
1 -4-flowered; pedicels half as long again to twice as long as the flower; 
fruiting pedicels erect or obliquely ascending and becoming elongated; 
commonly one flower opening in inflorescence; perianth segments 10-12 mm 
long, narrowly linear -oblong, gradually attenuate toward apex and slightly 
'1 acuminate, pale yellow within, green outside; capsule ovoid-globose, about 
half the length of perianth. February-April. 

Steppes, dry grassy slopes, steppe scrub, margins of woods, and fields. — 
European part: U. Dnp. , M. Dnp. , V.-Don, Transv. , Bl. , L. Don, L. V. ; 
Caucasus: Cisc. (rare); W. Siberia: U. Tob. ; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. 
Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., Bal.-As. Min. (?). Described from Austro- 
Hungary. Type in Prague (?). 

20. G. Fedtschenkoana Pascher in Fedde, Repert, sp. nov. I (1906) 
190. — G. pusilla ssp. asiatica B. Schischk. et Sumn. var. 
fragrans, var. parviflora et var. incurva B. Schischk. et Sumn. 
in Animadv. System, ex Herb. Tomsk. No. 8 (1928); Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib., 
Ill (1929) 598. 



1920 62 



Perennial; bulb relatively large, 8-15 (18) mm long, ovoid to ovoid- 
globose, covered with grayish-brown or tawny-brown tunics; stems slender, 
3-10 cm long; radical leaf commonly greatly exceeding or rarely about 
as long as inflorescence, narrowly linear, slightly canaliculate above, 
faintly carinate beneath, 1-3 (rarely to 5) mm broad; floral leaves opposite 
or nearly so, the lower linear-lanceolate, more or less ciliate-margined, 
shorter to slightly longer than inflorescence; inflorescence commonly 
umbelliform, 1-5-flowered; pedicels smooth, shorter than to as long as 
or rarely half as long again to twice the length of flower; perianth segments 
6-9 mm (v. parviflora Schischk. et Sumn. ) to 15-16 mm long, golden - 
yellow or whitish-yellow within, reddish-buff to blackish-tawny or rarely 
greenish outside, sometimes vanilla-scented (v. fragrans Schischk. 
et Sumn.), narrowly linear-oblong, lz~-(3) mm broad; stamens one-third 
to one-half shorter than perianth. April-May. (Plate VI, Figure 14). 

Steppes, wastelands, stony slopes, and margins of pine woods.— 
W. Siberia: Ob (only in S. ), Irt., Alt.; Centr. Asia: Balkh. Endemic. 
Described from the Irtysh River. Type in Leningrad. 

21. G. Capusii Terr, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1115. — 

G. turkestanica Pascher in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIX (1907) 365. 

Perennial; bulb relatively large, rounded-ovoid, covered with light 
grayish-brown tunics; in nonflowering specimens a long slender obliquely 
descending stalk bearing a small glabrous whitish bulblet; stem 
10-15 (20) cm long, glabrous; radical leaf solitary, arched, about twice 
the length of inflorescence, narrowly linear, 2-4 mm broad, very 
distinctly carinate beneath, canaliculate above; floral leaves opposite, 
the lower lanceolate, exceeding the inflorescence, prominently 3 -nerved, 
the upper much shorter; floral leaves and pedicels villous -ciliate; 
inflorescence 3-8-flowered; pedicels unequal, 12-2 (3) times the length 
of perianth; fruiting pedicels often declined; perianth segments 12-15 mm 
long, oblong-linear, obtusish, yellow within, green outside; capsule 
oblong-obconical, about half the length of perianth. March- April. (Plate VII, 
Figure 1 a, b). 

Dry clayey slopes, in plains and foothills. — Centr. Asia: Balkh., 
Syr D. , Pam.-Al. , T. Sh. Endemic. Described from Soviet Central Asia. 
Type in Paris . 

22. G. parva Vved. in schedis (1932). 

Perennial; bulb very small, ovoid, covered with coriaceous light brown 
tunics; bulb of nonflowering specimens without offshoots and bulblets; 
plants cinerescent-green throughout, 3-10 cm tall; radical leaf solitary, 
arched, half as long again as the inflorescence, narrowly linear, 
1.5-2.5 mm broad, canaliculate above, carinate beneath; floral leaves 2, 
opposite, the lower equaling or shorter than inflorescence, narrowly 
lance -linear; inflorescence 2-6 -flowered; pedicels unequal, puberulous; 
fruiting pedicels recurved and subarcuate; perianth segments 9-10 mm 
long, linear, obtusish, yellow within, green outside; capsule obovoid, 
two-thirds the length of perianth segments. March. 

Plains and on dry clayey foothill slopes. — Centr. Asia: Syr D. 
Endemic. Described from Tashkent. Type in Tashkent. 



63 



23. G. Chanae Grossh. in Schedae ad Herb. "PI. orient, exs". Fasc. 
I- VIII (1924) 16. — G. pusilla Miscz. in Fl. Cauc. crit. II, 4 (1912) 
153 pp. — Ic: Fl. Tiflisa, 100 (1925) 42. — Exs. : I.e. No. 55. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, rounded-ovoid, covered with dark tawny 
tunics; stem 5-15 cm long; plants pruinose throughout; radical leaf 
solitary, narrowly linear, 2-3 (4) mm broad, canaliculate above, carinate 
beneath, not cucullate, commonly one -third as long again as inflorescence; 
floral leaves opposite, the lower equaling or exceeding the inflorescence, 
lanceolate, in lower part to 5 mm broad; floral leaves and pedicels 
commonly villous -ciliate with spreading hairs; inflorescence 
2-3 (5)-flowered; pedicels unequal; perianth segments 8-12 (15) mm long, 
linear-oblong, nearly same breadth throughout, slightly attenuate toward 
apex, obtusish, pale yellow within, greenish outside; capsule ovoid-globose, 
one-third shorter than perianth segments. March-April. 

Grassy slopes, scrub, and cultivated fields in lower and middle 
mountain zone. — Caucasus: Cisc, E. and S. Transc. Endemic. Described 
from central Georgia. Type in Tiflis. 

24. G. Germainae Grossh. in Schedae ad herb. "PI. or. exs." Fasc. 
I-VIII (1924) 10. — G. erubescens Miscz., Fl. Cauc. crit. II, 4 (1912) 
150 ex parte. — G. pusilla auct. Taur. et Cauc.-Ic: Fl. Tiflisa I, 
101 (1925) 43.- Exs. : I.e. No. 30. 

Perennial; bulb 8-10 mm long, ovoid, with dark tawny tunics; stem 
4-15 cm long; plants green, lustrous throughout; radical leaf narrowly 
linear, 2-5 mm broad, about twice the length of inflorescence, canaliculate 
above, carinate beneath, cucullate; floral leaves opposite, the lower 
lanceolate, in lower part to 10 mm broad, cucullate, commonly exceeding 
the inflorescence; base of floral leaves and pedicels more or less ciliate; 
inflorescence 2-7-flowered; pedicels unequal; perianth segments 
14-15 (to 18) mm long, more or less enlarged in upper one-third, 
triangular-tipped, obtusish, bright yellow sometimes tinged with orange 
within, green outside; stamens one -third shorter than perianth; capsule 
rounded-obovoid, less than half the length of perianth. April. (Plate VII, 
Figure 2 a). 

Cultivated field, grassy slopes, and wood margins, from the lower to 
the middle and subalpine zones. — European part: Crim. ; Caucasus: Cisc, 
E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from central Georgia. 
Type in Tiflis. 



Cycle Triquetrae Grossh. — Radical leaf hollow, sharply triquetrous. 

25. G. triquetra Vved. in Opred. rast. okrest. Tashkenta (1923) 59. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, covered with light brown coriaceous 
tunics; in nonflowering and sometimes in flowering specimens one or two 
adventitious oblong whitish nontunicated bulblets borne on a rather long 
underground offshoot; stem 15-20 cm long; radical leaves solitary, greatly 
exceeding the inflorescence, to 30 cm long, 3-4 broad mm, triquetrous, 
hollow, canaliculate; floral leaves opposite, minutely crisp-haired, the 
lower broadly lanceolate, amplexicaul, canaliculate, exceeding the 
inflorescence, prominently 3 -nerved beneath, nearly tricarinate; 



64 



inflorescence 3 -7 -flowered; pedicels unequal, crisp-haired, equaling or 
slightly longer than perianth, declined after anthesis; perianth segments 
15-18 mm long, linear -lanceolate, acutish, yellow within, green outside; 
capsule obovoid-oblong, half the length of perianth. March. (Plate VII, 
Figure 3 a). 

Dry clayey slopes. — Centr. Asia: Syr D. Endemic. Described from 
Tashkent. Type in Tashkent. 



Series Dibulbosae Terr., Bull. Soc. Bot. de France, 52 (1905) 12.— 
Bulbs 2 in common sheath, rarely 1 by reduction of the smaller bulb; 
radical leaves 2, rarely 1; stem arising between the bulbs. 

Subseries Fistulosae Terr. Bolet. Soc. Aragonens. Cienc. natur. IV 
(1905) 223.— Radical leaves 1 or 2, fistulous; second bulb small, at the 
base of the primary bulb. 

Cycle 1. Eufistulosae Terr. Bull, de l'herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1117.— 
Perianth segments bright yellow, lance-elliptic, obtuse or subobtuse. 

26. G. fistulosa (Ram.) Ker-Gawl. in Journ. Roy. Inst. I (1816) 180; 
Miscz. , Fl. cauc. cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 155 p. p. — O r n i t ho ga lu m 

84 fistulosum Ram. in Lam. et DC . , Fl. Fr. Ill (1805) 215. — 

G. Liottardi Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 140 p. p. ; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 204 p. p. ; 
Shmal'g., Fl.II, 502.— Ic. : Redoute. Liliacee, t. 28; Rchb. , Ic. Fl. Germ, 
t. 1041 and 1042.— Exs . : Fl. Exs. Austro-Hung. No. 3493 (1902). 

Perennial; bulb globose to ovoid; secondary bulb small, smooth; tunics 
white, rarely dark tawny; stem 10-15 (18) cm long; radical leaf fistulous, 
semicylindric, glabrous, exceeding the inflorescence; floral leaves 
subopposite, the lower equaling the inflorescence, enlarged at base, 
abruptly attenuate and tapering toward apex; inflorescence 3-5-flowered; 
pedicels unequal, more or less hairy; perianth segments 15-20 mm long, 
elliptic to elliptic -lanceolate, obtuse to subobtuse, yellow within, green 
or reddish outside; stamens shorter than perianth; capsule substipitate, 
triquetrous, emarginate, about half the length of perianth. April-June. 

Meadows, wood margins and grassy slopes, in the south in mountains.— 
European part: Crim. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., Med. (mountains). 
Described from France. Type in Paris (?). 

27. G. samojedorum Grossh. sp. nova, in Addenda III, p. 736. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, second bulb very small; tunics dark gray, 

without a tawny tinge, numerous, mostly strongly separated into fibers; 
stem 8-12 cm long, slender, fistulous; radical leaf solitary, fistulous, 
exceeding the inflorescence, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, attenuate toward the 
top; lower floral leaf shorter than inflorescence, lanceolate, enlarged 
toward base, ca. 7-8 mm broad in lower part; second floral leaf much 
smaller, linear; inflorescence 1- or 2- (3)-flowered; pedicels unequal, 
glabrous; perianth segments 14-15 mm long, elliptic -oblong, obtuse, 
slightly attenuate toward apex, yellow, scarcely green-tinged outside; 
stamens half the length of perianth; anthers rounded-ovaloid. June-July. 
(Plate VII, Figure 7 a). 



65 



85 




Plate VII 

1. Gagea Capusii Terr. : a) bulb of a nonflowering plant; b) perianth segments.- 2. G. Germainae 

Grossh.: perianth segments.- 3. G. triquetra Vved. : cross section of radical leaf. - 

4. G. anisanthos C. Koch. : perianth segments; a) cross segment of radical leaf.- 5. G. glacialis 

C. Koch.: perianth segments.- 6. G. mirabilis Grossh.: a) cross section of radical leaf; b) perianth 

segments.- 7. G. sa mo j edorum Grossh.: outer perianth segment; a) cross section of radical leaf. - 

8. G. emarginata Kar. et Kir. : upper part of outer perianth segments.- 9. G. dubia Terr.: 

a) bulb; b) cross section of radical leaf; c) perianth segments.- 10. G. tenuissima Miscz.: a)perianth 

segments.- 11. G. Popovi Vved.- 12. G. Paczoskii ( Zap .) Grossh . : a) bulbs; b) perianth segments. - 

13. G. Szovitsii (Lang) Bess.: a) cross section of radial leaf; b) perianth segments.- 14. G.Heldreichii. 

Terr. : a)perianth segments.- 15. G. rigida Boiss. et Sprun..- a) cross section of radical leaf; b) perianth 

segments.- 16. G. graminifolia Vved. : a) cross section of radial leaf; b) perianth segments. 



66 



37 Calcareous rocks and subalpine meadows. — Arctic: Arc. Eur.; 

European part: Dv.-Pech. Described from Pechora area (Mount Sablya). 
Type in Leningrad. 

28. G. anisanthos C. Koch, in Linnaea, XXII (1849) 230; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 140; Miscz., Fl. Cauc. crit. II, 1 (1912) 156 . — G. Liottardi 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1889) 204 p. p. — G. fistulosa Miscz. in Fl. Cauc. 
crit. II, 4 (1912) 154 p.p. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, medium size; second bulb small; tunics commonly 
light brown, rarely dark brown; stem 8-15 cm long; radical leaf commonly 
solitary (rarely two radical leaves), mostly slightly exceeding the 
inflorescence, narrowly linear, 2.5-3 mm in diameter, hollow, 
semicylindric; floral leaves subopposite, the lower lanceolate, enlarged 
toward base, equaling or shorter than inflorescence; upper leaves 
abbreviated, shorter than inflorescence; inflorescence 2-8-flowered; 
pedicels unequal, glabrous or villous -ciliate; perianth segments 15-16 mm 
long, lance -elliptic to sublanceolate, markedly attenuate toward apex, 
sometimes subacute; stamens one -third shorter than perianth; capsule 
slightly concave at the top. May-July. (Plate VII, Figure 4a). 

Mountain meadows from 1000 to 3000 m.— Caucasus: Greater Caucasus, 
Dag., E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr.: Arm. -Kurd., Iran. Described from 
Somkhetii. Type in Berlin. 

29. G. glacialis C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII (1849) 228; Miscz., Fl. 
Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1918) 158. — G. foliosa Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 204, p.p. 
quoad pi. talysch. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, ovoid-globose; second bulb very small, 
sometimes blackish; tunics light brown, rarely blackish-brown; stem 
5-10 cm long; radical leaf solitary, rarely 2 radical leaves, 1.5-2 mm 
in diameter, narrowly linear, slightly exceeding the inflorescence, hollow, 
semicylindric; floral leaves 2, rarely 3, shorter than inflorescence, the 
lower lanceolate; flower solitary, rarely 2-4; pedicels unequal, slightly 
hairy or glabrate; perianth segments (6)10 mm long, lanceolate, obtusish, 
rarely denticulate at apex, yellow within, greenish or reddish outside; 
stamens one-third to one-half shorter than perianth; capsule ovoid-oblong. 
May-August. (Plate VII, Figure 5). 

Near melting snow, in high-mountain meadows, from 1000 to 3000 m.— 
Caucasus: Greater Caucasus, Dag. , W., E. and S. Transc. , Tal. 
Gen. distr.: Bal.-As. Min. (Lazistan), Arm. -Kurd., Iran(?). Described 
from Pontic Range. Type in Berlin. 

30. G. sulfurea Miscz. in Acta Horti Jurjew, K (1908)67; Miscz, Fl. 
Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 160. — Ic: Acta.h. Jur. IX, Figure 1 and la. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, ovoid, the second bulb small; tunics 
light brown; stem 8-15 cm long; radical leaf commonly solitary, about 
18 twice the length of inflorescence, narrowly linear, hollow, semicylindric; 
floral leaves subopposite, unequal, the lower longer, broad; inflorescence 
1-4-flowered; pedicels unequal, densely white-tomentose; perianth 
segments ca. 10 mm long, grayish-yellow, oblong-lanceolate, obtusish; 
stamens half the length of perianth; capsule ovoid -oblong. May- June. 

Near melting snow and in high-mountain meadows, at 2000-3000 m.— 
Caucasus: Greater Caucasus. Endemic. Described from Caucasus Range. 
Type in Leningrad. 

67 



31. G. emarginata Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIV (1841) 
851. — G. fistulosa acut. Turkest., non Ker.-Gawl. — G. variabilis 
M. Popov in schedis. 

Perennial; bulb fairly large, ovoid; second bulb small, smooth; tunics 
light brown, membranous; stem 6-15 cm long; radical leaf mostly 
solitary (rarely 2), hollow, subcylindric, 2-4 (5) mm in diameter, equaling 
or slightly exceeding the inflorescence; floral leaves 2, subopposite, the 
lower lanceolate, commonly shorter than inflorescence; upper leaves 
minute, bractlike; inflorescence 2-4 (6) -flowered; pedicels unequal, more 
or less hairy, rarely glabrate; perianth segments 15-18 mm long, lance - 
elliptic, broadest at the middle, narrowed at both ends, acutish to obtusish 
or obliquely truncate or emarginate, yellow within, greenish outside; 
stamens half the length of perianth; capsule obovoid-oblong, but slightly 
shorter than the perianth. May- July. (Plate VII, Figure 8). 

Mountain meadows, up to 3000 m. — W. Siberia: Irt. , Centr. Asia: 
Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Endemic, probably occurring in 
Dzu.-Kash. Described from Akchavly mountains near Karakol River. 
Type in Leningrad. 

32. G. mirabilis Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 736.— 

G. Liottardi Proskuryakov in Fl. Yugo-Vost. Ill (1929) 345 ( ?). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, the second bulb small; in sterile plants a bundle 
of small bulblets produced in addition to primary bulb; tunics tawny-brown, 
coriaceous, not separating into fibers; stem 8-15 cm long, hollow, stout, 
to 4 mm in diameter below the inflorescence; radical leaf solitary, 
fistulous, 2-4 (5) mm in diameter, slightly exceeding the inflorescence, 
linear, thickened toward apex; lower floral leaf lanceolate, broad and 
subamplexicaul at base, 10-12 mm broad in lower part; second floral leaf 
linear-lanceolate, shorter than the first; inflorescence umbelliform, 
2-6-flowered; pedicels subequal, thick, 3-4 times the length of flower; 
perianth segments 10-12 mm long, lance -oblong, attenuate upward, 
subacuminate, pale yellow within, greenish outside; stamens half the length 
of perianth; anthers oblong; capsule one -half to two-thirds the length of 
perianth, obovate, slightly emarginate. April. (Plate VII, Figure 6a, b). 

Wet meadows, sinkholes, and steppes. — European part: Transv. ( ? ); 
W. Siberia: Irt.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. Endemic. Described from 
Kazakhstan. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Specimens collected by Ovchinnikov in Ufa District represent 
fragments of a single plant and their precise identification is impracticable. 
The fistulous Gage a from Ufa may possibly belong to G. samojedorum 
and not to this species. 



Subsection ARVENSES Terr., Bolet. Socied. Aragon. Cienc. natur. IV 
(1905) 226.— Radical leaves 2, very rarely solitary, not fistulous; bulblets 
often produced in the axils of floral leaves. 



Cycle Micranthae Terr, in Bull, de l'herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1124.— 
The larger bulb smooth, the smaller reticulate -foveolate; radical leaves 
flat, nervose, subcylindric merely at apex; perianth segments lanceolate, 
acutish. 



68 



33. G. tenuissima Miscz. in Fl. Cauc.-crit. II, 4 (1912) 163.— Exs. : 
PI. or. exs. No. 202 (1928). 

Perennial; bulbs 2, small, subequal; tunics thin, dark brown; stems 
slender, 3-10 (15) cm long, glabrous; radical leaves 2, two to four times 
the length of inflorescence, filiform, very slender; floral leaves 2, 
narrowly linear, tapering-filiform, the lower enlarged at base; 
1 inflorescence 1-7-flowered; pedicels very unequal, becoming subequal 

after anthesis; mostly only one flower opening, raised high above the rest; 
perianth segments 7-10 mm long, lanceolate, obtuse, pale yellow within, 
greenish outside; stamens slightly shorter than perianth; stamens oblong; 
capsule oblong-ovoid, triquetrous, emarginate, strongly narrowed toward 
base. January-February. (Plate VII, Figure 10b). 

Stony slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Growing in [former] Artvin 
District in Turkey. May occur in S. Transc. Described from Artvin 
District. Type in Leningrad. 

Cycle Euarvenses Terr. Bull, de l'herb. Boiss. V (1905) 1125.— The 
larger bulb smooth, the smaller nearly smooth or slightly reticulate, 
both enveloped in root fibers; radical leaves carinate, narrow, 
canaliculate; bulblets, if present, smooth, very rarely reticulate. 

34. G. arvensis Dumortier, Fl. Belg. (1827) 140; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 
205; Miscz. Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 160, p.p.; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 503.- 
Ic: Rchb. , Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1050 et 1051. — Exs, : Flora Galliae et Germ, 
exs. , 2-e Cent. No. 64. 

Perennial; bulbs 2, one large, the other much smaller, reticulate or 
foveolate; tunics brownish-gray, membranous, more or less enveloped in 
90 root fibers; stem 8-20 cm long; stem and pedicels rather densely hairy; 
radical leaves 2, narrowly linear, ca. 2 mm broad, exceeding the 
inflorescence, canaliculate above, carinate beneath; floral leaves 2, 
unequal, subopposite, lance -linear, 6-8 mm broad at base; upper leaves 
abbreviated, linear-subulate, 2-4 mm broad; inflorescence 3- 12-flowered; 
pedicels unequal, much longer than flower; perianth segments lanceolate, 
tapering toward apex, often with reflexed tips, golden-yellow within, green 
or greenish-red outside, 13-15 mm long, more or less pubescent on the 
black, not bearded at apex; stamens one-third shorter than perianth; 
anthers globose -ovoid; capsule obovoid-oblong, tapering at base, slightly 
shorter than perianth. April. 

Dry exposed places; also as weed in fields. — European part: Bl. , 
Crim. , L. Don; Caucasus: Cisc. Gen. distr. : Centr. and Atl. Eur. (rare), 
Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described from Belgium. 

35. G. dubia Terr, in Bull. Soc. Palermo II (1904) 34; Miscz. Fl. 
Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 162. — G. Boissieri Pascher in Lotos. N. F. , 
XXIV (1904) 121. — G. pubescens M. Popov in schedis. — 

G. turcomanica M. Popov in Fl. Turkm. , I, 2 (1932) 26 9. 

Perennial; bulbs 2, one much larger, the other small, irregularly 
reticulate; tunics tawny-brown, membranous; stem 8-17 cm; stem and 
pedicels more or less hairy; radical leaves 2, greatly exceeding the 
inflorescence, narrowly linear, ca. 2 mm broad, canaliculate above, 



69 



carinate beneath; floral leaves 2, lance -linear, subopposite, to 8-9 mm 
broad, sometimes with bulblets at base (f. prolifera Terr.); upper 
leaves numerous, small, linear-subulate; inflorescence irregularly 
branched, 3-10 (l9)-flowered; pedicels long, unequal; perianth segments 
12-13 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse to round-tipped, not reflexed, 
golden-yellow within, green and puberulent outside, commonly bearded at 
apex; capsule slightly shorter than perianth, strongly tapering toward base 
April. (Plate VII, Figure 9 a-e). 

Dry slopes and as weed in fields. — European part: Crim. , L. Don; 
Caucasus: Cisc. , E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : E. Med., Bal.-As. 
Min. , Iran. Described from Asia Minor. Type in Geneva. 



Cycle Granatellinae Terr., Bull. l'Herb. Boiss. VI (1906) 105. — The 
larger bulb smooth, the smaller reticulate -foveolate, enveloped in coarse 
root fibers; bulblets, if present, distinctly reticulate-foveolate, 

36. G. Granatelli* Pari., Fl. Palerm. I (1845) 376; Miscz. , Fl. Cauc. 
cr. II, 4 (1912) 163. — Or nit ho galum Granatelli Pari, in Diario 
91 l'Occhio, II (1939) 85. — Ic. : Pari, in Diario l'Occhio, i.e.; Rchb. Ic. 
Fl. Germ. , f. 1050 sub G. arvensi .* 

Perennial; bulb fairly large, spherical, the second bulb small, foveolate; 
tunics brown, enveloped in root fibers; stem 3-5 (8) cm; stem, lower part 
of leaves, pedicels and the outer face of perianth segments densely covered 
with short white hairs; inflorescence beginning from soil surface; radical 
leaves 2, flat, lanceolate, to 7 mm broad, strongly attenuate toward apex, 
equaling or exceeding the inflorescence; floral leaves 2, unequal, 
lanceolate, enlarged and bearing bulblets at base (v. bulbillifera Terr.), 
as long as to longer than flower; inflorescence 3- 10 -flowered; pedicels 
very unequal; perianth segments ovate -lanceolate, obtusish to subacuminate; 
12-13 mm long; stamens one -third shorter than perianth; anthers ovoid - 
oblong; capsule obovoid-oblong, triquetrous. February-March. 

Dry slopes. — European part: Crimea. Gen. distr.: Med., Bal.-As. 
Min. Described from Sicily. Type in Palermo or Florence (?). 



Series Tribulosae Terr., Bolet. Soc. Aragon. Cienc. Natur. IV (1905) 
231. — Bulbs 3, in separate sheaths, erect or horizontal, two of the current 
year and one of the preceding year; radical leaf solitary. 



Cycle Pratenses Terr. , Bull. l'Herb. Boiss. VI (1606) 109. — With 
characteristics of the series. 

(37). G. pratensis (Pers.). Roem. et Schult. Syst. veget. VII (1829) 
536 p. p. — Or nithogalum pratense Pers. in Ust. Ann. Bot. XI 
(1798)8. — G. stenopetala Rchb. Fl. Germ. Exsc. (1833)107; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 137 p.p.- Ic. : Hegi. 111. Fl. II, 211. — Exs.: Fl. exs 
Austro-Hung. No. 3485. 

Named forF.M. Granatelli, an expert on the flora of Sicily, who lived in Palermo about the middle 
of the 19th century. 



70 



Perennial; bulbs 3, in separate gray tunics, oblong, one larger and two 
smaller; stems 10-15 (20) cm long; radical leaf 1, linear, 2-5 mm broad, 
flat; floral leaves 2, the larger of the two shorter or rarely longer than 
inflorescence, linear-lanceolate; inflorescence 2-6-flowered; pedicels 
slender, mostly twice the length of flower or longer; perianth segments 
lance-oblong, acutish to subobtuse, 15-18 mm long; stamens half the 
length of perianth segments. March- April. 

Meadows, scrub and wood margins.— Found in Poland, not far from the 
USSR border; likely to occur in the western part of the Soviet Union. — 
Gen. distr.: Scand. , Centr. Eur. Described from Europe. Type in 
London ( ? ) . 

38. G. Paczoskii (Zap.) Grossh. comb, nova. — G. pratensis var. 
Paczoskii Zapal. , Consp. Fl. Galic. crit. I (1906) 170. — 

G. pratensis Schmalh. Fl. II, 502, p.p. (non Schult .). — 
G. stenopetala |3 pratensis Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 137. — Exs.: 
HFRNo.489, sub G. pratensi. 
92 Perennial; bulbs 3, oblong, in separate gray tunics, one larger and 

two smaller; stem 15 cm long; radical leaf 1, narrowly linear, 1-1.5 mm 
broad, flat; floral leaves 2, flat, ca. 3 mm broad, the lower exceeding 
the inflorescence; inflorescence 2-4 (l-5)-flowered; pedicels slender, 
as long as to twice the length of flower; perianth segments linear-oblong, 
obtusish, often cucullate, yellow within, greenish outside, 10-13 mm long; 
stamens one-third shorter than perianth; anthers globose; capsule 
subglobose. March-April. (Plate VII, Figure 12 a, b). 

Meadows, scrub and wood margins. — European part' Lad.-Ilm. , 
U. Dnp. , M. Dnp., Bl. Gen. distr.: Centr. Eur. Described from Galicia. 

39. G. transversalis Stev. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXX, 3 (1857) 81; 
Miscz., Fl. Cauc. crit. II, 4 (1912) 1 .65. — G. pratensis Shmal'g. Fl. 
11(1897)502, non Schult. — G. Gussonei Miscz. I.e. (1912)165.— 
Ornithogalum transversalis Pall., Ind. Taur. (1797)4-9. 

Perennial; bulbs 3, in separate gray tunics, horizontally spreading, 
one larger, the two others smaller and borne on very short stalks; stem 
8-15 cm long; radical leaf solitary, 1-3.5 mm broad, sharply carinate 
on the back, arched-recurved, exceeding the inflorescence; floral leaves 2, 
the lower longer, cucullate; inflorescence 1-2 (3)-flowered; pedicels 
unequal; perianth segments ovate -lanceolate, the outer acutish, the inner 
obtusish, yellow within, green outside, 10-13 (15) mm long; stamens 
one-third shorter than perianth; capsule ovoid. March-April. 

Steppe and grassy slopes in lowlands and in mountains. — European part: 
Crim. Gen. distr.: Bal.-As. Min. (?). Described from Crimea. Type in 
Helsinki; cotype in Leningrad. 



Section 2. FOLIATAE Terr., Bull. Soc. Bot. de France, 52 (1905) 19.— 
Stem leafy throughout; inflorescence racemose; bulbs 2, the smaller lateral, 
always reticulate or foveolate. 

Series Saxatiles Terr. Bull, de l'Herb. Boiss. VI (1906) 112.— 
Radical leaves filiform, canaliculate; cauline leaves lanceolate, acuminate; 
outer perianth segments oblong- spatulate, very obtuse, the inner broader, 
spatulate; small plants with hairy pedicels. 

71 



40. G. Szovitsii (Lang. ) Besser in Schult. , Syst. veget. VII (1830) 
550. — Ornithogalum Szovitsii Lang. Cent. Herb. Fl. Ruth. I, 
No. 61.- G. bohemica Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 141; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 
503, non Schult. -Ic. : Rchb. Ic. L. Germ. (1848) f. 1055. — Exs . : HFR 
No. 294 sub G. bohemica. 

Perennial; bulb small, the second bulb very small; tunics brown; stem 
3-10 cm long; radical leaves 2, slenderly filiform-linear, slightly 

93 exceeding the inflorescence, cucullate; cauline leaves 2-4 distant, 
alternate, narrowly lanceolate, more or less enlarged toward base; flowers 
2-4; pedicels fairly short, tomentulose; perianth segments 12-13 mm long, 
oblong-lanceolate, very obtuse and slightly enlarged toward apex, bright 
yellow within, greenish outside; stamens about half the length of perianth; 
capsule ovoid, convex at the top. February-March-April. (Plate VII, 
Figure 13 a, b). 

Rocky and gravelly places and dry grassy slopes. — European part: 
M. Dnp. , Bl. Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. (Balkan Peninsula). Described 
from the vicinity of Odessa. Type in Geneva. 

41. G. Callieri Pascher, Engler's Jahrb. 39 (1907) 306.— 

G. Szovitsii var. Callieri Miscz. Fl. Cauc. crit. II (1912) 166. — 
G. bohemica Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 503, p.p., quoad pi. ex Tauria. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, the second bulb very small; sheaths 
grayish-brown; stem 3-7 cm long; radical leaves 2, filiform, canaliculate, 
about twice the length of flower; cauline leaves few, short, enlarged at 
base; flowers solitary or in inflorescence of 2, on unequal tomentose 
pedicels; perianth segments 10-12 mm long, intensely yellow, oblong- 
spatulate, obtuse, pubescent only at base; stamens one-third shorter than 
perianth; style equaling the stamens; capsule obovoid, convex at the top. 
February- March. 

Stony and gravelly places. — European part: Crim. Endemic. Described 
from Crimea. 

Series Amblyopetalae Terr., Bull, de l'herb. Boiss. VI (1905) 116. — 
Radical leaves long, narrowly linear, cauline leaves lanceolate, nearly 
opposite or alternate, naked, above center very protracted. Flowers not 
too large, in cymose inflorescence, golden-yellow within, greenish and 
naked outside; perianth segments elliptic or oblong-elliptic, obtuse. Plant 
of medium size, slender with few unequal pedicels. 

42. G. Heldreichii Terr, in Bull. l'Herb. Boiss. 2-me serie, IV (1906) 
119. — G, amblyopetala Miscz. in Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 168.— 

G. chlorantha Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 504, p.p. quoad, pi. ex Tauria. — 
Exs.: HFR No. 1343, sub G. amblyopetala. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, the second bulb small, tuberculate; 
stem 6-15 cm long; radical leaves 2, very long, reaching twice the height 
of flower, narrowly linear, flat; cauline leaves few, alternate, lanceolate 
from a broad base, long-acuminate; inflorescence 2-5-flowered; pedicels 
fairly short; perianth segments elliptic -oblong, rounded-obtuse, 7-9 mm 
long, bright yellow within, greenish outside, 3 -nerved; stamens one-third 
shorter than perianth segments; capsule obovoid, slightly narrowed toward 
base, convex at the top. March. (Plate VII, 14 a). 

94 Forest glades and clearings. — European part: Crim. Gen. distr.: Med., 
Bal.-As. Min. Described from Greece. Type in Geneva (?). 

72 



Subgenus II. PLATYSPERMUM (Boiss.) Miscz. Fl. Cauc. crit. II, 4(1913) 
169. — Seeds flat; bulb solitary, sometimes with several small subsidiary 
bulblets; stigma undivided or 3-lobed. 



Section 1. EUPLATYSPERMUM Miscz., Fl. Cauc. cr. II 4 (1913) 169, 
Stigma undivided or nearly so. 



Subsection 1. RETICULATAE Pascher. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou XIX 
(1905) 366. — Ovary prismatic, scarcely narrowed at base, existipitate, 
often slightly emarginate at the top. 



Series Eureticulatae Pascher, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou XIX (1905) 366. 
Cauline leaves gathered at the base of inflorescence; radical leaf solitary; 
perianth segments long-acuminate. 



Cycle 1. Planifoliae Grossh. — Radical leaf flat, ecarinate, narrowly 
linear to lanceolate. 



43. G. rigida Boiss. et Sprun. , Diagn. , ser. I, 7 (1846) 108.— 
G. reticulata y fibrosa Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 208. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics dense, forming a short split collar and 
enveloped in root fibers; finely hairy cinerescent-green plants; stem 
5-10 (15) cm long; radical leaf flat, ecarinate, to 5 mm broad, exceeding 
the inflorescence, slightly reflexed at the tip; floral leaves 3-5, narrowly 
linear, unequal, mostly shorter than inflorescence; lower stem internodes 
poorly developed, thus inflorescence starting nearly at plant base; 
inflorescence 1 — 3 -flowered; pedicels fairly strong, long, straight; perianth 
segments 14-20 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, yellow 
within, green and very narrowly yellow -margined on the outside, glabrous 
or ciliate-margined near apex; anthers oblong. April. (Plate VII, 
Figure 15, a, b). 

Grassy clay slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. 
Turkm. Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. , Iran. Described from Argolida 
(Greece). Type in Geneva. 

44. G. graminifolia Vved. in Fl. Turkm. II, 2 (1932) 268. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics light gray, forming a split collar 4-5 mm 

long and enveloped in delicate gray root fibers; glabrous plants; stem 
2-3 (5) cm long; leaves to 8-10 cm long; radical leaf solitary, light green, 
linear, 2-3 (4) mm broad, flat, ecarinate, at anthesis 2-3 times as long 
as inflorescence; floral leaves 3-5, unequal, the lowest resembling the 
radical leaf, several times the length of inflorescence, the others 
abbreviated, narrowly linear to subfiliform; flower solitary or inflorescence 
2- or 3 -flowered; pedicels slender; perianth segments (7) 10-12 (16) mm 
95 long, unequal, finely long-acuminate, the outer 1-1 .5 mm longer than the 

inner, pale yellow within, greenish outside; pedicels and perianth elongating 



73 



in fruit; capsule broadly obovoid, half the length of perianth segments. 
March-April. (Plate VII, Figure 16 a, b). 

Loess and clay slopes, up to 500 m. — Centr. Asia: Kyz. K. , Kara-K. , 
Mtn. Turkm. , Amu D. , Pam.-Al. Endemic (probably occurring in Iran). 
Described from Tashkent. Type in Tashkent. 

45. G. hissarica Lipsky in A. H. P. XXIII (1904) 241 . — Ic. : Lipsky 
I.e. , f.4-7 (1904). 

Perennial; bulb medium size, ovoid; tunics finely reticulate, brownish- 
gray; collar none; plants glabrous; stem 2-5 cm long, rarely up to 10 cm 
(var. robusta Grossh.); radical leaf bright green, flat, ecarinate, 
to 5-6 mm broad, flexuous and often decumbent, the flowers thus 
apparently arising at stem base; floral leaves up to 3, the lowest resemblin| 
the radical leaf, often overtopping the flowers, the others narrowly linear, 
shorter; flower often solitary or inflorescence 2-(3)-flowered; pedicels 
slender, glabrous; perianth segments 10-12 (15) mm long, elliptic- 
lanceolate, 2-3 mm broad, short -acuminate, bright yellow within, green 
outside, sometimes reddish-tinged and very narrowly yellow -margined; 
anthers oblong; stamens one-third shorter than perianth. April, May, 
June. (Plate VIII, Figure 7). 

Alpine zone, near snow, or fine-textured grassy slopes. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. , T. Sh. (3000-3600 m). Endemic. Described from Gissar Range. 
Type in Leningrad. 



Cycle 2. Tenuifoliae A. Grossh. — Radical leaf carinate, canaliculate 
above, more or less 5-angled. 

46. G. divaricata Rgl. in A.H.P. IV (1879) 510. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics membranous, gray; collar none; stem 
glabrous, 8-15 cm long; radical leaf solitary, narrowly linear, ca. 
1-1.5 mm broad, reflexed at the tip, overtopping the inflorescence; floral 
leaves 2 or 3, unequal, narrowly linear, shorter than inflorescence; 
inflorescence 1-5 (7)-flowered; pedicels fairly strong, unequal, erect in 
flower, arched- recurved in fruit; perianth segments ca. 10 mm long, 
finely pointed, pale yellow within, the outer face with a broad green median 
band and a narrow yellowish-white margin, the segments accrescent and 
becoming indurated in fruit, reaching twice the length of capsule; capsule 
broadly obovoid, obscurely 6 -angled. March-April. (Plate VIII, Figure 8). 

Sandy places. — Centr. Asia: Balkh. , Dzu.-Tarb., Kyz. K. , Kara K. , 
Amu D. Endemic. Described from Alma Ata area. Type in Leningrad. 

47. G. Bergii Litv. , Rast. ber. Aral'skogo m. i Syr-Dar. obi., sobr. 
L.S. Bergom (1905) 33. — Ic. : Ibid. 33. 

Perennial; bulb solitary, ovoid; tunics membranous, forming a slender 
collar ca. 10-16 mm long; stem firm, 5-15 cm long; radical leaf solitary, 
reflexed at the tip, linear-filiform; floral leaves 3-5, unequal, filiform, 
the base slightly below soil surface and somewhat enlarged, dark axillary 
bulblets causing the leaf axil to bulge downward; flower solitary or rarely 2; 
pedicel firm, erect, much longer than flower; perianth segments 10-15 mm 
long, the outer tapering to a point, the inner less pointed, yellow within, 



74 



green and yellow margined outside, indurated and accrescent in fruit; 
capsule half to two-thirds the length of perianth segments, obovoid, faintly 
lanuginous. March-April. (Plate VIII, Figure 3). 

Sandy and sandy-clay soils. — Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. , Kyz. K. , 
Syr D. Endemic. Described from Chimkent area. Type in Leningrad. 

48. G. ucrainica Klok. Ucr. Bot. Mag. Ill (1926) 16. — G. reticulata 
Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 504, p.p. quoad pi. ex Ucrainia. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, ovoid, 5-7 mm long; tunics gray, 
produced into a very short collar (3-1 1 mm) and enveloped in delicate slender 
root fibers; stem 4-10 cm long; basal leaf narrowly linear, carinate, 
slightly tapering toward apex, mostly somewhat exceeding the inflorescence; 
floral leaves 3-7, very unequal, narrowly linear, attenuate -acuminate, 
enlarged at base, the lowest rarely overtopping the inflorescence; 
inflorescence 2-5-(8)-flowered; stem, leaves, pedicels and the outer face 
of perianth segments densely covered with short gray hairs; pedicels 
unequal, erect, fairly slender; perianth segments 10-13 mm long, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, lemon-yellow within, green and narrowly yellow - 
margined outside; anthers oblong-ovoid; capsule ovoid-oblong, much 
shorter than perianth segments. March-April. (Plate VIII, Figure la,b). 

Sandy slopes. — European part: Black Sea area. Endemic. Described 
from S. Ukraine. Type in Kharkov. 

99 49. G. taurica Stev. in Bull. Soc . Nat. Mosc. XXX, 3 (1857) 83; Miscz., 

Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 172. — G. reticulata Boiss. Fl. Or., V (1884) 
208 p.p.; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 504, quoad pi. ex Tauria. 

Perennial; bulb rather large, ovoid; tunics gray, densely enveloped in 
interlaced coarse root fibers; collar none; stem 8-15 cm long; radical; 
leaf narrowly linear, 1 .5-2 mm broad, carinate, cinerescent, greatly 
overtopping the inflorescence, reflexed at the tip; floral leaves 3, very 
unequal, the lowest often overtopping the inflorescence; floral leaves and 
the outside of outer perianth segments rather densely covered with short 
hairs; inflorescence 1-2 (3)-flowered; pedicels erect, firm; perianth 
segments linear-lanceolate, ca. 12-13 mm long, rather long-attenuate to 
a fine point, yellow within, green or grayish-green and narrowly yellow - 
margined outside; anthers oblong; capsule ovoid to subglobose- ovoid, 
one-fourth shorter than the perianth segments. March-April. (Plate VIII, 
Figure 5, a). 

Dry grassy slopes and gravels in the lower mountain zone.— European 
part: Crim. ; Caucasus: Cisc. , E. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Crimea. Type in Helsinki. 

50. G. Alexeenkoana Miscz., Acta Horti Jur jew. , IX, 2 (1908)76; 
Miscz., Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 173. — Ic. : Mishchenko, Acta H. Jurjew, 
t. 1, f.3. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics gray, finely reticulate, scarcely enveloped 
in root fibers, split at the top and not forming a collar; stem 5-15 cm long, 
erect; stem and leaves glabrous; radical leaf mostly longer than 
inflorescence, narrowly linear, 1-2 mm broad, canaliculate above, green 
to faintly glaucescent; floral leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, enlarged at 
base, commonly shorter than or rarely the lowest exceeding the 



75 



(97) 




Plate VIII 

1. Gagea ucrainica Klokov: inflorescence; a) bulb; b) perianth segments.— 2. G.tenuifolia 

(Boiss. ) Fom. : bulb with collar; a) perianth segments.— 3. G. Bergii Litw.— 4. G. A lex eenkoana 

Miscz.: perianth segments.— 5. G. taurica Stev.: inflorescence; a) bulb.— 6. G. commutata 

C. Koch: bulb.— 7. G. hissarica Lipsky.— 8. G. divaricata Rgl.: fruiting.— 

9. G. pseudoret icula ta Vved. ; a) bulb; b) cross section of radical leaf .— 10. G. ret icula ta (Pall.) 

Roem. etSchult.: cross section of radical leaf .— 11. G. bulbifera (Pall.) Roem. et Schult. : plant 

portion; a) perianth segments.— 12. G. altaica B. Schischk. a) perianth segments.— 

13. G. chlorantha (M.B.)Roem. etSchult.: portion of plant after anthesis.— 14. G. Alberti Rgl.: 

a) bulb with collar; b) perianth segments.— 15. G.Chomutovae Pascher: a) cross section of radical 

leaf; b) perianth segments.— 16. G. minutiflora Rgl.; perianth segments. 



76 



inflorescence; inflorescence 1 -3 -flowered; pedicels erect, slightly hairy; 
perianth segments 12-15 mm long, lance-elliptic, narrowed toward base, 
short -acuminate at apex, yellow within, green and narrowly yellow - 
margined outside; capsule obovoid. April-May. (Plate VIII, Figure 4). 

Grassy and gravelly slopes from the middle mountain zone to the alpine 
zone. — Caucasus: Greater Caucasus, Dag., E. and S. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from the eastern part of the Greater Caucasus. Type in 
Leningrad. 

51. G. Caroli-Kochii Grossh. sp. nova, in Addenda III, p. 736, 

tab. XLIV, figure 4, a-c. — G. Alexeenkoana var. tenuis Grossh. 
Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 196. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, densely enveloped in slender fibers; tunics gray; 
stem 5-8 cm long, very slender, covered with short hairs; inflorescence 
2 -5-flowered or rarely flower solitary (v. subuni flora Grossh.); 
radical leaf slightly overtopping the inflorescence, linear very thin, 
0.5-1 mm broad; lowest floral leaf linear-lanceolate, mostly shorter to 
100 rarely exceeding the inflorescence; other floral leaves strongly abbreviated, 
linear-subulate; pedicels commonly shorter than flower; perianth segments 
10- 11 mm long, yellow, green on the back, long-acuminate; capsule obovoid, 
half the length of perianth. May- June. 

Meadows in the middle and subalpine mountain zones. — Caucasus: 
S. Transc. Endemic. Described from Ordubad District. Type in Baku. 

52. G. pseudoreticulata Vved. in Fl. Turkm. , Vol.1, No. 2 (1932)268, 
nomen.-Ic: Regel, Izv. Obshch. Estestv. Antr. i Etnogr. , Vol. XXI, 
pt.2, Vol. XIX, 1-3 (1876), sub. G. reticulata. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics gray, fibrous, split at the top and not 
forming a distinct collar; young bulbs furnished with small bulblets; 
stem 10-30 cm long, firm; stem, leaves, and pedicels usually slightly 
covered with short hairs; radical leaf grayish-green, narrowly linear, 
ca. 1 — 1.5 mm broad, arched above, exceeding the inflorescence; floral 
leaves 3-5, unequal, linear -filiform, shorter than inflorescence; 
inflorescence 3-10-flowered; pedicels firm, erect, unequal, several times 
the length of flower; perianth 10-12 mm long; segments pale yellow within, 
grayish-green outside with a very narrow whitish-yellow margin, long- 
acuminate, accrescent to twice the length in fruit; capsule obovoid, faintly 
angled, about half the length of perianth segments.— March- April. 
(Plate VIII, Figure 9, a, b). 

Argillaceous plains and foothills. — Centr. Asia: Kyz. K. , Kara K. , 
Mtn. Turkm., Amu D. , Syr D. , Pam.-Al. Gen. distr. : Iran. (Afghanistan). 
Described from Turkmenia. Type in Tashkent. 

53. G. commutata C. Koch, in Linnaea, XXII (1849) 227.— 

G. sarmentosa C. Koch in Linnaea XXII (1849) 230. — G. triphylla 
C. Koch, Linnaea XXII (1849) 230. — R. reticulata v. commutata 
and v. sarmentosa Miscz. , Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4(1912)171.— 
G. reticulata Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 143, p.p. — Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. 
Germ. (1848) f. 1047 (mala, sub G. c h 1 o r a nt h a). — Exs. : Herb. Fl. 
Cauc. No. 261, sub G. sarmentosa. 



77 



Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics brown, more or less enveloped in root 
fibers, membranous and lacerate at the top, not forming a collar; bulb 
often giving rise to white filiform offshoots terminating in white tuberous 
bulges; stem (4) 10-20 cm long, rather firm; radical leaves mostly 2, 
somewhat overtopping the inflorescence, 1-3 mm broad, flattened 5-angled 
in cross section, commonly more or less glaucous; scape sometimes 
strongly abbreviated with pedicels arising directly from the top of the bulb; 
pedicels firm, many times the length of flower; flowers solitary or few; 
floral leaves 3-5, very unequal, narrowly linear, the lowest often exceeding 
the inflorescence; perianth large, 15-18 mm long; segments yellow within, 
green and broadly yellow-margined outside, tapering long-acuminate; 
anthers oblong; capsule ovoid-oblong, obtuse. April. (Plate VIII, Figure 6). 
10.1 Dry grassy slopes, scrub, and arable land, up to the middle mountain 

zone. — Caucasus: Dag., E. Transc. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from 
Transcaucasia. Type in Berlin. 

54. G. reticulata (Pall.) Roem. et Schult, , Syst. veget. , VII (1829) 542; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 142, p.p.; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 208 p. p. ; Shmal'g. 

Fl. II, 504 p. p. — O r n it ho ga lum reticulatum Pall., Reise, III, 
Anhang (1776) 727. — O. circinatum L. f . Suppl. (1781) 199. — Ic. : Pall. 
I.e. tab. D, f. 2 (1776); Rgl. , Izv. Obshch. Estest., Antr. i Etnogr. , 
XXI, 2, Plate XIX, f . 4 (1876); Fl. Yugo-Vost. Ill, Figure 177. 

Perennial; bulb solitary, ovoid; tunics finely reticulate -fibrillose, gray, 
produced into a collar, this sometimes sheathing the stem nearly up to 
inflorescence base; plants solitary; stem. 5-15 (20) cm long, erect; radical 
leaf solitary, narrowly linear, 0.5-2 (2 .5) mm broad, firm, glaucescent, 
reflexed at the top, overtopping the inflorescence; floral leaves 3-5, 
unequal, narrowly linear-subulate; perianth segments glabrous, tapering 
long-acuminate, bright yellow within, green and very narrowly yellow- 
margined outside, accrescent in fruit. April. (Plate VIII, Figure 10). 

Dry grassy slopes; sandy and gravelly soils.— European part: L. V. ; 
Caucasus: E. Transc; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Kara K. Endemic. 
Described from Astrakhan. Type in Leningrad. 

55. G. tenuifolia (Boiss.) Fomin in Fom. andVoron., Opred. rast. Kryma i 
Kavkaza, I (1909) 233. — G. reticulata var. tenuifolia Boiss. Fl. 
Or. V (1884) 208; Miscz. , Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 170. — G. reticulata 
Misc. I.e. (1912) 169. — Ic: Rchb. , Ic. Fl. Germ. (1848), f. 1054, sub. 

G. reticulata. — Exs. : Herb. Fl. Cauc. No. 352; PI. or. exs. No. 79.; 

Perennial; bulb solitary, ovoid; tunics brownish-gray finely reticulate- 
fibrillose, produced into a collar reaching the middle of stem or nearly up 
to inflorescence; plants in groups of several; radical leaf solitary, 
slenderly filiform, 0.5-1.5 mm broad, reflexed at apex, greatly overtopping 
the inflorescence; floral leaves 3-5, ciliate at base, finely subulate, the 
lowest mostly much longer than inflorescence; inflorescence 2-5-flowered; 
pedicels erect, slender but firm; perianth segments 10-11 mm long, 
elongating in fruit to 15-17 mm, subulately long- acuminate, bright yellow 
within, green and narrowly yellow -margined outside; capsule obovoid, 
half the length of perianth segments. April. (Plate VIII, Figure 2 a). 

Scrub; gravelly and dry slopes in the lower and middle mountain zones. — 
Caucasus : E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr.: Iran. Described from vicinity 



78 



of Elenendorf and Elizavetpol', now Kirovabad. Type in Geneva in the 
Boissier Herbarium. 



102 Series Euchloranthae Pascher, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou XIX (1907). — 

All cauline leaves alternate; perianth segments, obtuse or acute, sometimes 
not tapering-acuminate. 



Cycle Pseudolloydia Grossh. — Basal leaf cylindric, fistulous. 

56. G. improvisa Grossh. Sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 737, tab. XLIV, 
Figure 1, a-c. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 10-15 mm long, with a lateral cluster of 
numerous small bulblets, these at length turning blackish and readily falling 
off; tunics coriaceous, light brown or grayish-brown; stem 10-25 cm long, 
glabrous; radical leaf solitary, greatly overtopping the inflorescence, 
hollow, cylindric, 5-6 mm in diameter; cauline leaves few, flat, the lowest 
oblong-lanceolate, the others lanceolate, much abbreviated and passing 
into bracts; flowers 2 or 3; pedicels slender, subnutant, 2-3 times the 
length of flower; flowers 10-11 mm long, wide open; perianth segments 
yellow, with a broad green dorsal band, oblong-elliptic, obtusish; stamens 
slightly shorter than perianth, with oblong anthers; ovary sessile, oblong- 
ellipsoid; stem stout, short. April. 

Gravelly and stony calcareous slopes in the middle mountain zone.— 
Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from Ordubad on the Araks 
River. Type in Baku. 

57. G. Chomutovae Pascher in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIX (1907) 372.— 
G. Olgae var. Chomutovae Pascher in Fedde, Repert, sp. nov. II 
(1906) 67. — G. rubroviridis Vved. Opred. rast. okr. Tashkenta 
(1924) 61 non Boiss. et Ky. — Ic. : Rgl. in Izv. Obshch. Estest. , Antr. i 
Etnogr., XXI, pt. 2, Vol. XX, Figure 4 (sub. G. chlorantha). 

Perennial; bulbs 2, one larger, the other small, smooth, within a 
common sheath; tunics blackish-brown, coriaceous; collar none; stem 
10-40 cm long, glabrous, bearing a terminal racemose -umbellate 
inflorescence; radical leaf solitary (rarely 2), fistulous, shorter than 
inflorescence, 1.5-2.5 mm in diameter; first cauline leaf linear-lanceolate, 
amplexicaul; other leaves successively diminishing and passing into bracts-; 
pedicels long, nutant before anthesis; perianth segments (7) 9-12 mm long, 
oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, reticulately nerved, 'yellow, greenish outside, 
often reddish -tinged, closed in fruit; stamens one -third shorter than 
perianth; capsule oblong-obovoid, half the length of perianth. April. 
(Plate VIII, Figure 15, a, b). 

Clay slopes, in plains and in foothills. — Cent r. Asia: Balkh. , Kyz. K. , 
Kara K. , Mtn. Turkm. , Amu D. , Syr D. , Pam.-Al. , T. Sh. Gen. distr. : 
Iran. Described from the vicinity of Tashkent. Type in Leningrad. 



79 



103 Cycle Chloranthae Grossh.— Leaves not fistulous; pedicels very unequal, 
elongating after flowering; inflorescence cymose. 

58. G. chlorantha (M.B.)Roem. etSchult., Syst. veget. VII (1829) 551; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 142; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 209; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 504 p.p.; 
Miscz. , Fl.. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 175. — O r n it h o ga 1 um chloranthum 
M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. Ill (1819) 264. — G. caucasica Stapf, Bot. Ergebn. 
der Polakscn. Exp. I (1885) 15. — Exs. : PI. or. exs . No. 105 

(var. Hohenackeri). 

Perennial; bulb solitary, oblong-globose, rarely bulbs (and radical 
leaves) 2 (v. bibulbosa Grossh.); tunics membranous; collar none; 
stem 5-15 cm long, 2-5-flowered, or rarely 3-7 cm long and 1-3-flowered 
(v. Hohenackeri Miscz.); radical leaf narrowly linear to subfiliform 
(v. Hohenackeri Miscz.), overtopping the inflorescence, canaliculate 
above, carinate beneath, bilaterally lined, ciliolate -pubescent; lower 
cauline leaves narrowly lanceolate to filiform, successively diminishing 
and passing into bracts; pedicels long, firm, greatly elongating in fruit; 
perianth segments 9-12 mm long, golden-yellow within, green outside, 
oblong-oblanceolate, obtuse, becoming half as long again in fruit; capsule 
oblong-obovoid. March-April. (Plate VIII, Figure 13). 

Dry exposed and gravelly places, scrub margins, in plains and in the 
lower mountain zone. — Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., E. and S. Transc, Tal. ; 
Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd., Iran. Described 
from Kizlyar. Type in Leningrad. 

59. G. anisopoda M. Popov in Addenda, III, p. 737. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, medium size; tunics brownish, reticulate, 

produced into a narrow collar 10-15 mm long; stem 6-10 cm long; erect; 
plants in groups of several; radical leaf solitary, narrowly linear, 
ca. 1 — 1.5 mm broad, rather shallowly canaliculate above, carinate and 
bilaterally furrowed, glabrous, slightly overtopping the inflorescence; 
cauline leaves narrowly linear -capillary, abruptly diminishing in size and 
passing into bracts; flower solitary, oblong, or rarely 2 flowers; pedicels 
subflexuous; perianth 8-9 mm long, yellow within, green outside; segments 
linear-oblong, narrow, attenuate toward apex, cucullate. April. (Plate IX, 
Figure 5, a,b). 

Dry plateaus with Acantholimon, in the middle mountain zone. — 
Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Endemic (possibly occurring in Iran). Described 
from western Kopet Dagh. Type in Tashkent. 

60. G. Alberti Rglf in A. H. P. VI, 2 (1879) 512. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; tunics reticulate, forming a firm long collar 

104 reaching nearly up to inflorescence; radical leaf solitary, linear -filiform, 
overtopping the inflorescence, in lower part ciliolate -pubescent, glabrous 
above; cauline leaves linear-filiform, the lower one exceeding the 
inflorescence; inflorescence corymbose -racemose; pedicels erect, more 

or less ciliate-puberulous; perianth segments 10-12 mm long, lance-oblong, 
obtusish, pale yellow within, greenish whitish-margined outside; anthers 
linear-oblong. March. (Plate VIII, Figure 14, a, b). 

Lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. Endemic (probably 
occurring in Dzu.-Kash. ). Described from Kuldja. Type in Leningrad. 



80 



:io5) 




Plate IX 

1. Gagea Olgae Rgl.: a) bulb; b) perianth segments.— 2. G. ova Stapf: a) bulb; b) perianth 

segments.— 3. G.stipitata Merkl.: a) bulb; b) perianth segments.— 4. G. tenera Pascher: a)cauline 

leaf; b) perianth segments.— 5. G. anisopoda M. Popov; a) bulb; b) perianth segments.— 

6. G.gageoides (Zucc.) Vved. : a) upper part of inflorescence; b) cauline leaf with axillary bulb let.— 

1. G.pauciflora Turcz.: upper part of style and stigma.— 8. G.provisa Pascher; upper part 

of style and stigma.- 9. G. capillif olia Vved.- 10. Scilla bucharica Desjat.- 11. S. Roseni 

C. Koch; flower.— 12. S. Hohenackeri Fisch. etMey.: a) flower; b) bracts.— 

13. S. Winogradowii D. Sosn. : a) ovary.— 14. S. bifolia L. , flower.— 15. S. sibirica Andr, : 

flower; a) ovary. 16. S. autumnalis L. : flower.- 17. S. japonica Baker: flower.— 

18. S. Raievskayana Rgl. flower. 



81 



Cycle Afghanicae Grossh . — Pedicels unequal, slightly elongating after 
flowering; inflorescence racemose-umbellate. 

61. G. Olgae Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1865) 292. — Ic. : Rgl. Izv. Obshch. 
Lyubit. Estest., Antr. i Etnogr. XXI, pt. 2, 116, Vol. XVIII (1876) 14-17, 
Vol. XX, 3 and 5 (sub. G. c h 1 o r a nt h a). — Exs. : HFRNo.1438.- 
H. F. A.M. No. 53. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, oblong; tunics gray, fibrous; collar 
none; stem 3-5 cm long, slender; plants in groups; radical leaves 
commonly 2, capillary, 0.5-1 mm broad, shorter to longer than perianth; 
cauline leaves 3-5, alternate, capillary-linear, gradually diminishing 
in size up the stem; stem up to flower and outer face of perianth segments 
finely puberulous; flower mostly solitary, rarely flowers 2 or 3 (8); 
perianth segments 5-9 mm long, bright yellow to nearly orange -yellow 
within, greenish outside, oblong, obtusish, the middle ones 3 -nerved; 
anthers rounded -oblong, half as long again to twice as long as broad; 
ovary linear-oblong; first capsule 6-8 mm long, obovoid, one-half to 
two-thirds the length of perianth. March-April. (Plate IX, Figure 1, a,b,c). 

Dry clay slopes, in plains and foothills . — Centr. Asia: Balkh. , Kyz. K. , 
Kara K. , Mtn. Turkm. , AmuD., Syr D. , Pam.-Al., T. Sh. (?). 
Endemic (probably occurring in Iran). Described from Central Asia. 
Type in Leningrad. 

107 62. G. afghanica Terr, in Bull. Soc. Ort. Palermo II (1904) 4; Pascher 

in Bull. Soc, Nat, Mosc. XIX (1905) 372 . — G. stipitata var. 
purpu rase ens Bornm. etSint. in P. Sintenis, Iter transcasp. pers. 
(1900-1901) ex p. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, oblong; tunics gray, fibrous; collar none; 
stem 10-20 (25) cm long; plants commonly solitary, usually glabrous; 
radical leaf narrowly linear, 1-1.5 mm broad, rarely exceeding the 
inflorescence; cauline leaves 2-5, alternate, the upper ones reduced; 
inflorescence 3-25-flowered; pedicels slender, unequal; perianth segments 
8-12 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, pale green within, greenish 
outside; anthers linear-oblong, 3-4 times as long as broad; capsule 
spherical-obovoid, one-third shorter than perianth segments, the first 
10-15 mm long. March-April. 

Sands. — Centr. Asia: Kyz. K. , Kara K. , AmuD., Pam.-Al. 
Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Afghanistan. Type in Geneva. 

63. G. Vvedenskyi Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 737. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-oblong; tunics gray, fibrous, longitudinally 
separating below into fibers, reticulate -fibrillose at the top; collar none; 
stem 5-15 cm long; stem, leaves and pedicels glabrous; radical leaf 
narrowly linear, rarely to 2-3 mm broad, shorter to slightly longer than 
the stem; cauline leaves few, narrowly linear, gradually diminishing in 
size up the stem; inflorescence 2-3-flowered; pedicels long, unequal; 
flower often solitary; perianth segments oblong-oblanceolate, 
(9) 12-16 mm long, broader in upper part but acuminate at apex; pale 
yellow or sometimes nearly whitish within, the outer face more or less 
tinged with violet -purple; stamens half the length of perianth; anthers 
small, oblong; capsule two-thirds the length of perianth, obovoid-oblong, 
narrow, obtusely 6 -angled, April-May- June. (Plate VI, Figure 19). 



82 



From the middle mountain zone to alpine altitudes, on grassy slopes.— 
Centr. Asia: Syr D. , Pam.-AL, T. Sh. Endemic. Described from Central 
Asia. Type in Tashkent. 

64. G. altaica Schischk. et Sumn. , Animadv. Syst. ex Herb. Tomsk., 
No. 8 (1928); Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 603. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, medium size; tunics grayish-brown; produced 
into a collar 10-20 mm long; stem erect, 3-13 cm long, glabrous or 
short-haired; basal leaf narrowly linear to subcapillary, conduplicate, 
equaling to twice as long as the stem; cauline leaves 1-3, slenderly linear, 
diminishing in size up the stem; flower 1 or 2, rarely 3-5; pedicels erect, 
slender; perianth segments 10-12 mm long, 2.5-4.5 mm broad, oblong to 
108 oblong-ovoid, obtusish, golden-yellow within, greenish-brown outside, 

commonly reddish-tinged; stamens one -third shorter than perianth; ovary 
prismatic. April. (Plate VIII, Figure 12a). 

Stony, sandy, or steppe slopes . — W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: 
Ang.-Say. Endemic. Described from Altai. Type in Tomsk. 



Cycle Bulbiferae Grossh. — Bulblets formed in the axils of all or merely 
of upper leaves; inflorescence racemose. 

65. G. bulbifera (Pall.) Roem. et Schult. Syst. veget. VII (1829) 552; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 142; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 210; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 502; 
Miscz. , Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 174; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 600.- 
Ornithogalum bulbiferum Pall. Reise, II Anhang (1773) 736. — 
Ic: Pall. I.e. tab. 2 (1773); Rchb. lc. Fl. Germ. (1848) 1056.- Exs.: 
HFR. No. 1187. 

Perennial, bulb medium size, ovoid, 4-5 mm long; tunics brownish- 
gray; collar none; stem 3-12 (15) cm long, slender, densely canescent, 
especially at base; lower leaves slenderly filiform, semicylindric, 
shorter than inflorescence; cauline leaves 3-5 gradually diminishing in 
size up the stem, tuberously inflated at base, with a small bulblet inside the 
swelling, slenderly filiform; inflorescence 1 -3 -flowered; pedicels slender, 
nutant before anthesis; perianth segments 7-12 mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, 
lanceolate, attenuate toward apex, bright yellow within, greenish and yellow - 
margin outside; stamens one -fourth to one -third shorter than perianth 
segments; anthers linear -oblong; capsule ovaloid, rounded-trigonous, half 
the length of perianth segments. March-April-May. (Plate VIII, Figure 11a). 

Steppes; dry stony and gravelly slopes, and solonetz soils. — European 
part: Bl. , Crim. , L. Don, L. V. ; Caucasus: Cisc. , S. and E. Transc. , 
Tal. ; W. Siberia: U. Tob. , Irt.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. , 
T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd., Iran., Dzu.-Kash. , Mong. (?). 
Described from Astrakhan. Type in Leningrad. 

66. G. pamirica Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 73.8. 
Perennial; bulb solitary; tunics thinly membranous, produced into a 

slender collar 8-20 mm long; stem 4-9 cm long; radical leaf slightly exceeding 
the stem, narrowly linear; cauline leaves 1 or 2, also narrowly linear; 
leaves on upper part of stem below the inflorescence strongly reduced, 
short, subfiliform, with bulblets in their axils, conspicuously differing 



83 



from lower leaves; flower as a rule solitary; perianth segments 9-10 mm 
long, lanceolate, obtusish, yellow with a broad green dorsal band; anthers 
oblong. July. (Plate VI, Figure 18). 

Grassy and gravelly slopes in the alpine zone, up to 4350 m. — Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. , T. Sh. Endemic. Described from Pamirs. Type in 
Leningrad. 



Cycle Pseudoamblyopetalae Grossh. — Radical leaves filiform; cauline 
leaves with enlarged lanceolate base; inflorescence cymose. 

109 67. G. tenera Pascher in Lotos, N. F. XXIV (1904) 128.- 

G. amblyopetala Vved. in Opred. rast. okr. Tashkenta (1924) 62, 

non Boiss. etHeldr.— G. bithynica Miscz., Fl. Cauc. cr. II, 4 (1912) 169, 

non Pascher. 

Perennial; bulb small, ovoid; tunics blackish -brown; stem erect, 
slender, 5-15 cm long; plants in groups of several; radical leaf solitary 
(rarely 2), filiform, rather shallowly canaliculate, overtopping the 
inflorescence; lower cauline leaf slender, lanceolately enlarged at base, 
amplexicaul; other leaves filiform, gradually diminishing in size up the 
stem and passing into bracts; inflorescence 1-3-flowered; pedicels long, 
slender, filiform, erect and indurated in fruit; perianth segments 
(6)-8-9 mm long, yellow within, greenish outside; capsule obovoid, half 
the length of perianth. March-April. (Plate IX, Figure 4 a, b). 

Loess and gravelly slopes in plains and foothills. — Caucasus: E. Transc. 
(rare); Centr. Asia: Balkh. , Kara K. , Syr D. , Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Endemic. 
Described from the vicinity of Tashkent. Type in Leningrad. 



Subsection 2. STIPITATAE Pascher, Bull. d. 1. Soc. Nat. Moscou XIX 
(1907). — Ovary obovoid or obcordate, narrowed at base into a short stipe. 



Series Eustipitatae Grossh. — Flowers relatively large. 

68. G. stipitata Merklin ex Bunge in Mem. Acad. Petersb. VII (1851) 
512. — Ic: Rgl. in Izv. Obshch. Lyubit. Estest. , Antr. i Etnogr. XXI, 
pt.2 (1876) 116, tab. XIX, I, 5-8.- Exs. : HFR No. 1439 pp. H. F. A.M. 
No. 55. 

Perennial; bulb globose -ovoid, small, commonly solitary or bearing 
several small puncticulate-tuberculate subsidiary bulblets; tunics blackish- 
brown, coriaceous; collar none; stems glabrous, 5-20 cm long, slender, 
strongly branched; radical leaf slenderly linear, shorter than inflorescence; 
cauline leaves narrowly linear, little enlarged toward base, gradually 
passing into bracts; pedicels slender, subcapillary, much longer than 
flower; perianth segments yellow within, greenish outside; capsule 
two-thirds the length of perianth. March-April, (Plate IX, Figure 3a,b). 

Loess plains and foothills, on dry slopes.— Caucasus: S. Transc. ; 
Centr. Asia: Balkh., Kyz. K. , Kara K. , Mtn. Turkm. , Amu D. , Syr D. , 
Pam. Al., T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Iran., Ind.-Him. Described from Central 
Asia. Type in Leningrad. 



84 



69. G. ova Stapf, Botan. Ergebn. der Polak'schen Expedition nach 
Persien, I (1885) 16. — Ic. : Rgl., Izv. Obshch. Lyub. Estest., Antr. i 

110 Etnogr. XXI, 2, 116, tab. XX, f . 6 (sub G. c h 1 o r a nt ha). — Exs. : HFR 
No. 1439 (sub G. stipita) p.p. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, small, with numerous small faveolate- 
pitted lateral bulblets in a common sheath; tunics dark brown, firm; collar 
none; stems 6-25 cm long, strongly branched; radical leaf solitary, 
narrowly linear; cauline leaves scarcely enlarged at base, gradually 
diminishing in size up the stem and passing into bracts; pedicels numerous, 
much longer than flower; perianth segments (6) 8-12 mm long, linear - 
oblanceolate, obtusish, pale yellow to nearly white; capsule obovoid, 
two-thirds the length of perianth. March-April. (Plate IX, Figure 2 a). 

Clayey places, among crops, and on dry slopes, in plains and foothills. — 
Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. , Kara K. , Mtn. Turkm. , Syr D. , 
Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Iran. Type in Vienna. 

70. C. capillifolia Vved. in Opred. rast. okr. Tashkenta, I (1923) 60; 
Fl. Turkm. , I, 2 (1932) 232. 

Perennial; bulbs 2, one much smaller than the other, in a common 
sheath; tunics thin, light brown; stem 8-12 cm long, slender, weak, 
flexuous, commonly terminating in a solitary flower, rarely in 2 flowers; 
radical leaves 2, finely hairy, commonly shorter than flower; lowest 
cauline leaf narrowly linear, shorter than flower; other cauline leaves 
strongly reduced; plants in groups containing numerous many-leaved sterile 
specimens and few fertile ones; perianth segments (6) 8-9 mm long, 
oblanceolate, obtuse, pale yellow on both sides; anthers ovaloid-globose; 
ovary stipitate. April-July. (Plate IX, Figure 9). 

Gullies and in the shade of rocks, in the alpine mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: Mtn. Turkm., Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Described from Tashkent area. 
Type in Tashkent. 



Series Minutiflorae Grossh. — Flowers small, 3-5 mm long, numerous, 
in a strongly branched inflorescence. 

71. G. gageoides (Zucc. ) Vved. , Fl. Turkm., 1, 2 (1932)261.— 
Bulbillaria gageoides Zucc. in Abh. Akad. Wiss. Bay. 3 (1843) 
229, t.2, f. 1. — G. persica Boiss. Diagn. Ser. 1, VII (1846) 108; Fl. Or. 
V (1884) 210. — Ic: Rgl., Izv. Obshch. Lyub. Est., Antr. i Etnogr. XXI, 
2 (1876) tab. XVII, sub G. amblyopeta. 

Perennial; bulb medium size, ovoid; tunics light brown, coriaceous; 
second bulb small, directed downward; stem flexuous, strongly branched, 
7-25 cm long; radical leaf solitary, narrowly linear, subcapillary; lowest 
cauline leaf linear-lanceolate, to 4-5 mm broad, much larger than the rest; 
other cauline leaves numerous, short, with usually several bulblets crowded 
111 in the axils, rarely bulblets absent (G. baldshuanica Lipsky in schedis). 
Flowers few; pedicels long and slender; perianth segments 4-6 mm long, 
oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, yellow within, pale yellow outside, scarcely 
green-tinged; capsule about half the length of perianth, obconical. 
April-May. (Plate IX, Figure 6, a, b). 



85 



Dry slopes, gravelly places, etc. , chiefly in foothills and in the middle 
mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (rare), Mtn. Turkm. , Syr D. , 
Pam. Al. , T. Sh. Gen. distr. : E. Med. ( ? ), Iran. Described from Iran. 
Type in Geneva (?). 

72. G. minutiflora Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 291-292. — Ic. : Rgl. inlzv. 
Obshch. Lyub. Estestv., Antr. i Etnogr. XXI, pt. 2, 113, Plate XVIII 
(1876) f. 7-12.— Exs.: H.F.A.M. No. 52. 

Perennial; bulb small, globose -ovoid; tunics brownish; stem 2-7 cm 
long, slender, in upper part strongly branched; radical leaf solitary, 
rarely 2 or none (v. aphylla Grossh. ), slenderly filiform, equaling to 
slightly exceeding the inflorescence; lowest cauline leaf borne about the 
middle or even in upper one -third of the stem, lanceolate, enlarged at base 
and subamplexicaul, to 5-6 mm broad; other cauline leaves abruptly 
diminishing in size, slenderly filiform, passing into bracts; inflorescence 
branched, many-flowered; pedicels subcapillary, 2-3 times the length of 
flower; perianth segments 3-4 (6) mm long, narrowly oblong, obtuse, 
yellow within, greenish outside; capsule about half the length of perianth 
segments, obovoid-cordate, emarginate at the top, trigonous with rounded- 
convex angles. April-May- June. (Plate VIII, Figure 16a). 

Grassy and gravelly slopes in the alpine zone, rarely in the middle 
mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (rare), Pam.-Al., T. Sh. 
Endemic. Described from Karatau Mts. Type in Leningrad. 



Section 2. PLECOSTIGMA (Turcz. ) Pascher, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 
XIX (1905) 374.— Pie cost igma Turcz. in Trautv. Plant, imag. (1844) 
8. — Stigma 3-lobed. 

73. G. pauciflora Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou I (1838) 102, 
nomen, Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 143. — P 1 e c o s t i gm a pauciflorum Turcz. 
Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII, 2 (1854) 113. 

Perennial; bulb 5-6 mm long, ovoid; tunics brownish-gray, forming 
a collar 10-15 mm long; stem 8-10 cm long, glabrous or beset at base 
with short spreading hairs (v. puberula Krylov); leaves alternate; 
radical leaf about equaling the stem; other leaves short, diminishing in size 
up the stem, linear, 1-1.5 mm broad, up to 7 cm long, white -hyaline - 
margined, scarcely enlarged at base; flowers 1-3 (rarely up to 5), in 
racemose arrangement; perianth segments pale yellow within, greenish 
outside, linear-oblong, 13-15 mm long, widely spreading in anthesis; 
112 stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; anthers linear-oblong; ovary 
trigonous; style about as long as ovary, 3-lobed to the middle or lower 
down. April-May. (Plate IX, Figure 7). 

Dry exposed mountain slopes and solonetz soils. — E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. , 
Lena-Kol. , Dau. ; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss. Gen. distr.: Jap.-Ch. 
Described from Siberia (Angara River). Type in Leningrad. 

74. G. provisa Pascher in Fedde, Repert. sp. nov. I (1905) 195. 
Perennial; bulb 4-5 mm long, ovoid; tunics brownish-gray, forming 

a short collar; stem 5-12 cm long, glabrous; radical leaf narrowly linear, 
about equaling the inflorescence; cauline leaves alternate, gradually 



86 



diminishing in size, narrowly linear; flowers 1-3, in racemose 
arrangement; perianth segments yellow within, green outside, linear- 
oblong, 9-12 mm long; stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; anthers 
linear; ovary trigonous; style about as long as ovary, parted at the very 
apex into 3 short lobes. May- June. (Plate IX, Figure 8). 

Dry slopes and scrub. — E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., Lena-Kol. , Dau. 
Endemic. Described from the vicinity of Yakutsk. Type in Leningrad. 



Genus 267. ALLIUM* L.** 

L. Gen. pi. ed. 5 (1754) 143; Ldb . Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 161; Boiss. fl. Or. V(1884) 229. 

Perianth segments distinct or more or less connate, 1-7-nerved, 
commonly persistent after anthesis, undergoing transformation or not so; 
stamens 6, more or less connate and adnate to perianth; anthers dorsifixed; 
ovary 3-locular or 1-locular, with 6 or numerous ovules; style inserted 
at the base of ovary, persistent; seeds angled or terete. 

Perennial (cultivated forms sometimes biennial), bulbose or nearly 
bulbless plants, with strong onionlike or garliclike odor and taste; 
inflorescence umbelliform, initially inclosed in a spathe. 

Certain species of Allium have long been in cultivation for their taste 
or aroma, but in many localities wild species are also used for foods. 
Records exist concerning the use of A.-paradoxum, A. sabulosum, 
A. monadelphum, A. schoenoprasum, A. saxatile, etc. Most 
widely used are, however, A. victorialis and A. ursinum, the two 
species not being distinguished by the population and known under the 
common name 'cheremsha", as well as species closely related to cultivated 
ones, such as A. altaicum, A. Oschanini, A. pskemense, and 
A. longicuspis. This certainly does not exhaust the list of potentially 
edible species. 

It seems, however, that species of the section Molium are not edible, 
113 but many of them may be used as ornamental plants, and the most attractive 
among them (A. giganteum, A. C h r i s t o p h i i) are very much in 
demand by foreign florist establishments. In great demand is also 
A. coeruleum. 

The garliclike taste of Allium is due to the presence of garlic oil 
(0.005-0.009%, according to Remer, on whole plant basis), the chief 
constituent being a disulfide CeHuSi; with a high sulfur content. 

Garlic plants are not always desirable in pasture, even as normal 
admixture to common grass forage, since many of the species impart an 
unpleasant flavor to the milk. 

The genus Allium, as conceived up till now and treated in the Flora 
of the USSR, represents a very unnatural composite group, the division 
into sections also being highly artificial. The large number of species 
(more than 400 on global scale) and the absence of many of them in the 
herbaria at the author's disposal, as well as the limited knowledge concern- 
ing the garlics of China and Hither Asia which represent massive centers of 
A Ilium formation, obliged him to refrain from introducing any changes 
in the now accepted Allium system of Don and Regelt. The only 

* Allium or Alium , the name for garlic used by ancient Roman writers. 
** Arranged by A.I. Vvedenskii. 
t Don, a Monograph of the Genus Allium .— Mem. Werner. Nat. Hist. Hist. Soc. VI (1832) 1-102. 
Regel, Alliorum adhuc cognitorum Monographia.- A.H.P., III, 2(1875) 1-226. 

87 



exception made concerns a small number of markedly isolated species 
which were recently subjected to a detailed treatment by Prokhanov**. 

Apart from missing species, the backward state of Allium systematics 
is also due to the lack of many characters in the species preserved in 
herbaria. Allium plants should be carefully dug out for collection, 
so as to retain the complete clump in the case of cespitose species and to 
avoid the loss of the outer bulb tunics and of bulblets, when present. It is 
also essential, before drying, to prepare drawings of the cross section of 
leaf in two positions: above the base and above the middle. Very important 
characters are associated with the spathe before opening; it is therefore 
desirable to include in collection both flowering specimens and less 
advanced plants with spathe still unopen. 

With properly collected material, the identification of Allium species 
does not usually present any difficulty. 
1. Perianth segments 3-7-nerved; pedicels below the flower enlarged into 

a disk; innermost (upper) leaf vaginate, long-sheathing (Section 

Nectaroscordum) 2. 

+ Perianth segments 1 -nerved; all leaves with blade or only outer (lower) 

leaves vaginate 3. 

114 2. Disk ca. 5 mm broad; perianth segments persistent 

228. A. Dioscoridis Sibth. et Sm. 

"•" Disk ca. 3 mm broad; perianth segments deciduous 

227. A. tripedale Trautv. 

3. Leaf blade lanceolate, oblong or broadly elliptic, gradually or more or 
less abruptly narrowed into petiole; seeds globose or subglobose; 
capsule globose -trigonous, with broadly obcordate valves 4. 

"*" Leaves filiform, semicylindric, cylindric, linear, lorate, or lanceolate 
to broadly elliptic, never narrowed into petiole; seeds angled 5. 

4. Bulb attached to rhizome, with reticulate tunics; scape clothed in 
sheathing leaves up to 1/3-1/2 its length; perianth segments 4-5 mm long 
(Section Anguinum) 1. A. victorialis L. 

+ Bulb not attached to rhizome; bulb tunics separated into fibers; scape 
clothed at base in leaf sheaths; perianth segments 9-12 mm long 
(Section Ophioscordon) 2. A. ursinum L. 

5. Strong plants with stem 7-20 mm thick and fistulous leaves; bulb tunics 
(in wild plants) reddish-brown, subcoriaceous, entire; flowers white 

or yellowish in a spherical or hemispherical many-flowered dense umbel. 

6. 

" + Scape commonly less than 7 mm thick and, if plants strong with thicker 
scape, then leaves broad and flat, not fistulous 12. 

6. Perianth stellate, white, the segments 4-6 mm long; pedicels subtended 
by bracteoles (Section Cepa) 9. 

- f Perianth campanulate, yellowish, the segments 6-8 mm long; pedicels 
ebracteolate (Section Phyllodolon) 7. 

7. Relatively small plants, 20-25 cm tall; scape 7-10 mm thick; leaves 
5-7 mm broad 86. A. microbulhum Prokh. 

■+ Larger plants, 30-70 and more cm tall; scape and leaves thicker ... 8. 

8. Pedicels stout; slightly shorter than or (the central ones) half as long 
again as perianth; umbel subcapitate 87. A. altaicum Pall. 

* Prokhanov, Kul'turnye luki Kitaya i Yaponii (Cultivated Garlics of China and Japan).- Tr. Prikl. bot., 
gen. i selek. XXIV (1930) 123-188. 



" t " Pedicels slender, 2-3 times the length of perianth; umbel relatively 

loose; cultivated plants 88. A. fistulosum L. 

9. Scape inflated or slanting-inflated; leaves 2 or 3; filaments of stamens 
connate above the part fused with perianth 10. 

"*■ Scape more or less conspicuously inflated below the middle; leaves 

4-9; filaments distinct above the part fused with perianth 11. 

10. Scape solid, 20-50 cm long; leaves 3-10 mm broad; perianth segments 
4-5 cm long 89. A. galanthum Kar. et Kir. 

"+ Scape hollow, 40-80 cm long; leaves 20-30 mm broad; perianth 

segments 6 mm long 90. A. pskemense B. Fedtsch. 

11. Leaves flattened, canaliculate, close to scape base, recurved 

91. A. Vavilovi M. Pop. et Vved. 

■+■ Leaves cylindric, erect 12. 

12. Scape slender above the inflated part; wild-growing plants 

92. A. Oschanini O. Fedtsch. 

"*■ Scape fairly thick above the inflated part; a cultivated plant 

93. A. cepa L. 

13. Bulbs cylindric, conical, oblong or rarely oblong-ovoid to ovoid, 
solitary or clustered, always attached to rhizome (Section 
Rhiziridium) 14. 

"•" Bulbs globose or ovoid or rarely oblong-ovoid, devoid of rhizome .... 
96. 

14. Filaments one-fourth to three -fourths as long as perianth segments, 
adnate for half their length with perianth and connate to 2/3-3/4 their 
length 15. 

"•" Filaments shorter or longer than perianth, connate for part of the 

length equal to that adnate to perianth 17. 

15. Leaves 0.5-1 mm broad, semicylindric, canaliculate; perianth 
segments rosy- violet, 5-6 mm long; filaments 1/4-1/3 shorter than 
perianth segments 79. A. Veschniakovi Rgl. 

"* Leaves 2 — 15 mm broad; perianth segments 7-15 mm long, lustrous, 
yellow or at length becoming red or dark purple; filaments one -fourth 
to one -half the length of perianth segments 16. 

16. Leaves (2) 3, broadly linear, canaliculate, 5-15 mm broad, not 
fistulous 80. A. Semenovi Rgl. 

"•" Leaves 1-2 — (3), cylindric, fistulous, 2-7 mm broad 

81. A. monadelphum Less. 

17. Leaves 1 or 2, fistulous; perianth segments rose to rosy-violet, 
commonly lustrous; bulb tunics without distinct nerves, shelly- 
coriaceous to subchartaceous, brittle; spathe nearly beakless 18. 

"*■ Leaves (2)-3-9, not fistulous, or if fistulous then spathe long-beaked 
or leaves canaliculate -triquetrous 21. 

18. Filaments one-third to one-half the length of perianth; pedicels half 

as long as to rarely equaling the perianth 

82. A. schoenoprasum L. 

+ Filaments somewhat longer, two-thirds as long as to equaling the 

perianth segments; pedicels (half as long again) to 2-3 times as long 
1 1fi as perianth segments 19. 

19. Perianth segments 7-12 mm long; style strongly exserted 

83. A. Ledebourianum Roem. et Schult. 



117 



+ Perianth segments 5-6-(7) mm long; style little exserted 20. 

20. Bulb tunics grayish, subchartaceous; inner filaments gradually 
attenuate from base, half as broad again at base as the outer ones. 
84. A. Maximowiczii Rgl. 

■*■ Bulb tunics tawny-brown or violet-brown, shelly-coriaceous; filaments 

subulate from scarcely dilated base, subequal 

85. A. oliganthum Kar. et Kir. 

21. Leaves canaliculate -triquetrous or prominently carinate, 2-5 mm 
broad; filaments half as long again as perianth segments; perianth 
ellipsoid; segments elliptic, obtuse, rosy-purple or dingy rose, darker 
on the back, 4-5.5 mm long 22. 

■ + Leaves flat or semicylindric, ecarinate, if carinate then filaments 

shorter than perianth segments 23. 

22. Leaves (2)-3-(4), canaliculate-triquetrous, sometimes fistulous at 
base; bulb oblong-ovoid; tunics splitting, obscurely reticulate - 
fibrillose, sheathing the stem base; perianth segments rosy-purple, 
4.5-5.5 mm long 3. A. succuliferum Maxim. 

■*" Leaves 4-7, canaliculate, prominently carinate; bulb ovoid, with 
coriaceous entire tunics; perianth segments dingy rose, darker on 
the back, 4-4.5 mm long 4. A. Komarovianum Vved. 

23. Bulb tunics papery, membranous or coriaceous, splitting or separating 
into fibers; sometimes obscurely reticulate -fibrous and then spathe 
beakless and roots numerous and nearly stringy, but never reticulate. 
24. 

"•" Bulb tunics reticulate or reticulate -fibrous or if obscurely reticulate - 
fibrous then spathe more or less long-beaked 59. 

24. Filaments connate and adnate to perianth for half their length, about 
half as long again as perianth; umbel fasciculate, few -flowered, loose. 
59. A. setifolium Schrenk. 

"*" Filaments connate and adnate to perianth for one -fourth their length. 

25. 

25. Bulb ovoid-conical or subcylindric; tunics numerous, coriaceous, 
firm, entire; spathe more or less long-beaked, the beak sometimes 
several times as long as the blade, or spathe beakless and then plants 
small, with a slender scape 10-15 cm long and purple flowers; 
filaments longer or (in A. Alex and rae) shorter than perianth 
segments 26. 

+ Spathe beakless or terminating in a very short beak and then filaments 
shorter than perianth 39. 

26. Filaments slightly shorter than perianth, the inner ones dilated to 

3/4 the length and abruptly attenuate to subsetaceous, 3 times as broad 

as the subulate outer filaments 73. A. Alexandrae Vved. 

"*" Filaments slightly shorter than or about half as long as perianth 

segments, subulate nearly from base, equal or the inner ones to half 
as broad again 27. 

27. Filaments slightly exceeding the perianth; perianth substellate, rosy- 
purple; umbel loosely few -flowered .... 60. A. subtilissimum Ldb. 

"*" Filaments (one -fourth) half as long again to twice as long as perianth 
segments; perianth ovoid-campanulate or campanulate 28. 



90 



118 



28. Umbel fasciculate -hemispherical, few-flowered, loose, with nodding 
flowers; perianth segments ca. 3 mm long, pale yellow turning rosy; 

pedicels half as long again to twice as long as perianth 

62. A. tytthanthum Vved. 

"*■ Umbel spherical or hemispherical, dense, many-flowered, or if 

few -flowered then pedicels shorter than or only slightly exceeding the 
perianth and flowers rose or purple 29. 

29. Perianth segments 5-6 mm long, obtuse, the outer emarginate, the 
inner 1/6 longer; pedicels slightly shorter to slightly longer than 
perianth; scape 10-25 cm long 66. A. tianschanicum Rupr. 

"*■ Perianth segments 3-5 mm long, acute or obtuse and mucronate, 

the inner shorter than the outer 30. 

30. Pedicels short, equal, very rarely to half as long again as the perianth; 
beak of spathe relatively short, usually shorter than the blade to 
rarely twice as long, or spathe beakless; flowers rose or purple . . .31. 

"*■ Pedicels half as long again to 3 -(4) times as long as perianth; beak 
of spathe usually several times the length of blade, or if beak 
relatively short then flowers yellow 34. 

31. Spathe beakless; perianth segments purple; leaves flat, smooth 

61. A. jucundum Vved. 

*•" Spathe beakless; perianth segments purple; leaves semicylindric 

canaliculate 32. 

32. Inner filaments half as broad again as the outer, 2 -toothed at base. 
63. A. kokanicum Rgl. 

"*" Filaments equal, subulate 33. 

33. Leaves subcapillary, 0.25-0.5 — (l) mm broad, smooth or rarely 

scaberulous; filaments commonly faint-colored 

64. A. filifolium Rgl. 

+ Leaves 0.5-1 mm broad, with ciliate -scabrous margin; filaments 

commonly purple 65. A. caricoides Rgl. 

34. Flowers pale yellow; perianth segments obtusish or obtuse, mucronate, 
4-5 mm long 35. 

"* Flowers white, rose or rose purple, or if pale yellowish-green turning 
rosy then perianth segments 3-4 mm long; perianth segments acute. 
36. 

35. Leaves 0.5-1 mm broad; bulb tunics grayish or brownish, coriaceous 
to subchartaceous 68. A. petraeum Kar. et Kir. 

"•" Leaves 1—2.5 mm broad; bulb tunics subcoriaceous, brown, often 

lustrous 67. A. condensatum Turcz. 

36. Perianth segments 3 — 4 mm long, pale yellowish-green turning rosy. 

.• 69. A. talassicum Rgl. 

■+■ Perianth segments 4-5 mm long, white, rose or rosy-purple 37. 

37. Perianth segments rosy-purple 72. A. globosum MB. 

"*■ Perianth segments white or rose 38. 

38. Perianth segments rose; anthers commonly violet 

71. A. saxatile MB. 

+ Perianth segments white; anthers commonly yellow 

70. A. Marschalianum Vved. 

39. Rhizome with offshoots; bulbs obsolescent; umbel containing few large 
nodding flowers 6-7 mm long; filaments 1/4-1/3 shorter than perianth 

segments, the inner ones about 3 times as broad as the outer 

52. A. caespitosum Sievers. 



91 



■+ Rhizome without offshoots; inner filaments not more than twice as 
broad as the outer, and if broader than filaments exceeding the 
perianth 40. 

40. Filaments 1/4-1/3 shorter than perianth segments, dilated at base, 
entire; perianth segments 3.5-4.5 mm long, obtuse or truncate, 
obcuneate • 41 . 

+ Filaments equaling to twice as long as perianth segments, or if shorter 
than perianth segments then the latter 5-6 -(7) mm long and acute, 
or if obtuse then the filaments 2 -toothed at 2/3-3/4 the length from 
base 42. 

41. Umbel hemispherical, few-flowered; flowers nodding; pedicels 
subequal, half as long again to 2 -(3) times as long as perianth 
segments; scape 5-25 cm long; perianth hemispherical; inner segments 

119 obconical-cuneate, the outer ones rounded -elliptic 

50. A. tenuissimum L. 

"*" Umbel fasciculate or fasciculately hemispherical, commonly many- 
flowered; pedicels unequal, 3-7 times the length of perianth; scape 
20-40 cm long; perianth broadly campanulate; inner perianth segments 
obcuneate to linear-obcuneate, the outer ones broadly elliptic to oblong- 
elliptic 51. A. anisopodum Ldb. 

42. Compactly cespitose plants, 10-25 cm tall, with numerous nearly ropy 
roots; bulbs obsolescent, ca. 0.5 cm thick, the tunics divided into 
parallel strips or obscurely reticulate fibers 43. 

"*" More robust plants, 30-100 cm tall, cespitose or not cespitose, or 
plants small cespitose, but then never with numerous ropelike roots. 
45. 

43. Bulb tunics separated into reticulate fibers; inner filaments dilated 

at base, mostly 2-toothed 47. A. polyrrhizum Turcz. 

+ Bulb tunics separated into parallel strips; inner filaments with 2 teeth 
at 2/3-3/4 their length 44. 

44. Umbel hemispherical or spherical, dense; pedicels equaling to half 
as long again as the perianth; filaments slightly shorter than perianth 
segments; leaves 1-1.5 mm broad 48. A. bidentatum Fisch. 

"*" Umbel loosely hemispherical, flowers subpendulous; pedicels half as 

long again to twice as long as perianth; filaments equaling the segments; 
leaves ca. 0.5 mm broad 49. A. bellulum Prokh. 

45. Bulb tunics coriaceous 46. 

"*■ Bulb tunics membranous, and if coriaceous then leaves semicylindric, 

canaliculate, close to scape base 50. 

46. Filaments slightly exceeding the perianth segments; segments linear- 
oblong, obtuse, rose with a prominent purple nerve, 4 mm long; umbel 
dense, capitate; bulbs 0.75-1 cm thick, 2-3 cm long, attached singly 
to rhizome; rhizome ascending, covered with vestiges of old bulbs. 
58. A. glaciale Vved. 

+ Filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth segments; 
bulbs 1-3 cm thick, in clusters of several, or if solitary then flowers 
greenish-yellow 47. 

47. Perianth segments greenish-yellow; leaves 6-9, broadly linear, 

5-20 mm broad, gradually attenuate toward apex; bulb solitary 

53. A. obliquum L. 



92 



120 "•" Perianth segments rose; leaves with nearly parallel margins; bulbs 

more or less clustered 48. 

48. Bulb tunics not lustrous, entire; inner filaments 2-3 times as broad 
at base as the outer; leaves broadly linear, commonly falcately 
recurved 55. A. polyphyllum Kar. et Kir. 

+ Bulb tunics lustrous, splitting; filaments nearly equal at base; leaves 
narrowly linear, erect 49. 

49. Pedicels two-thirds as long as to equaling perianth; perianth segments 

pale rose -lilac with a prominent darker nerve 

57. A. kaschianum Rgl. 

"•" Pedicels half as long again to twice (3 times) as long as perianth 

segments; segments a handsome pink, faintly nerved 

56. A. hymenorrhizum Ldb. 

50. Perianth segments linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 6-8 mm long, rose; 
leaves broadly linear, flat 54. A. platyspathum Schrenk. 

■* Perianth segments 3-6 mm long, oblong, elliptic or ovate 51. 

51. Leaves smooth, linear, flat or carinate; flowers rose or rose -violet; 
plants loosely cespitose or bulbs attached singly to rhizome 52. 

"♦" Leaves scabrous, semicylindric, often subfiliform, or flattish and 
smooth and then flowers white; plants commonly densely cespitose 
54. 

52. Filaments slightly exceeding to one -fourth as long again as perianth 
segments; segments acute; leaves carinate . . . .37. A. angulosum L. 

"*■ Filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as perianth segments; 
segments obtuse; leaves flat 53. 

53. Filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth segments, 
the inner ones half as long again as the outer, commonly 2 -toothed. 
45. A. nutans L. 

"*" Filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as perianth segments; 
inner filaments half as broad again at base as the outer, entire. 
44. A. senescens L. 

54. Perianth segments rose -violet or purple 55. 

"•" Perianth segments white or yellow, sometimes rose -tinged 57. 

55. Perianth segments purple; pedicels slightly shorter to slightly longer 
than perianth; leaves 2-4. . . . 43. A. tytthocephalum Roem. et Schult. 

+ Perianth segments rose-violet; pedicels 2-3 times as long as perianth; 
leaves 5-8 56. 

56. Style not exserted; perianth segments broadly elliptic to ovate, nearly 
entire 42. A. rubens Schrad. 

■*■ Style exserted; perianth segments oblong or rarely oblong-ovate, the 
inner ones more or less crenate 41. A. prostratum Trev. 

57. Leaves filiform, 0.5-0.75 mm broad; perianth segments yellowish, 
3-4 mm long, oblong-lanceolate to oblong; pedicels 2-3-(4) times 

as long as perianth 39. A. flavescens Bess. 

■*■ Leaves 0.75-2-(4) mm broad; perianth segments white or yellow, 
sometimes rose -tinged, 4-5 mm long, oblong, ovate or broadly 
elliptic; pedicels half as long as again to twice as long as perianth. 
58. 

58. Perianth segments white, flattish; filaments equaling to twice as long 
as perianth 38. A. albidum Fisch. 



93 



122 



"•" Perianth segments yellow; leaves semicylindric; filaments slightly 

exceeding to half as -long again as perianth segments 

40. A. Stellerianum Willd. 

59. Segments of the subspherical perianth greenish-white, sometimes 
dingy purple on the back, 4-5 mm long, obtuse; style exserted; 
filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth segments; 
umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; leaves flat, broadly linear, 
3-15 mm broad (Centr. Asia) 60. 

"*■ Perianth segments rose, rosy-violet, dingy violet, yellow, yellowish, 
or if white then style and filaments not exserted 61. 

60. Filaments entire, equal; scape leafy up to the middle 

5. A. Drobovi Vved. 

"* Inner filaments 2 -toothed at base, about twice as broad as the outer 

ones; scape sheathed by the leaves at base or up to one-third its length. 
6. A. oreoscordum Vved. 

61. Bulb tunics obscurely reticulate -fibrous or coarsely reticulate -fibrous, 
or (the outermost) nearly reticulate and then spathe long-beaked; 
filaments of stamens entire 62. 

+ Bulb tunics distinctly reticulate, or obscurely reticulate and then inner 
filaments toothed at base 67. 

62. Umbel capitate; pedicels half as long as to rarely slightly shorter than 
perianth, ebracteolate; leaves more or less falcately recurved; 

a small plant, ca. 10 cm tall 46. A. pumilum Vved. 

+ Umbel fasciculate or hemispherical; pedicels mostly equaling or half 
as long again to twice as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles. 
63. 

63. Filaments two-thirds the length of perianth; perianth campanulate. 
64. 

■*" Filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as perianth segments; 
perianth hemispherical 65. 

64. Inner filaments gradually attenuate from base, 3 times as broad as 

the outer ones 74. A. teretifolium Rgl. 

"•" Filaments strongly subulate from triangular base, the inner ones twice 
as broad at base as the outer 75. A. Korolkovii Rgl. 

65. Leaves flat, canaliculate, 4-5 mm broad; perianth segments acute. 
73. A. daghestanicum Grossh. 

"•" Leaves 0.5-2 mm broad; perianth segments obtuse or mucronate. 

66. 

66. Leaves 0.5-1 mm broad; perianth segments 4-5 mm long; pedicels 

half as long again to twice as long as perianth 

77. A. gunibicum Miscz. 

+ Leaves 1-2 mm broad; perianth segments 5-6 mm long; pedicels 

equaling to half as long again as perianth ... 76. A. Albovianum Vved. 

67. Filaments connate and adnate to perianth at the very base 68. 

+ Filaments connate and adnate to perianth for 1/4-1/2 their length or 

merely for 1/5-1/6 their length and then perianth narrowly 
campanulate, (5)-7-10 mm long 83. 

68. Scape scabrous; sheaths often villous 69. 

"*■ Scape smooth; sheaths glabrous 70. 



1920 94 



69. Perianth segments yellow, oblong, obtuse, 4-6 mm long 

21. A. scabriscapum Boiss. et Ky. 

"•" Perianth segments reddish-violet, oblong-lanceolate, acute or rarely 
obtuse, commonly 7 mm long 22. A. trachyscordum Vved. 

70. Perianth segments 2-3 mm long; umbel brittle, few -flowered, loose; 
pedicels subtended by numerous bracteoles; small plants, ca. 15 cm 
tall 20. A. oreodictyum Vved. 

+ Perianth segments (3.5)-4-7 mm long; umbel not brittle, dense or 

fairly loose; pedicels with few bracteoles 71. 

71. Perianth segments greenish yellow or nearly white, sometimes 
suffused withered on the back; filaments yellow 72. 

"*■ Flowers rose or rosy-lilac 73. 

123 72. Leaves flat, with nearly parallel margins; perianth segments greenish- 

yellow 10. A. flavidum Ldb. 

"•" Leaves semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, attenuate toward apex; 
perianth segments nearly white 9. A. leucocephalum Turcz. 

73. Leaves semicylindric, ( 1/2 ) — 1 — 2 mm broad 74. 

- 1 " Leaves flat, (l)-2-5 mm broad 75. 

74. Umbel hemispherical, rather few -flowered, loosish; leaves close to 

scape base; filaments slightly exceeding the perianth 

7. A. Fischeri Rgl. 

+ Umbel commonly spherical, dense, many-flowered; scape covered up 
to one -third its length by distant sheathing leaves; filaments half as 
long again to nearly twice as long as perianth . . 8. A. clathratum Ldb. 

75. Filaments slightly shorter than to half as long again as perianth 
segments, the inner ones toothed at base, the base about as long as 
broad; perianth segments with a prominent nerve 76. 

"*" Filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth segments .... 79. 

76. Perianth segments pale rose with purple nerve; leaves 4-6, very close to 
scapebase, smooth; style strongly exserted . . 19. A. oreoprasoides Vved. 

"*" Perianth segments rose or rose-purple; leaves 2-4, scabrous- 
margined; lower one -third of scape covered with distant leaf sheaths 
or the sheaths more or less approximate at base and then flowers 
vividly colored 77. 

77. Style 5-6 mm long, strongly exserted; stigma scarcely thickened; 

pedicels slightly shorter than to equaling the perianth 

16. A. amphibolum Ldb. 

"•■ Style 2.5-3.5 mm long, exserted; pedicels equaling or half as long 

again to twice as long as the perianth 78. 

78. Perianth segments rose, darker on the back, oblong-lanceolate or 
oblong-linear; stigma scarcely thickened .... 15. A. bogdoicolum Rgl. 

"*" Perianth segments rose, elliptic to oblong-elliptic; stigma subcapitate. 
14. A. strictum Schrad. 

79. Pedicels about half as long as to slightly longer than the perianth; 
segments commonly pale rose, 5-7 mm long 80. 

"+■ Pedicels 1.5-2-3 times the length of perianth; segments rose and 
3.5-4-(5) mm long or light rosy-lilac and then not more than 4 mm 
long 81. 

124 80. Perianth segments (5)-6 — 7 mm long, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate; 

bulb tunics distinctly reticulate 17. A. Szovitsii Rgl. 



95 



"•" Perianth segments 5 mm long, oblong to ovate; bulb tunics coarsely 

and obscurely reticulate 18. A. brachyodon Boiss. 

81. Perianth segments rose, faintly nerved; base of inner stamens longer 
than broad 13. A. lineare L. 

"*■ Perianth segments with a prominent nerve; base of inner stamens as 
long as or shorter than broad 82. 

82. Bulbs narrowly cylindric; conical; perianth segments 3.5-4 mm long, 
light rosy-lilac 12. A. splendens Willd. 

"+■ Bulbs ovoid-oblong; perianth segments 4-5 mm long, rose 

11. A. Maackii Prokh. 

83. Leaves and their sheaths (especially the lower ones) hairy; small 
plants, 5-15 cm tall 23. A. guzaricum Rgl. 

■+■ Plants glabrous, usually more robust 84. 

84. Perianth substellate or hemispherical; leaves approximate at scape 
base 85. 

"*■ Perianth campanulate or narrowly campanulate; leaves more or less 
distant 86. 

85. Inner filaments twice as broad at base as the outer ones; bulb tunics 
strongly reticulate 35. A. oreoprasum Schrenk. 

"*■ Filaments subequal; bulb tunics thin and rather obscurely reticulate. 
36. A. odorum L. 

86. Ovary topped by a crest surrounding the style 87. 

■+ Ovary not crested at the top 88. 

87. Perianth segments dingy violet, unequal, the outer linear -lanceolate 
to lanceolate, one -fourth as long again as the lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate inner segments; pedicels unequal, half as long as to slightly 

exceeding (in fruit twice the length of) the perianth 

33. A. stenophanophorum Vved. 

"•" Perianth segments dark reddish-rose, subequal, the outer oblong, the 
inner lanceolate; pedicels subequal, half the length of perianth 

segments 34. A. tenuicaule Rgl. 

125 88. Filaments equaling to slightly exceeding the perianth segments; style 

(especially in fruit) exserted 89. 

+ Filaments one-half to two-thirds the length of perianth; style not 

exserted even in fruit 90. 

89. Umbels hemispherical to subspherical, rarely fasciculate -hemispherical; 
pedicels equaling or half as long again (to twice as long) as perianth; 
anthers yellow 31. A. dolichostylum Vved. 

+ Umbel fasciculate or fasciculate -hemispherical, rarely hemispherical; 
pedicels half as long as to equaling ot (in fruit) half as long again as 
perianth segments; anthers violet 32. A. inderiense Fisch. 

90. Perianth segments yellowish 28. A. lutescens Vved. 

+ Perianth segments dingy violet, rose-violet or violet, without any 

yellow tinge 91. 

91. Perianth segments dingy violet or brownish-violet, darker on the back. 
92. 

"•" Perianth segments pale rose, rose, light violet or violet, with darker 
nerve 93 _ 

92. Leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, often subfiliform, 0.5-1 mm broad, 
canaliculate 24. A. inconspicuum Vved. 



96 



126 



+ Leaves 4 or 5, linear, 2.5-10 mm broad, flat, falcately recurved. 

25. A. drepanophyllum Vved. 

93. Umbel spherical or hemispherical, very rarely fasciculate - 
hemispherical, loose; pedicels ascending, 4-6 times as long as 
perianth or merely (2)-3-4 times as long as then perianth 5-7 mm 
long 94. 

"*" Umbel fasciculate or hemispherical, dense; pedicels half as long as 
to equaling or rarely 2-3 times the length of perianth; perianth 
segments 7-14 mm long 95. 

94. Leaves canaliculate, fistulous, 1-3 mm broad; perianth segments 
purplish-violet, 7-9 mm long; pedicels 4-6 times as long as perianth. 
29. A. longiradiatum Vved. 

"*■ Leaves flat, not fistulous, falcately recurved, (l)-3-4 mm broad; 
perianth segments commonly pale violet, 5-7 mm long; pedicels 
(2)-3-4 times as long as perianth .... 30. A. dolichomischum Vved. 

95. Leaves flat, 3 -5 -(10) mm broad, falcately recurved; anthers 
commonly violet 26. A. xiphopetalum Aitch. et Baker. 

"* leaves canaliculate, 1-3 mm broad; anthers yellow 

27. A. Barsczewskii Lipsky . 

96. Inner filaments 3-parted at l/3 to 4/5 of the length, with filiform 
lateral cusps, these in most species exceeding, in fewer shorter than, 
the antheriferous central cusp; aerial portion of scape covered to 
high up with sheathing leaves (Section P or rum) 97. 

+ Filaments undivided or the inner ones bicuspidate; cusps never 

exceeding the anther, short, or if fairly long and then borne at base 

of filaments 130. 

97. Small, usually squat plants, 10-30 cm tall; leaves exceeding the 
umbel. (Central. Asia) 98. 

"*" Larger, slender plants, 30-70 (100) cm tall, rarely (usually 

depressed specimens) 15-30 cm tall; leaves much shorter than scape. 
101. 

98. Outer bulb tunics papery or subcoriaceous, nerveless; bulblets none 
or nearly smooth 99. 

"*" Outer bulb tunics reticulate or reticulately nerved; bulblets 

reticulately nerved 100. 

99. Central cusp of inner stamens one-third the length of undivided part, 
half as long again to twice as long as the lateral cusps; bulblets none; 
perianth segments 6-7 mm long . . . 144. A. Lehmannianum Merckl. 

+ Central cusp of inner stamens two-thirds as long to as long as 

undivided part, slightly exceeding to half as long again as the lateral 
cusps; bulblets dull, yellow, keeled on the back; perianth segments 
4-(6) mm long 143. A. ferganicum Vved. 

100. Central cusp of inner stamens one-fourth to one-third the length of 

undivided part; scapes commonly 2- (5) mm from one bulb 

145. A. Borszczowii Rgl. 

"*■ Central cusp of inner stamens half as long again to twice as long as 

undivided part; scape solitary 146. A. brevidens Vved. 

101. Outer bulb tunics reticulate or reticulately nerved; bulblets, when 
present, always yellowish, large 102. 

+ Outer bulb tunics papery or coriaceous, splitting or at the top 

sometimes fibrous with obscure reticulation; bulblets, when present, 
blackish-brown or blackish-violet, or if yellow then small 107. 



97 



127 



102. Bulblets reticulately nerved, densely beset with crystalline tubercles. 
148. A. crystallinum Vved. 

■+ Bulblets, when present, smooth or reticulately nerved, always devoid 
of crystalline tubercles 103. 

103. Bulb tunics reticulate or reticulately nerved, sheathing the scape 
base a short distance up; bulblets always smooth (Centr. Asia) .... 
'.". 104. 

+ Bulb tunics numerous, profusely reticulate, sheathing the scape 

to high up; bulblets none, or bulb solitary with reticulate nervature. 
105. 

104. Perianth segments rose-violet, 5-6 mm long, linear-lanceolate, 
acute; central cusp of inner stamens equaling the undividual part 

and the lateral cusps 147. A. turcomanicum Rgl. 

■*■ Perianth segments greenish (often rosy in herbarium), 4-5 mm long, 
oblong to oblong-ovate; central cusp of inner stamens half as long as 
the undivided part and two-sevenths to two-thirds the length of 
lateral cusps 149. A. filidens Rgl. 

105. Leaves not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, approximate at scape base; 
perianth segments whitish, canaliculate, 5-6 mm long; style not 
exserted 150. A. dictyoscordum Vved. 

"*" Leaves fistulous, attenuate toward apex; perianth segments 3-5 mm 
long, dull green, white -margined, dark purple or brownish-green, 
smooth 106. 

106. Leaves 6-11 mm broad; perianth segments dull green, white - 

margined; filaments naked, rarely sparsely ciliate 

151. A. viride Grossh. 

"•" Leaves 3-5 mm broad; perianth segments dark purple or brownish- 
green; filaments slightly ciliate .... 152. A. dictyoprasum C.A.M. 

107. Segments of the tubular-campanulate perianth 7-9 mm long 

154. A. Aucheri Boiss. 

■+ Perianth segments 4-5 mm long 108. 

108. Leaves fistulous; style exserted 109. 

■+ Leaves not fistulous, linear, canaliculate 115. 

109. Umbel commonly bearing bulblets 153. A. vineale L. 

+ Umbel without bulblets 110. 

110. Perianth narrowly campanulate, whitish or with a small spot on the 
segments; inner filaments broader at base then perianth segments. 
111. 

"*" Perianth oblong-ovoid or ovoid, commonly wine -red or purple; 

inner filaments as broad at base as perianth segments 112. 

111. Perianth 4 mm long, whitish, the segments not spotted; filaments 
ciliate 156. A. affine Ldb. 

+ Perianth 2.5 mm long whitish, the segments with a small spot; 

filaments naked 155. A. guttatum Stev. 

112. Bulb tunics coriaceous, indurated; bulblets yellowish-brown, 
minutely tuberculate; leaves cylindric; perianth 3.5 mm long, wine- 

128 red, the outer segments scabrous -keeled 

157. A. firmotunicatum Fom. 

"*" Bulb tunics papery or coriaceous; bulblets yellowish, smooth, or 
yellowish- brown or brown and made dull by the prominent nerves 
and then leaves semicylindric, canaliculate; perianth ca. 4 mm long, 
rose or often dark purple, very rarely whitish 113. 



98 



113. Bulblets numerous, yellowish-brown or often brown; central cusp 
of inner stamens one -third to one -half the length of undivided part; 
pedicels smooth 160. A. Regelianum Beck. 

+ Bulblets few, yellowish; central cusp of inner stamens one-half to 
two-thirds the length of undivided part; pedicels scabrous below 
flower 114. 

114. Perianth segments scabrous; leaves commonly smooth; bracteoles 
few 159. A. sphaerocephalum L. 

+ Perianth segments smooth; leaves commonly scabrous; bracteoles 

numerous 158. A. fuscoviolaceum Fom, 

115. Umbel with bulblets 116. 

+ Umbel without bulblets 118. 

116. Perianth segments 5 mm long, scabrous; leaves barely reaching 
beyond the middle of scape 161. A. scorodoprasum L. 

"*" Perianth segments 3 mm long, smooth; leaves reaching well beyond 

the middle of scape 117. 

117. Filaments after anthesis half as long again as perianth segments; 

a wild-growing plant 162. A. longicuspis Rgl. 

"•" Filaments shorter than perianth segments; a cultivated plant 

163. A. sativum L. 

118. Bulblets and tunics of replacement bulb blackish-brown, blackish- 
violet or brownish-purple 119. 

+ Bulblets and tunics of replacement bulb yellowish 125. 

119. Perianth spherical-campanulate; filaments equaling or rarely slightly 
shorter than perianth segments; capsule equaling the perianth . . . 120. 

"•" Perianth campanulate, ovoid-campanulate or ovoid-pyramidal; 

filaments two-thirds to three-quarters the length of perianth segments. 
122. 

120. Perianth segments light rose . . . 166. A. gracilescens Somn. et Lev. 
"■" Perianth segments whitish sometimes with purplish back, or dark 

purple 121. 

121. Perianth segments whitish, sometimes with purplish back 

164. A. Fominianum Miscz. 

129 + Perianth segments dark purple 165. A. ponticum Miscz. 

122. Segments of the campanulate perianth lanceolate, acute, rose 

167. A. erubescens C. Koch. 

■+ Perianth segments broader, oblong, ovoid or elliptic, at least the 

inner ones obtuse or obtusish 123. 

123. Segments of the broadly campanulate perianth obtuse, the outer dark 
purple, the elliptic inner ones commonly nearly white with a purple 
nerve 16 8. A. rotundum L. 

"*" Segments of the ovoid-campanulate or ovoid -pyramidal perianth 

similarly colored, the inner ones oblong-ovoid 123. 

124. Perianth segments rose -violet; umbel mostly capitate 

169. A. jajlae Vved. 

+ Perianth segments dark purplish -violet 170. A. Waldsteinii Don. 

125. Scape 15-30 cm long; filaments slightly shorter than perianth 
segments; perianth segments nearly white, 5 mm long, acute strongly 
scabrous; style included 171. A. talyschense Miscz. 



99 



L30 



"*" Scape 50-120 cm long; filaments barely exceeding or up to twice as 

long as perianth segments; style exserted 126. 

126. Filaments one-fourth as long again to twice as long as perianth 
segments; perianth segments 3-4 mm long 127. 

■* Filaments barely exceeding the perianth; perianth segments 5 mm 

long 129. 

127. Central cusp of inner stamens as long as the undivided part and 
barely exceeding the lateral cusps; perianth segments lanceolate or 

oblong-lanceolate, acute, rosy 

172. A. pseudoampeloprasum Miscz. 

+ Central cusp one-half to two-thirds the length of the undivided part 
and of the lateral cusps; perianth segments elliptic, oblong-ovate or 
ovate, obtuse or acutish, white, dingy green or dark purplish-violet. 
128. 

128. Perianth segments white 174. A. leucanthum C. Koch. 

"* Perianth segments dark purplish-violet, rarely dingy green . 

173. A. atroviolaceum Boiss. 

129. A perennial wild-growing plant; scape arising laterally from the bulb. 
175. A. ampeloprasum L. 

"*■ A biennial cultivated plant; scape arising from the center of the bulb. 
176. A. porrum L. 

130. Aerial part of scape clothed to high up by leaf sheaths; leaves 
filiform, semicylindric, cylindric, or rarely flat, fistulous or not 
fistulous (Section Haplostemon) 131. 

■*■ Underground part of scape clothed with leaf sheaths or more rarely 
the aerial part more or less sheathed and then leaves lorate; leaves 
sometimes not fistulous, linear, linear-lanceolate, lorate, or oblong 
to elliptic 179. 

131. Umbel fasciculate or fasciculately hemispherical, apparently 
2-whorled owing to nodding or pendulous flowers and erect fruiting 
pedicels; spathe splitting into 2 long-acuminate valves, the longer 
valve usually greatly exceeding the umbel (c. f. A. karsianum), 
the beak equaling or sometimes several times as long as the blade; 
bulb tunics papery or subcoriaceous, never reticulate or 
reticulately fibrous 132. 

"*■ Umbel fasciculate, hemispherical, sometimes subcapitate; flowers 
neither nodding nor pendulous, and if nodding then bulb tunics 
reticulate or reticulately fibrous; spathe deciduous by circumcission 
short- or long-beaked, or splitting and short-beaked, or sometimes 
the beak to 3 times the length of the body (c.f. A. delicatulum). 
143. 

132. Flowers pearly white; capsule slightly longer than perianth 

110. A. convallarioides Grossh. 

"*■ Flowers colored; capsule slightly shorter than or about equaling the 
perianth 133. 

133. Perianth segments dull by readily rubbed-off bloom; filaments half 
as long again to twice the length of perianth; ovary oblong, short - 
stipitate 134. 

-*" Perianth segments without bloom, lustrous or not so 135. 



100 



134. Flowers yellowish, more or less intensely rose-tinged, dingy; 
umbel without bulblets 102. A. pulchellum Don. 

+ Flowers rose; umbel with bulblets 103. A. carinatum L. 

135. Perianth segments 3-4 mm long; filaments one-fourth or one-half 
(twice) as long again as perianth segments 136. 

"* Perianth segments 5-8 mm long; filaments slightly shorter than to 

slightly exceeding the perianth segments 138. 

136. Perianth segments whitish-green with a small violet spot 

100. A. kossoricum Fom. 

"*" Perianth segments yellow or rose 137. 

137. Perianth segments yellow, rarely rose-tinged; outer bulb tunics 
subcoriaceous, distinctly parallel-nerved; tunics of replacement 

131 bulb distinctly parallel-nerved 101. A. pseudoflavum Vved. 

■* Perianth segments rose, without any trace of yellow; outer bulb 
tunics papery, essentially nerveless; tunics of replacement bulb 
without distinct nerves 9 9. A. stamineum Boiss. 

138. Umbel bearing bulblets 104. A. oleraceum L. 

"+ Umbel without bulblets 139. 

139. Pedicels subequal, slightly shorter than or 2-(3) times as long as 
perianth segments 140. 

**" Pedicels very unequal, the longest at least 3 times the length of the 

shortest, ( 1 ) — 2 — 9 times as long as the perianth 141. 

140. Perianth segments pale rose to nearly white, with a purple nerve, 
not lustrous, 5-6 mm long; filaments equaling to barely exceeding 
the perianth 109. A. rupestre Stev. 

**" Perianth segments rose or often dark rose, with a purple nerve, 

lustrous, (6)-7-8 mm long; filaments slightly to one-fourth shorter 
than perianth segments 108. A. Kunthianum Vved. 

141. Perianth segments pale rose to nearly white, obtuse, round-tipped, 
(6)-7-8 mm long 107. A. karsianum Fom. 

"* Perianth segments rose, sometimes dark rose or dingy rose, obtuse, 
truncate or subtruncate, 5-6 mm long 142. 

142. Perianth segments lustrous, bright or dark rose, at least in anthesis. 
105. A. paniculatum L. 

"* Perianth segments inconspicuous even in anthesis, dingy rose, dull. 

106. A. lenkoranicum Miscz. 

143. Outer bulb tunics reticulate, reticulately fibrous or reticulately- 
nerved, or coriaceous and obscurely reticulate -nerved, or 
subchartaceous and parallel-nerved, but in any case prominently and 
densely nerved and bulblets distinctly nerved 144, 

"* Outer bulb tunics papery or coriaceous, without distinct nerves, or 
the nerves distantly parallel and then bulblets pitted; bulblets, 
when present, always nerveless 159. 

144. Filaments connate and adnate to perianth at base 145. 

"*■ Filaments connate and adnate to perianth for one -third to one -half 

the length, and if only for one-fourth the length then spathe tearing 
„ 9 off all round, caducous 150. 

145. Leaves cylindric, fistulous, spirally to subcircinately coiled; 
bulblets few 122. A. ophiophyllum Vved. 

"*" Leaves filiform, canaliculate, never spirally coiled; bulblets none. 

146. 



101 



146. Inner perianth segments deeply dissected in upper part, the outer 
ones entire 98. A. lacerum Freyn. 

+ All perianth segments entire 147. 

147. Bulb tunics reticulate; lower sheaths hairy 

97. A. callidictyum C.A.M. 

+ Bulb tunics coriaceous, splitting or (in some) more or less reticulate- 
fibrous; sheaths glabrous, smooth 148. 

148. Ease of spathe forming a tube enveloping the base of umbel; ovary 
subglobose; bulb tunics coriaceous, splitting, with reticulate 
nervature 94. A. Margaritae B. Fedtsch. 

-*- Base of spathe torn; ovary truncately conical or pyriform; tunics 

subcoriaceous, splitting, more or less reticulately fibrous 149. 

149. Pedicels very unequal, (2)-3-6-(10) times as long as perianth; 
perianth segments 4-5-(7) mm long; leaves wilting before anthesis. 
95. A. inaequale Janka. 

+ Pedicels subequal, equaling to 2 (3) times as long as perianth; 
perianth segments (5)-6-7 mm long; leaves persistent nearly to 
anthesis 96. A. moschatum L. 

150. Perianth segments light carneous, the inner gibbous at base, half as 
long again as the outer 121. A. Griffithanum Boiss. 

■+ Perianth segments white, rose or dark rose, the inner not gibbous; 

perianth umbilicate at base (A. rubellum s.l. ) 151. 

151. Spathe deciduous by circumscission 152. 

+ Spathe splitting down to base, persistent 157. 

152. Segments of the broadly campanulate perianth 3-5-(6) mm long; 
filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as perianth segments; 
capsule slightly shorter than perianth 153. 

"♦" Segments of the campanulate or narrowly campanulate perianth 
(4)-5-7 mm long; filaments one-third to two-thirds the length of 
perianth segments; capsule one-half to two-thirds as long as perianth. 

155. 

Outer bulb tunics coriaceous, often reticulately fibrous; bulblets 
reticulately nerved; beak of spathe usually exceeding the blade; 
perianth segments 4-5-(6) mm long 122. A. fibrosum Rgl. 

"*" Outer bulb tunics coriaceous, subreticulately nerved; bulblets 

commonly winged, slenderly nerved; perianth segments 3-4-(5) mm 
long 154. 

154. Perianth segments dark rose, linear-oblong, obtuse 

113. A. syntamanthum C. Koch. 

"*" Perianth segments rose, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, tapering, 

acute to obtusish 114. A. rubellum MB. s.s. 

155. Outer tunics grayish, subchartaceous, the nerves nearly parallel; 
bulblets whitish, slenderly nerved ... 117. A. Jacquemontii Kunth. 

+ Outer tunics brown, coriaceous, subreticulately nerved or sometimes 
fibrous; bulblets yellowish or brownish 156. 

156. Bulblets rather few, with slender nerves; inner filaments as broad 

at base as perianth segments 115. A. albanum Grossh. 

"•" Bulblets commonly numerous, with thick reticulate nervature, 
distinctly alveolate between the nerves; inner filaments slightly 

broader at base than perianth segments 

116. A. scabrellum Boiss. et Buhse. 



102 



157. Perianth segments rose, the outer one-fourth to one-half as long again 
as the inner 118. A. anisotepalum Vved. 

"•" Perianth segments white, equal or the outer slightly longer than the 

inner 158. 

158. Segments of the broadly campanulate perianth oblong or rarely 
oblong-lanceolate, commonly short -acuminate, the outer usually 
slightly longer than the inner 119. A. minutum Vved. 

"*" Segments of the campanulate perianth oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 
strongly tapering, equal 120. A. parvulum Vved. 

159. Perianth purple, 8-10 mm long; leaf solitary; plants scabrous 
throughout. . . . '. 135. A. kujukense Vved. 

+ Perianth 3-7 mm long; leaves 2-4; plants (at least the scape) smooth 
or, if even scape scabrous, then inner filaments 2-toothed 160. 

160. Outer bulb tunics coriaceous, pitted, or with crested projections, or 
134 furrowed by concave distant nerves, or sometimes smooth, but 

bulblets always tuberculate -pitted 161. 

+ Outer bulb tunics papery, smooth; bulblets none or smooth 166. 

161. Inner filaments 3 -angled, 3 times as broad at base as the outer; 
perianth segments (5)-6-7 mm long . . . .136. A. eremoprasum Vved. 

"+ Filaments subulate, equal; perianth segments ca. 3 mm long . . . 162. 

162. Outer perianth segments scabrous 163. 

"*" Perianth segments smooth 164. 

163. Perianth segments greenish, obtuse; bulb tunics furrowed by concave 

distant nerves; scape stout, appearing slantingly inflated 

141. A. sabulosum Stev. 

"*" Perianth segments brownish, violet-tinged in herbarium, acute; 

scape slender 138. A. confragosum Vved. 

164. Outer bulb tunics without crested projections, pitted, blackish or 
brownish; squat plants with usually stoutish scape 10-20 cm long. 
139. A. scrobiculatum Vved. 

+ Outer bulb tunics, at least in young (nonfruiting) specimens, with 

longitudinal crests, light brown; scape (15) 20-60 cm long, slender. 
165. 

165. Perianth segments light lilac, obtuse . . .140. A. transvestiens Vved. 
+ Perianth segments whitish, with a dingy purple nerve, acute 

137. A. Popovii Vved. 

166. Inner filaments 2-3 times as broad as base as the outer 167. 

+ Filaments at base equal or the inner half as broad again as the outer, 

commonly not toothed 174. 

167. Perianth segments ca. 3 mm long, obtuse, rose, not lustrous; 
leaves flat from base, attenuate toward apex, 2-10 mm broad; 

robust plants, (40)-70-100 cm tall, with bulb 1.5-3 cm thick 

142. A. turkestanicum Rgl. 

"•" Perianth segments 4-8 mm long; scape not more than 40 cm long, 

and if longer then flowers azure to bluish-azure 168. 

168. Upper sheaths inflated at summit; flowers lustrous, rose, in a dense 
and sometimes subcapitate umbel; pedicels half as long as to equaling 
or (in fruit) up to half as long again as perianth; inner filaments 
2-toothed 134. .A. schoenoprasoides Rgl. 



103 



+ Sheaths not inflated; pedicels at least twice the length of perianth 
segments, or if as long as or half as long again then filaments 
toothless 169. 

169. Perianth segments azure or bluish-azure or bluish-violet or white 
turning light violet in herbarium 170. 

"*" Perianth segments rose with a purple nerve, small plants, not 

exceeding 20 cm in height 172. 

170. Perianth segments white, turning light violet in herbarium, 5-6 mm 
long; slender plants, 10-20 cm tall; umbel loose; outer pedicels 
ascending 131. A. elegans Drob. 

"*" Perianth segments azure, bluish-azure or bluish-violet; larger 

plants, (l5)-30-80 cm tall; umbel dense 171. 

171. Leaves semicylindric, canaliculate; perianth campanulate; inner 

filaments with 2 teeth at two-thirds the length 

130. A. caesium Schrenk. 

+ Leaves 3 -angled, canaliculate; perianth broadly campanulate; inner 

filaments toothless or 2 -toothed below the middle 

129. A. coeruleum Pall. 

172. Perianth segments 4-5 mm long; inner filaments 2-toothed 

133. A. oreophiloides Rgl. 

"*" Perianth segments 6-7 mm long; filaments toothless 173. 

173. Pedicels 2-3 times as long as perianth; bracteolate at base; spathe 
deciduous 123. A. inops Vved. 

"*■ Pedicels 3-5 times as long as perianth; spathe persistent 

132. A. kopetdagense Vved. 

174. Pedicels 3-5 times as long as perianth; umbel few-flowered, loose; 
filaments two -thirds as long as to slightly shorter than perianth; 
spathe very short -acuminate; umbel several times as long as spathe. 
111. A. kirindicum Bornm. 

"•" Pedicels slightly shorter than or half as long again to twice as long 
as perianth, or if 4 times the length of perianth then umbel densely 
capitate and/or filaments exceeding the perianth or spathe 
long-beaked 175. 

175. Filaments to half as long again as perianth segments, or equaling 
them and then spathe short -acuminate 176. 

■+ Filaments three-fourth as long as or equaling the perianth segments; 
spathe long-beaked, the beak at least as long as the blade 177. 

176. Perianth segments rose, lustrous, 3-4 mm long, lanceolate to 

oblong-lanceolate; umbel always without bulblets 

127. A. Pallasii Murr. 

•*■ Perianth segments dark rose, (4)-5 mm long, relatively dull, oblong 
to oblong-lanceolate; umbel commonly with bulblets, rarely without 
them 128. A. macrostemum Bge. 

177. Sheaths densely covered with short hairs; perianth segments 6-7 mm 
long; style not exserted 124. A. lasiophyllum Vved. 

"*" Sheaths glabrous, smooth or rarely scabrous; style scarcely exserted. 
178. 

178. Pedicels commonly 2-3 times the length of perianth; perianth 
segments whitish or rosy 125. A. delicatulum Sievers. 



136 



104 



"*■ Pedicels slightly shorter than to equaling the perianth; perianth 

segments rose -violet 116. A. glomeratum Prokh. 

179. Pedicels subtended by large bracteoles; filaments adnate to perianth 

for one -half their length (Section C a 1 1 o s c o r du m) 

226. A. nerinifolium Baker. 

"•" Pedicels ebracteolate (Section Molium) 180. 

180. Perianth segments soon recurved, withering after anthesis, more or 
less twisted 181. 

** Perianth segments generally not withering after flowering, commonly 
erect 207. 

181. Ovary containing 7-10 ovules; umbel loose; pedicels 3 or many times 
the length of perianth; perianth segments 4-5 mm long; small plants; 
scape 10-20 cm long 182. 

"*■ Ovary containing numerous ovules 186. 

182. Leaves divided down to base into filiform lobes, forming a false 
whorl 185. A. verticillatum Rgl. 

+ Leaves entire 183. 

183. Spathe with a long herbaceous beak; bulb tunics coriaceous 

186. A. aroides Vved. 

"*" Spathe short-acuminate; bulb tunics papery 184. 

184. Scape stout, 5-8 mm thick; pedicels stout, clavately thickened below 

the flower; perianth segments 5 mm long 

182. A. helicophyllum Vved. 

+ Scape slender, ca. I2 mm thick; pedicels slender, not thickened 

below the flower; perianth segments 4 mm long 185. 

185. Leaves erect; the underside of leaves in lower part and the upper 
part of sheaths hairy 184. A. Eugenii Vved. 

■* Leaves crowded, glabrous 183. A. Sergii Vved. 

186. Squat plants, 10-25 cm tall; scape stout, buried in the soil up to the 
middle or higher up; leaves greatly exceeding the umbel 187. 

+ Usually taller plants; scape buried at base; leaves shorter than scape. 

l37 188 - 

187. Leaves linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 1-2 cm broad 



194. A. brachyscapum Vved. 

"*■ Leaves lanceolate or often oblong to subelliptic, (3) — 5— 13 cm broad. 
195. A. karataviense Rgl. 

188. Ovary 6-corniculate; filaments distinctly connate in a ring above the 
part adnate to perianth 189. 

+ Ovary not corniculate 190. 

189. Perianth segments gradually attenuate from base toward apex, dark 
rosy-violet; umbel rather loose 214. A. seravschanicum Rgl. 

+ Perianth segments attenuate from the middle toward apex, light-rosy- 
violet; umbel more compact, dense 

215. A. pseudoseravschanicum M. Pop. et Vved. 

190. Perianth segments white, with green nerve, 11 mm long, filiform - 
linear, gradually attenuate from base toward apex; robust plants, 
90-150 cm tall 208. A. gultschense B. Fedtsch. 

"* Perianth segments rose, rosy-violet, violet or wine-red, or if white 
then segments 4 mm long 191. 



105 



138 



191. Perianth segments rosy-violet, delicate, obscurely nerved, 5-7 mm 

long; inner filaments commonly toothed at base 

198. A. Fetissovii Rgl. 

■+■ Perianth segments with a distinct nerve 192. 

192. Leaves and sometimes scape pubescent 193. 

+ Plants glabrous 195. 

193. Robust plants, 60-150 cm tall; perianth segments lilac, 9 mm long. 
207. A. stipitatum Rgl. 

■+ Perianth segments 4-6 mm long; scape 15-70 cm long 194. 

194. Perianth segments 6 mm long, light violet; plants vested with long 
hairs 206. A. alaicum Vved. 

+ Perianth segments 4 mm long, white; plants vested with short hairs, 
rough 199. A. dasyphyllum Vved. 

195. Perianth segments 3-5 mm long 196. 

■+ Perianth segments 6-12 mm long 202. 

196. Perianth segments dark purple or wine-red 197. 

+ Perianth segments pale rose or rosy-violet 199. 

197. Perianth segments 5 mm long, dark purple 

201. A. robustus Kar. et Kir. 

+ Perianth segments 3-4 mm long, wine-red 198. 

198. Filaments barely shorter than perianth segments, the inner ones 

obtusely toothed above the middle 

197. A. cardiostemon Fisch. et Mey. 

+ Filaments entire, slightly longer than perianth segments 

196. A. Mariae Bord 

199. Filaments subequal at base 200. 

+ Inner filaments twice as broad at base as the outer 201. 

200. Small plants, 20-30 cm tall; leaves 1-2 mm broad 

200. A. insufficiens Vved. 

+ Fairly robust plants, 35-85 cm tall; leaves 5-20 mm broad 

204. A. Suvorovii Rgl. 

201. Perianth segments linear 203. A. Severtzovii Rgl. 

"•" Perianth segments narrowly elliptic 202. A. decipiens Fisch. 

202. Leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong, 4-8 cm broad; scape 30-50 cm 
long; perianth segments 6 mm long .... 213. A. Komarovii Lipsky. 

■+ Leaves linear-lanceolate or lorate; more robust plants, 70-150 cm 
tall or relatively small plants (20-40 cm tall) and then perianth 
segments 8-12 mm long 203. 

203. Perianth segment whitish-rose 205. A. grande Lipsky. 

+ Perianth segments light or dark violet 204. 

204. Scape 20-70 cm tall, ribbed by very prominent nerves 205. 

"*" Scape 80-150 cm long, with not very prominent nerves 206. 

205. Perianth segments dark violet, gradually attenuate from base toward 
apex, acute 212. A. Rosenbachianum Rgl. 

+ Perianth segments dark rosy-violet, with nearly parallel margins, 

obtuse 211. A. taeniopetalum M. Pop. et Vved. 

206. Scape covered with leaf sheaths above ground level; leaves 6-8, 
glaucous; anthers violet; filaments distinct above the part adnate to 
perianth 209. A. aflatunense B. Fedtsch. 



106 



139 



*•" Scape not covered with leaf sheaths above ground level; leaves 4-6, 
more or less green; anthers yellow; filaments more or less connate 

above the part adnate to perianth 210. A. altissimum Rgl 

207. Perianth segments rigid after anthesis due to thickening of the nerve, 

sometimes nearly spinous 208. 

"*" Nerve of perianth segments not thickening after anthesis; perianth 

segments not spinous 214. 

2 08. Scape buried in the soil up to the middle or nearly up to the umbel; 

leaves 1-3 209. 

■+ Scape buried in the soil at base; leaves 2-7 212. 

209. Perianth segments 5-6 mm long; scape buried in soil nearly up to 
the umbel; leaf solitary 187. A. monophyllum Vved. 

+ Perianth segments 7-13 mm long; scape buried in soil up to the 

middle; leaves (l) 2 or 3 210. 

210. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 0.5-1 cm broad; perianth segments white 
with a violet nerve; filaments one -half to two-thirds the length of 
perianth segments 188. A. Derderianum Rgl. 

+ Leaves linear to elliptic, 2-6 mm broad; perianth segments rose 
with a dark nerve; filaments half as long as or slightly shorter than 
perianth segments 211. 

211. Filaments two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than perianth 
segments 189. A. Alexejanum Rgl. 

+ Filaments half the length of perianth segments 

190. A. akaka Gmel. 

212. Perianth segments 5-9 mm long, lilac with a reddish nerve; leaves 
glabrous 191. A. materculae Bordz. 

"*■ Perianth segments 10-18 mm long, rosy-violet or purplish- violet. 

213. 

213. Leaves l-2-(4), linear-lanceolate, recurved, hispid, glabrous or 
scabrous beneath; scape relatively slender, not more than 4- (5) mm 
thick 193. A. Bodeanum Rgl. 

"•" Leaves 3-7, sublorate, strict, the lower surface and margin beset 
with stiff spreading hairs, rarely glabrous; scape stout, 5-15 mm 
thick 192. A. Christophii Trautv. 

214. Pedicels, especially in fruit, clavately thickened below the flower, 
usually very unequal, thus apparently forming two whorls; umbel 

very loose, containing fertile and sterile flowers 

219. A. Schubertii Zucc. 

+ Pedicels never clavately thickened below the flower 215. 

215. Ovary 6-ovuled 216. 

"*" Ovary many-ovuled 220. 

216. Umbel 1 -2-(3)-flowered; perianth segments rose, 4-5 mm long. 
177. A. monanthum Maxim. 

+ Umbel containing a larger number of flowers; perianth segments 

8-12 mm long 217. 

217. Flowers white, sometimes rose-tinged; leaves shorter to slightly 
longer than scape; scape base buried in soil; umbel sometimes 
bearing bulblets 218. 

■+ Flowers rosy-purple or dingy purple; leaves greatly exceeding the 
umbel; scape buried in the soil to one -half to three-quarters the 
length 219. 



107 



218. Scape triquetrous; leaf solitary, 0.5-2.5 cm broad 

1 178. A. paradoxum (MB.) Don. 

■ + Scape terete, leaves 2 or 3, 3-7 mm broad 

179. A. Candolleanum Albov. 

219. Segments of the broadly campanulate perianth a beautiful rose -purple, 
oval 180. A. oreophilum C.A.M. 

!t Segments of the campanulate perianth dingy purple, more intensely 

colored at the tips, oblong-linear to oblanceolate 

181. A. gypsaceum M. Pop. et Vved. 

220. Filaments two-fifths to one half the length of perianth segments, 
connate and adnate to perianth for one-half to two-thirds their length 
and often joined together for one-half of their distinct portion; perianth 
narrowly campanulate 221. 

"*" Filaments slightly shorter than or half as long again to twice as long 
as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth at base; perianth 
stellate or campanulate 225. 

221. Perianth segment not withering after anthesis, erect 

225. A. iliense Rgl. 

"t Perianth segments withering after anthesis 222. 

222. Filaments connate for half their length above the part adnate to 
perianth 223. 

"•" Filaments nearly distinct above the part adnate to perianth; umbel 

dense 224. 

223. Umbels 2 or 3 (4) on one scape, one above the other, or rarely umbel 
solitary 224. A. Regelii Tratuv. 

+ Umbel always solitary 223. A. cupuliferum Rgl. 

224. Flowers rose-violet 223. A. Winklerianum Rgl. 

■t Flowers white 221. A. darvazicum Rgl. 

225. Perianth campanulate; squat plants with scape 10-30 cm long. 
220. A. caspium (Pall. ) M.B. 

"♦" Perianth stellate; scape 50-150 cm long 226. 

226. Pedicels immersed at base in the thickened spongy scape apex; 
perianth segments subcoriaceous after anthesis; filaments slightly 
shorter than perianth segments .... 218. A. Trautvetterianum Rgl. 

+ Filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as perianth 

segments; perianth segments slender after anthesis; pedicels not 
immersed at base 227. 

227. Perianth segments elliptic, 5 mm long, obtuse; filaments about half 
as long again as perianth segments 217. A. giganteum Rgl. 

141 "* Perianth segments linear-lanceolate, 6-8 mm long; filaments 

slightly exceeding the perianth segments 216. A. elatum Rgl. 



Section 1. ANGUINUM Don. Mon. (1826) 96. — Bulb attached to rhizome; 
aerial part of scape enveloped to high up by leaf sheaths; spathe persistent; 
perianth segments 1-nerved; filaments of stamens entire; capsule 3-seeded. 
Seeds rounded. 

1. A. victorialis L. Sp. pi. (1753) 295; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 184; 
Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII 2 (1854) 127; Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
(1884)245; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 492; Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929)629; 



108 



Kom., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (193 1) 365. — A. microdictyum 
Prokh. inTr. Prikl. Bot. XXIV 2 (1930) 174. — A. ochotense Prokh. 
I.e. — A. latissimum Prokh. I.e. — Ic: Kom., I.e. Plate 112, 
Figure 1. — Exs.: Billot. Fl. Gall, et German, exs. No. 2543. 

Perennial; bulbs 1 to several, attached to an oblique rhizome, cylindric- 
conical, 1 — 1 . 5 — (2) cm thick; tunics light brown or grayish-brown, 
reticulate; scape 30-70 cm long, covered for one-third to one-half its 
length by smooth often violet-tinged leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, smooth, 
the blade lanceolate, oblong or broadly elliptic, acute or obtuse, 
(2)-3-6-(10) cm broad, gradually narrowed into and 2-4 times as long 
as the petiole; spathe two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than the 
umbel, persistent, obtuse or nearly beakless; umbel spherical or rarely 
hemispherical, rather densely many-flowered, drooping before flowering; 
pedicels equal, 2-3 times as long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments 
of the stellate perianth whitish-green, obscurely nerved, 4-5 mm long, 
elliptic, obtuse, the outer somewhat narrower and shorter; filaments about 
half as long again as perianth, adnate to perianth merely at base, entire, 
gradually narrowed from base, narrowly 3 -angled, the inner half as broad 
again as the outer; ovary short -stipitate; style exserted; capsule globose - 
trigonous, with broadly obcordate valves; seeds globose. June-July. 

Woods, wood margins and meadows. — European part: V.-Ka. (E. part), 
Caucasus: Cis. , Dag., E.Transc; W. Siberia: Ob. (S. part), U. Tob. 
(N. part), Alt.; E, Siberia: Yen. (S. part), Ang.-Say. , Dau. ; Far East: 
Kamch. , Okh. , Ze.-Bu., Uda, Uss. , Sakh. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., 
Alt. Eur., W. Med., Bal.-As. Min. , Ind.-Him., Mong. , Jap.-Ch., 
N. Am. Described from the mountains of Central Europe. 

Note. An attempt was made recently (Prokhanov, 1. c. ) to break up 
A. victorialis into elementary entities, but this did not unfortunately 
embrace the whole of A. victorialis in its old connotation. 

A. microdictyum (Urals, Siberia, Mongolia) should, according to 
Prokhanov, be distinguished from A. victorialis (Europe, Caucasus) 
and from A. latissimum (Ussuri area, Japan, N. Korea, N. China: 
Chihli (Hopeh] which have bulb tunics with less developed and irregular 
142 reticulation and more slender nervature, narrower and usually paired 
sheathing leaves, and commonly violet or yellowish flowers. 

A. latissimum may be distinguished from A. victorialis by its 
habitat (the former being a syl vatic, the latter an alpine plant) and broader 
leaves A. latissimum has obovate-oblong leaves, mostly 3 in number, 
colorless sheaths, and white flowers. 

A. okhotense (Kamchatka, Sakhalin) differs from 
A. microdictyum in its longer rhizome, darker and broader leaves, 
and often reddish flowers. The characters distinguishing this species 
from A. victorialis and from A. latissimum are not indicated. 

Economic importance. Readily used for food both fresh and pickled. 
It has antiscorbutic properties. In many localities in Siberia the plants 
used to be salted in bulk for winter use. 



Section 2. OPHIOSCORDON (Wallr.) Vved. comb. n. — O ph i o s c o r d o n 
Wallr. Sched. crit. (1822) 129.— Bulb not attached to a rhizome; leaf sheaths 
buried in the soil; spathe deciduous; perianth segments 1 -nerved; filaments 
entire; capsule 3 -seeded; seeds rounded. 



109 



2. A. ursinum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 300; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 186; Boiss . 
Fl. Or. V (1884) 275; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 490. -A. latifolium Gilib. 
Exerc. phyt. (1792) 470. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1848) f. 1109. — 
Exs. : HFR No. 2046 a et b. ; 

Perennial; bulb elongated, ca. 1 cm thick; tunics separating into 
parallel fibers; scape triquetrous, 15-40 cm long, covered at base with 
sheathing leaves; leaves 2, slightly shorter than scape, the blade 
lanceolate to oblong, acute, 3-5 mm broad, rather gradually narrowed 
into and half as long to as long as the petiole; spathe equaling the umbel, 
acuminate, deciduous; umbel fasciculate or hemispherical, relatively 
many-flowered, dense; pedicels equal, half as long again to twice as long 
as perianth, scabrous or smooth, ebracteolate; segments of the substellate 
perianth white, obscurely nerved, 9-12 mm long, linear-lanceolate, obtuse 
to acutish; filaments half as long as perianth at base and adnate to it, 
subulate; style shorter than perianth; capsule globose -trigonous, with 
broadly obcordate valves; seeds subglobose. May- June. 

Shady woods .— European part: U. Dnp. , M. Dnp. , V.-Don (W. part); 
Caucasus: Cisc. , W. , E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Scand. , Centr. 
Eur., Atl. Eur., Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described from Gotland Island. 

Economic importance. Readily used for food in fresh condition. 



Section 3. RHIZIRIDIUM Don. Mon. (1826) 55.— Bulbs attached to 
rhizome, commonly narrow, cylindric -conical or ovoid-conical, sometimes 
143 obsolete, rarely ovoid or oblong, commonly clustered; upper part of scape 
mostly covered to high up with leaf sheaths; perianth segments 1 -nerved; 
filaments entire or toothed, the teeth short or long but never surpassing 
the anther; seeds angled. 

3. A. sacculiferum Maxim, in Mem. Acad. Petersb. sav. etrang. IX 
(1859) 281; Kom., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 366.— Exs.: 
Karo PI. Amur, et Zeaen. No. 181. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary (or in pairs), attached to a short vertical 
rhizome, oblong-ovoid, 3/4 -l-(li) cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 
splitting, obscurely reticulate-fibrous, enveloping the base of scape; 
scape (30)-40-60 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves (2)-3-(4), canaliculate -triquetrous, sometimes fistulous at base, 
smooth, 2 -3- (4) mm broad, shorter than scape; spathe with beak sometimes 
half the length of blade, two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than umbel, 
persistent; umbel commonly spherical, rather many-flowered, fairly 
dense; pedicels equal, 2-3-(4) times as long as perianth, subtended by 
bracteoles; segments of the hemispherical perianth rosy-purple, with a 
darker nerve, 4.5-5.5 mm long, elliptic, obtuse, the outer scaphoid, 
slightly shorter than the inner; filaments half as long again as the perianth, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subequal, at base, subulate; 
style strongly exserted; capsule about equaling the perianth. August- 
September. 

Wet meadows. — Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss. Gen. distr.: Jap.-Ch. 
Described from the middle course of the Amur. Type in Leningrad. 

4. A. Komarovianum Vved. in Bull. Univ. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 119. 



Perennial; bulb solitary (?), attached to a short vertical rhizome, ovoid, 
1 - 1.5-(2) cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, subcoriaceous, entire, 
scarcely enveloping the base of scape; scape 25-60 cm long, covered to 
l/4 or nearly to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4-7, linear, 
canaliculate, prominently carinate, smooth, 2-5 mm broad, slightly 
shorter than to equaling the scape; spathe with beak sometimes up to half 
the length of blade, about equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical, 
dense, commonly many-flowered; pedicels equal, half as long again as the 
perianth, dingy rose, intensely colored on the back, 4-4.5 mm long, 
elliptic, obtuse, the outer scaphoid, slightly shorter than the inner; 
filaments half as long again as perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subequal at base, subulate; style strongly exserted; 
capsule slightly exserted. September. 
144 Dry slopes. — Far East: Uss. Gen. distr. : Jap.-Ch. (Manchuria). 
Described from Fadeevka on the Suifun River. Type in Leningrad. 

5. A. Drobovi Vved. in Trans. Sc. Soc . Turk. I (1923) 125. 
Perennial; bulb solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 

narrowly conical to subcylindric, 3/4-11 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, 
brownish, splitting, more or less reticulate especially at the margins; 
scape robust, 50-100 cm long; leaves 5-9, green, broadly linear, 4-15 mm 
broad, flat, smooth, much shorter than scape; spathe short-acuminate, 
about equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical, densely many- 
flowered; pedicels unequal, the inner half as long again as the outer, 
2-5 times as long as the perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of 
the subspherical perianth greenish-white, the outer sometimes suffused 
on the back with dingy purple, green-nerved, 4^5 mm long, broadly oblong, 
obtuse, the outer scaphoid, barely shorter than the inner; filaments about 
twice the length of perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate from a somewhat enlarged base, equal; style 
exserted from perianth; capsule slightly exceeding the perianth. June -July. 

Stony and gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Kara-tau, SW spurs 
of Talass Ala Tau). Endemic. Described from Kara-tau Mountains. Type 
in Tashkent. ' 

6. A. oreoscordum Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. V 
(1924) 95. 

Perennial; bulbs l-(2?), attached to an ascending rhizome, narrowly 
conical, ca. 1 cm thick; tunics tawny or brownish, reticulate; scape 
25-50 cm long, covered at base or up to l/3 with subapproximate 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 5-7, linear, 3-6 mm broad, flat, rigid, 
scabrous -margined, much shorter than scape; spathe short-acuminate, 
equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels subequal, the inner slightly longer, (l2)-2-3 times the length of 
perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the spherical perianth 
greenish-white, greenish or dingy purple on the back, ca. 4 mm long, 
broadly elliptic, obtuse, the outer scaphoid, barely shorter than the inner; 
filaments half as long again as perianth segments, at the very base connate 
and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate from a somewhat enlarged base, 
the inner about twice as broad, subulate from a square and often 2 -toothed 
base; style exserted; capsule equaling the perianth. May-July. 



Ill 



145 Stony and gravelly slopes . — Centr. Asia: Tien Shan (Chatkal Range, 
town of Uzun-akhmat). Endemic. Described from Ungar-tyube mountains. 
Type in Leningrad. 

7. A. Fischeri Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 161; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill 
(1929) 624. 

Perennial; bulbs several, attached to a rhizome, forming a rather dense 
clump, cylindric -conical, 1.5-1 cm thick, 5-8 cm long; tunics rufous- 
brown, reticulate; scape 15-30 cm long, covered at base with approximate 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, semicylindric, ca. 1 mm broad, 
canaliculate, smooth, usually shorter than the scape; spathe with beak up 
to 3 times the length of blade, slightly shorter than to slightly exceeding 
the umbel, persistent; umbel commonly hemispherical, rather few- 
flowered, fairly loose; pedicels equal, (li)-2-3 times as long as perianth, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth dark 
rosy- violet, with a darker nerve, ca. 5 mm long, acute or obtuse, 
terminating in a short reflexed point; oblong-elliptic to lanceolate, the outer 
slightly shorter; filaments slightly exceeding the perianth segments, the 
inner 2 -toothed at base, half as broad again as the outer; style slightly 
exserted; capsule two-thirds as long as perianth. August. 

Rocks and stony places. — W. Siberia: Alt. (rare). Gen. distr. : Dzu.- 
Kash. Mong. Described from Altai. Type in Leningrad. 

8. A. clathratum* Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 18; Ej. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 
178; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 627. — Ic. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. IV 
(1833) t. 356. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
cylindric-conical, 3/4-1 cm thick, 5-10 cm long; tunics brown, coarsely 
reticulate; scape 20-50 cm long, terete, smooth, ribbed, covered to l/3 
with smooth distant leaf sheaths; leaves 3, semicylindric, canaliculate, 
(0.5)-l-2 mm broad, smooth, slightly shorter than to equaling the scape; 
spathe short-acuminate, two-thirds the length of umbel, persistent; umbel 
hemispherical or often spherical, rather densely many-flowered; pedicels 
equal, I2-2 (3) times as long as perianth, subtended by numerous 
bracteoles; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth rose or pale 
with a purple nerve, 4-5 mm long, linear to linear-lanceolate, obtuse to 

146 acutish, the inner slightly longer than the outer; filaments half as long 
again to twice as long as the perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, the outer subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, subulate 
from a 2 -toothed base or rarely entire, the base longer than broad; style 
strongly exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth, with broadly 
elliptic valves . July. 

Steppes, and gravelly and stony slopes. — W. Siberia: Ob (SE part), 
Alt.: E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (W. part). Gen. distr.: Mongolia. Described 
from the Charysh River. Type in Leningrad. 



The group of species related to A. line a re (8-18), is one of the most confused. Most of the species 
presented here have usually been referred to A . 1 i n e a r e otto A.strictum, or else have all been 
pooled under the one appellation A. line a re. The species of this group to the east of Altai present 
particular difficulties and their systematics and taxonomy cannot be considered as complete. 



12 



9. A. leucocephalum Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII, 2 (1854) 
123. — A. flavovirens Rgl. in A. H. P. X (1887) 344, t . VIII, f. 1. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
cylindric, 3/4-1 cm thick, 5-8cmlong; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 
30-60 cm long, terete, smooth, slightly ribbed, covered to l/3 with smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, 1-5 mm 
broad, gradually attenuate toward apex, smooth, much shorter than the 
scape; spathe with beak sometimes longer than the blade, slightly shorter 
than the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical, many-flowered, very dense, 
capitate; pedicels subequal, slightly shorter to slightly longer than perianth, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth nearly white, 
with a faint greenish or violet nerve, lustrous, 5-6 mm long, oblong- 
elliptic, obtuse, the inner about one -fourth as long again as the outer; 
filaments half as long again to about twice as long as perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, yellow, the outer subulate, the 
inner twice as broad at base, subulate from a 2 -toothed base, the base 
twice as long as broad, the teeth the length of the undivided part, often 
biparted; style strongly exserted; stigma scarcely thickened; capsule 
slightly shorter than perianth, with broadly elliptic valves . August. 

Steppe slopes. — E. Siberia: Dau. Gen. distr. : Mongolia, Kansu. 
Described from the Dzhida River. Type in Leningrad. 

10. A. flavidum Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830), 7; Ej. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 179; 
(excl. syn. Turcz.); Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. II (1929) 628. — Ic. : Ldb. Ic. 
pf. fl.; Ross. IV (1833) 362. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
cylindric-conical, 0.5-1 cm thick, 2-4 cm long; tunics brown; reticulate; 
149 scape (20)-25-50 cm long, terete, smooth, ribbed, covered to about the 
middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2-4, linear, (2)-3-5-(7) mm 
broad, with nearly parallel margins, obtuse, often slightly recurved, flat, 
scabrous -margined, much shorter than scape; spathe scarcely pointed, 
slightly shorter than umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or rarely 
hemispherical, densely many-flowered, subcapitate; pedicels about equaling 
to half as long again (or even twice as long) as perianth, subtended by 
bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth pale greenish-yellow, 
sometimes suffused with red on the back, lustrous, obscurely nerved, 
5-6 mm long, oblong-elliptic, obtuse, the inner about one-fourth as long 
again as the outer; filaments one-fourth to one-half as long again as 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, yellow, the 
outer subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, subulate from a 2 -toothed 
base, the base longer than broad, the teeth commonly as long as the base, 
sometimes 2-parted; style strongly exserted; stigma scarcely thickened; 
capsule slightly shorter than perianth, with broadly elliptic valves. July. 

Forest or rarely alpine meadows sometimes stony slopes.— W. Siberia: 
Alt.; Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Tarbagatai). Gen. distr.: Mongolian Altai. 
Described from Belaya Uba River. Type in Leningrad. 

11. A. Maackii Prokh. ex Komarov, Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I 
(1931) 366. — A. lineare var. Maackii Maxim, in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 
sav. etrang. IX (1859) 282. 



113 



147' 




Plate X 

1. Allium flavescens Bess., la) portion of perianth.— 2. A . ty t thocepha lum Roem. et Schult. 
2a) portion of perianth.- 3. A. poly rrh izum Turcz.; 3a) portion of perianth.- 4. A.Maackii 
Prokh.; 4a) portion of perianth. 



14 



Perennial; bulb solitary or paired, attached to a short rhizome, ovoid- 
oblong, 1-1.5 cm thick, 2-5 cm long; outer tunics brown, reticulate; 
inner tunics coriaceous, nearly entire, sometimes produced into a collar; 
scape (l0)-20-50 cm long, terete, smooth, more or less ribbed, covered 
to l/4 -1/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, 
1-2- (3) mm broad, slightly narrowed toward base, flat, smooth- or rough- 
margined, shorter than scape; spathe short -acuminate, two-thirds as long 
as to slightly shorter than the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical 
or spherical, rather densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, half as long 
again to twice as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of 
the campanulate perianth rose with a distinct purple nerve, 4-5 mm long, 
oblong-elliptic to oblong, obtuse or obtusish, the outer somewhat shorter; 
filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, 
subulate from a 2 -toothed base, this about as long as broad; style strongly 
exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. June -July. (Plate X, 
Figure 4a). 
150 Rocky and stony places. — Far East: Uss. Endemic (?). Described from 
the Amur River, Sargu. Type in Leningrad. 

12. A. splendens Willd. ex Roem. et Schult. Syst. VII, 2 (1830) 1023; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 179 (excl. pi. Kamtsch.). — A. lineare auct. 
fl. Sib. orient.— Exs. : HFRNo.1242 (sub A. lineari). 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to a short ascending 
rhizome, narrowly cylindric -conical, 1/2-3/4 cm thick, 3-7cmlong; tunics 
brown, reticulate; scape 25-50 cm long, slender, terete, smooth, slightly 
ribbed, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth sheathing leaves; leaves 3 or 4, 
linear, 1-4 mm broad, slightly narrowed toward base, flat, scabrous - 
margined, shorter than scape; spathe short-acuminate, slightly shorter 
than the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical, rather densely many- 
flowered; pedicels slender, equal, half as long again to twice as long as 
perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the campanulate 
perianth commonly light rosy-lilac with a prominent purple nerve, 3.5-4 mm 
long, oblong-elliptic to oblong, obtuse, the outer somewhat shorter; 
filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate, the inner twice as broad 
at base, subulate from a 2-3-4-toothed base, the base shorter than broad; 
style strongly exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth segments. 
July -August. 

Light woods, scrub, meadows, and stony slopes. — E. Siberia: Lena-Kol. 
(S. part), Ang.-Say. , Dau. , Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uda, Uss., Sakh. 
Gen. distr. : Mong. , Jap.-Ch. Described from Siberia. 

13. A. lineare L. Sp. pi. (1753) 295; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 178 (pro max 
parte); Shmal'g., Fl. II, 492; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 625. (excl. var. 
st rictum). — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. XIII. f. 1-5. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
cylindric, conical, 0.5-1 cm thick, 3-4-(6) cm long; tunics brown, 
reticulate; scape (20)-30-60 cm long, terete, smooth, slightly ribbed., 
covered to 1/3-1/2 with distant smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, narrowly 
linear, 1-3 mm broad, flat, smooth- or rough-margined, shorter than 



115 



scape; spathe short -acuminate, two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter 
than the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or hemispherical, rather 
loosely many-flowered; pedicels slender, equal, (li)-2-3 times as long 
as perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the 
campanulate perianth rose, obscurely nerved, 3.5-4-(5) mm long, oblong- 
elliptic to oblong, obtuse, often terminating in a short reflexed point, the 
outer somewhat shorter; filaments commonly half as long again to twice 
as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, the 

151 outer subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, subulate from a 2 -toothed 
base, this longer than broad, the teeth sometimes 2 -parted; style strongly 
exserted; stigma scarcely thickened; capsule with broadly elliptic valves, 
equaling to slightly exceeding the perianth. June -July. 

Steppe, meadows, and rarely exposed places.— European part: V.-Ka. 
(SE part), V.-Don (E. part), Transv. , L.D., L. V.; W. Siberia: U. Tob., 
Irt., Alt. (rare); Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. , Dzu.-Tarb. Gen. distr. : 
NW Mongolia. Described from Siberia. 

14. A. strictum Schrad. Hort. Goett. (1809) 7 t. 1; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
178 (excl. pi. cauc); Shmal'g. , Fl. II (1887) 492. — A. volhynicum 
Bess. Catal. hort. Crem. Suppl. Ill (1814) 2. — A. Schrenki Rgl. in 
A.H.P. Ill (1875) 172. — A. lineare var. strictum Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. 
Ill (1929) 626. — Ic. : Fl. Yugo-Vost. Ill (1929) Figure 179. — Exs . : PI. 
Finl. exs. No. 572. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
subcylindric, 3/4-12 cm thick, 6-8-(l0) cm long; tunics brown, reticulate; 
scape 40-60 cm long, terete, smooth, ribbed, covered to 1/3 with distant 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 3-5 mm broad, flatfish, rigid, 
rough-margined, narrowed toward apex, shorter than scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, slightly shorter than umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical 
or rarely spherical, rather many-flowered, dense; pedicels relatively 
stout, subequal, li-2-(3) times as long as perianth, bracteolate at base; 
segments of the campanulate perianth rose, with a prominent purple nerve, 
4-5 mm long, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, obtuse, the outer slightly shorter; 
filaments commonly somewhat longer than perianth, at base connate and 
adnate to perianth, the outer subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, 
commonly with 2 short or rarely long toothlets at base or entire; style 
exserted; stigma capitate; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. June-July. 

Mostly exposed places and rocks.— European part: Dv.-Pech., V.-Ka. 
(E.), V.-Don (E.), Transv.; W. Siberia: Ob. (S.), U. Tob., Irt., Alt.; 
E.. Siberia: Lena-Kol., Ang.-Say. , Dau.; Far East: Kamch., Okh., Ze.-Bu., 
Sakh.; Centr. Asia: Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., T. Sh. (Tur-aigyr). Gen. distr.: 
Centr. Eur., Scand., Mong. Described from Siberia. 

15. A. bogdoicolum Rgl. in A.H.P. VI (1880) 530. 

Perennial; bulb solitary, attached to an ascending rhizome, cylindric, 
3/4-1 cm thick, (4)-6-8 cm long; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 20-40 cm 
long, terete, smooth, slightly ribbed, covered to l/3 or rarely to about 

152 the middle or merely at base with smooth sometimes reddish-tinged leaf 
sheaths; leaves 3, linear, 2-4 mm broad, flat, with rough nearly parallel 
margins, subrigid, suberect, obtuse, much shorter than scape; spathe 
short -acuminate, barely shorter than to equaling the umbel, persistent; 
pedicels subequal, as long to twice as long as perianth, bracteolate at base; 



segments of the campanulate perianth rose, darker on the back, with a 
prominent purple nerve, 4-5 mm long, oblong-linear to oblong-lanceolate, 
obtuse, the inner slightly longer than the outer; filaments slightly shorter 
to barely longer than perianth segments, at base connate.and adnate to 
perianth, rose, the outer subulate, the inner 3 times as broad at base, 
2 -toothed or entire at base; style exserted; stigma scarcely thickened; 
capsule barely shorter than perianth, with broadly elliptic valves. July. 

Alpine meadows . — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash, 
Described from Mount Bogdo. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Closely related to A. amphibolum and needing further study. 

16. A. amphibolum Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 5; Ej. Fl. Ross. VI, 179; 
Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 624. - Ic. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. VI (1833) 
tab. 357. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
cylindric-conical, 1-1.5 cm thick, (4)-6-8 cm long; tunics brown, 
reticulate; scape 10-25 cm long, terete, smooth, slightly ribbed, covered 
at base or up to l/3 with smooth subapproximate sometimes reddish-tinged 
sheaths; leaves 2-4, linear, 2-5 mm broad, flat, rough-margined, slightly 
tapering at both ends, usually somewhat recurved, obtuse, slightly shorter 
than to equaling the scape; spathe short -acuminate, about equaling the 
umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or hemispherical, rather many- 
flowered, dense, capitate; pedicels equal, slightly shorter than to equaling 
the perianth, bracteolate at base; segments of the campanulate perianth 
rose or rose-purple, with a darker nerve, lustrous, 5-6 mm long, oblong- 
lanceolate to lanceolate, obtusish, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; 
filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, dark rose, the outer subulate, the 
inner 1 -toothed at base; style strongly exserted; stigma scarcely thickened; 
capsule slightly shorter than perianth, with broadly elliptic valves. June- 
July. 

Stony and gravelly slopes in the alpine zone. — W. Siberia: Alt. ; 
E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (SE). Gen. distr. : Mong. Described from the 
Charysh River and from the vicinity of Riddersk. Type in Leningrad. 

153 17. A. Szovitsii Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 171 (quoad pi. cauc. ) 

A. strictum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 178 (quod. pi. cauc.).— 
A. strictum var. anodon Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 247.— 
A. pseudostric turn Albov in Tr. Tifl. Sada I (1895) 238. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an ascending rhizome, 
cylindrical-conical, 1-1.5 cm thick, 3-10 cm long; tunics brown, 
reticulate; scape 15-30 cm long, terete, smooth, slightly sulcate, covered 
to l/4 with smooth sometimes purple -tinged leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, 
linear, 2-4 mm broad, flat, rough-margined; obtuse, scarcely narrowed 
toward base, shorter to slightly longer than scape; spathe short -acuminate, 
slightly shorter than to equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical 
or subspherical, dense, subcapitate; pedicels equal, about half as long to 
slightly longer than, perianth, stout, subtended by few bracteoles; segments 
of the campanulate perianth rose or nearly white, with a prominent purple 
nerve, (5)-6-7 mna long, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse to acutish, 
the inner slightly longer than the outer; filaments half as long again to twice 



117 



as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, the 
outer subulate, the inner twice as broad, subulate from a 2-toothed base 
or sometimes entire; base much longer than broad; style strongly exserted; 
stigma subcapitate; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. July-August. 

Mountain meadows and stony slopes. — Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W., 
E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd. Described from Karabakh, 
town of Kins. Type in Leningrad. 

18. A. brachyodon Boiss. Diagn. pi. or. nov. I, 7 (1846) 117 . — 
A. strictum var. brachyodon Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 247.— 
Ic: Fl. Turkm. II (1932) 275. 

Perennial; bulbs 2 or 3, attached to an ascending rhizome, cylindric, 
1 — 1.5 cm thick, 5-10 cm long; tunics grayish-brown, coriaceous, splitting, 
coarsely reticulate; scape 10-20 cm long, terete, smooth, slightly sulcate, 
covered at base with smooth, approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 
2-3 mm broad, flat, rough-margined, equaling the scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or subspherical, 
densely few -flowered; pedicels equal, slightly shorter than perianth, 
subtended by few bracteoles; segments of the broad perianth whitish, rosy 
on the back, with a dark purple nerve, ca. 5 mm long, obtuse, the outer 
oblong, slightly shorter than the ovate inner segments; filaments half as 
long again as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
154 the outer subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, subulate from a 
2-toothed base, this longer than broad, the teeth often secondarily 
2-toothed; style exserted; stigma subcapitate; capsule equaling the perianth, 
with rounded valves. July. 

Stony places. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Chapan-dag). Gen. distr.: 
Iran. Described from Mount Kuh-Daen. Cotype in Leningrad. 

19. A. oreoprasoides Vved. in Trans. Sc. Soc. Turk. II (1925) 29, t. I 
Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to an ascending 

cylindric -conical rhizome, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics rufous-brown, 
reticulate; scape 20-30 cm long, sulcate, covered at base with smooth 
approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 4-6, linear, 2-3 mm broad, flat, smooth, 
attenuate at apex, slightly recurved, exceeding the middle of scape; spathe 
with beak sometimes the length of blade, one -half to two-thirds as long as 
the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical or spherical, densely many- 
flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times as long as perianth, bracteolate at 
base; segments of the campanulate -ovoid perianth pale rose, with a purple 
nerve, 4-5 mm long, subequal, oblong-elliptic, acutish, the outer scaphoid; 
filaments one -fourth as long again as perianth, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, entire, subulate from a somewhat enlarged base, the inner half 
as broad again; style strongly exserted; capsule equaling the perianth. May. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Tien Shan (Kara-tau). Endemic. 
Described from Okuz-bulak. Type in Tashkent. 

20. A. oreodictyum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 119. 
Perennial; bulbs ovoid-conical, 3/4-1 cm thick, 3-4 cm long, in a 

cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome; tunics brown, reticulate; 
scape 5-15 cm long, slender, sulcate, smooth, covered at base or up to 
1/4 its length with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2, filiform, 1/2 -1 mm broad, 






semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, apparently equaling the scape; 
spathe with beak sometimes half the length of blade, half as long as the 
umbel, persistent; umbel brittle, hemispherical or subspherical, relatively 
few -flowered, loose; pedicels equal, 12 — 2-3 times as long as perianth, 
subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the broadly campanulate 
to subspherical perianth rose, with a prominent dingy green nerve, 
2-35 mm long, obtuse or mucronulate, the inner elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 
the outer ovate to oblong, slightly concave; filaments slightly exceeding 
to half as long again as perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 

155 subulate from a triangular and sometimes obtusely toothed base, the inner 
twice as broad at base; style scarcely exserted; capsule globose, scarcely 
shorter than perianth. July. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Mogian-darya: Sor-sai, 
Kshtut). Endemic. Described from Sor-sai. Type in Leningrad. 

21. A. scabriscapum Boiss. et Ky. in Boiss. Diagn. pi. or. nov. I, 
13(1853)31; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 246 . — Exs . : Herb. Fl. As. Med. 
No. 339. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short ascending 
rhizome, cylindric -conical, ca. 1 cm thick; tunics brownish, reticulate; 
scape 25-50 cm long, erect, sulcate, scabrous or rarely nearly smooth, 
covered at base with smooth or scabrous or nearly villous leaf sheaths; 
leaves 4-6, linear, 2-4 mm broad, flat, scabrous or sometimes hairy, 
much shorter than scape; spathe short-acuminate, one-third to two-thirds 
as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical or often spherical, 
loosely many-flowered, brittle; pedicels erect, 3-4 times as long as 
perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the broadly 
campanulate to subspherical perianth yellow, in herbarium especially on 
the back brownish, 4-6 mm long, subequal, oblong, obtuse; filaments 
two-thirds as long as to equaling the perianth, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, entire, subulate from a triangular base, the inner twice as 
broad; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. May- June. 

Gravelly slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Caucasus: S. Transc. 
(Nakhichevan); Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. , T. Sh. (Kara-tau, Tashkent 
Ala Tau). Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Mount El'brus. Cotype in 
Leningrad. 

Note. Plants from W. Tien Shan are distinguished by more developed 
vesture and, in this respect, they approach A. trachyscordum, 
another W. Tien Shan species. 

22. A. trachyscordum Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1925) No. 65. 
Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to an ascending 

rhizome, cylindric -conical; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 25-30 cm long, 
erect, sulcate, very scabrous to nearly hairy, covered at base or up to 
1/4 its length with villous leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 1.5-3 mm 
broad, flat, usually hairy, the hairs rarely confined to the margin, much 
shorter than scape; spathe short -acuminate, one-third to two-thirds as 
long as the umbel, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the 

156 broadly campanulate perianth reddish-violet, tawny-brown in drying, 
commonly 7 or rarely 5-6 mm long, subequal, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
very rarely obtuse; filaments slightly shorter than perianth, at base connate 



119 



and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate from a slightly enlarged base, the 
inner slightly broader; style somewhat exserted; capsule two-thirds as 
long as perianth. June-July. 

Outcrops of mottled strata and stony slopes.— Centr. Asia: Tien Shan 
(Kara-tau, Aleksandrovskii Range, Chu-Ili Mountains). Endemic. Described 
from Aleksandrovskii Range, Uch-bulak. Type in Tashkent. 

23. A. guzaricum Rgl. inA.H.P. X (1887) 349, tab. Ill, Figure 3. 
Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short ascending 

rhizome, cylindric-conical, ca. l/2 cm thick; tunics brownish, reticulate; 
scape 5-15 cm long, slender, sulcate. smooth, covered at base with 
scabrous or hairy leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, narrowly linear, 0.5-1.5 mm 
broad, apparently flat, hairy, much shorter than scape; spathe short - 
acuminate, one-half to one-third the length of the umbel, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate or hemispherical, loosely few-flowered; pedicels equal, half 
as long again to twice as long as perianth, bracteolate at base; segments of 
the campanulate perianth violet, brownish-tinged, 7-8 mm long, subequal, 
linear-lanceolate, tapering, acute; filaments two-thirds as long as perianth 
segments, connate, entire, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner twice 
as broad, narrowly triangular; style not exserted; capsule half as long as 
perianth. June -July. 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Zeravshan Valley). Endemic. 
Described from the valley indicated. Type in Leningrad: Zeravshan Valley, 
Guzar-Kshtut. 

24. A. inconspicuum Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. V 
(1924)93. — A. tataricum auct. fl. As. Med. p.p. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-4, attached to an oblique rhizome, oblong-ovoid, 
l/2-3/4-(l2) cm thick, l-l2-(3) cm long; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 
15-30 cm long, slender, covered at base with smooth or rarely scabrous 
leaf sheaths; leaves 1 or 2, narrowly linear, often subfiliform, 0.5-1 mm 
broad, canaliculate, smooth or rarely scabrous on the margin and on veins, 
slightly shorter than scape; spathe short -acuminate, one -third to two -thirds 
as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel fasciculate, loosely few -flowered; 
pedicels subequal, half as long as to equaling or exceeding the perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth pale or dingy 
violet, brownish -violet on the back, 8-11 mm long, subequal, linear- 
157 lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, tapering, acute; filaments about half as 
long as perianth segments, for 1/3 their length connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, the outer triangular -subulate, the inner narrowly triangular, twice as 
broad as the outer; anthers violet; style not exserted; capsule half the length of 
perianth, the valves suborbicular, emarginate, crestless. April-May. 

Foothills, chiefly on outcrops of mottled strata.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
(Nura-tau, low mountains on left bank of Zeravshan), T. Sh. (W. Tien Shan). 
Endemic. Described from vicinity of station of Ziadin and Tashkent - 
Chimkent mottled area. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The herbarium material indicates the occurrence in the Kara-tau 
Mountains of specimens resembling in flower color A. Barszczewskii, 
a race distributed in that area. 



120 



25. A. drepanophyllum Vved. in Bill. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 120. 
Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to an oblique rhizome, (0.5) 0.75-1.5 cm 

thick, (1.5) 3-6 cm long; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 15-45 cm long, 
covered at base with scabrous or smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, 
linear, 2.5-10 mm broad, flat, falcately recurved, obtuse, smooth or 
rough-margined, shorter than scape; spathe short -acuminate, (one -third) 
one-half as long as to slightly shorter than the umbel, relatively few- 
flowered, loose; pedicels unequal, half as long again to twice as long, in 
fruit 3 times as long as perianth, subtended by few bracteoles; segments 
of the narrowly campanulate perianth brownish-violet, darker on the back, 
8-10 mm long, equal, linear-lanceolate, tapering, acute; filaments half 
as long as perianth segments, connate, entire, the outer triangular- 
subulate, the inner twice as broad, triangular; anthers violet or yellow; 
style exserted; capsule half as long as perianth; valves suborbicular, 
emarginate, crestless. May. 

Lower mountain zone, chiefly on outcrops of mottled strata. — Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. (SW). Endemic. Described from Baisun area, Khodzha- 
ipak. Type in Tashkent. 

Note. A. drepanophyllum is the most devious form in the 
A. incospicuum series, and it approaches A. xiphopetalum in its 
broad falcate leaves. Its inclusion in the A. inconspicuum series, 
as here adopted, needs checking. 

26. A. xiphopetalum Aitch. et Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ill (1888) 
118, Vol.XLVIIL — A. tataricum Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 246 (quoad 
pi. Kotschyanam). 

Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to an oblique rhizome, narrowly conical 
158 to ovoid-conical, 0.75-1 cm thick, 3-4 cm long; tunics light brown, finely 
reticulate; scape (20) 30-40 cm long, covered at base or up to one-third 
its length with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 3-5-(l0) mm 
broad, flat, falcate, obtuse, smooth or rough-margined, about half the 
length of scape; spathe short-acuminate, slightly shorter than the umbel, 
persistent; umbel fasciculate or hemispherical, densely few-flowered; 
pedicels subequal, half as long as to equaling or (in fruit) to twice as long 
as the perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the 
campanulate perianth rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 9-12 mm long, 
tapering, subacute, the outer oblong-lanceolate, slightly longer than the 
lanceolate inner segments; filaments two-thirds to three-quarters as long 
as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth up to the middle, 
entire, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner twice as broad, triangular; 
anthers commonly violet; style not exserted; capsule half as long as 
perianth, the valves suborbicular, emarginate, crestless. April-May. 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. , Pam.-Al. (Pistali-tau, 
Sulyukta). Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Paropamisus. Cotype in 
Leningrad. 

27. A. Barszczewskii Lipsky in A. H. P. XVIII (1900) 114.— 

A. tataricum auct.fl. As. Med. p.p. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. Turk. (1876) 
t.XIV, f. 1-5. 

Perennial; bulbs (l) 2 to several, attached to an oblique rhizome, 
elongate -conical to ovoid-conical, 0.75-1.5 cm thick, 3-5 cm long; tunics 



121 



brown, reticulate; scape 20-60 cm long, covered to 1/3 with leaf sheaths, 
these smooth or the lower scabrous; leaves 3-5, linear, 1-3 mm broad, 
canaliculate, smooth or rough-margined, shorter than scape; spathe 
short -acuminate, (one-third) half as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate or fasciculate-hemispherical, commonly many-flowered, 
mostly dense; pedicels unequal, slightly shorter than to 2 (3) times as 
long as perianth, usually ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate 
perianth white, pale rose, rose or rosy- violet, 7-14 mm long, equal or 
rarely the inner to l/4 longer, linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, tapering, acute; filaments one-half to two-thirds the length 
of perianth segments, to 1/3-1/2 their length, connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, the outer triangular- subulate, the inner triangular and 2-3 times 
as broad as the outer; anthers yellow; style not exserted; capsule one -half 
to two-thirds as long as perianth, the valves crestless. May- August. 

Stony or rarely fine -earth slopes, from the lower to the upper mountain 
zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Endemic. Described from 
Karategin: Sary-kugi-kalon Pass. Type in Leningrad. 
159 Note. A. Barszczewskii, as here established represents a very 
polymorphic residue of what has generally been offered by authors of 
Central Asian flora under the name A. tataricum. There is undoubtedly 
need for further subdivision of A. tataricum auct. and 
A. Barszczewskii would thus become associated with the rose - 
flowered race of high mountains, conforming to Lipsky's type. 

28. A. lutescens Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 610. 
Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to an oblique rhizome, 

elongate -conical to ovoid-conical, 0.75-1 cm thick, 2-5 cm long; tunics 
brown, reticulate; scape 20-35 cm long, covered to 1/3 or nearly to the 
middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, linear, 1-1.5 mm broad, 
canaliculate, one -half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, persistent; 
umbel fasciculate or fasciculate -hemispherical, rather many-flowered, 
dense; pedicels subequal, slightly shorter than to half as long again 
(or even twice as long) as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly 
campanulate perianth pale yellow, 8-12 mm long, subequal, linear- 
lanceolate, strongly tapering, acute; filaments half the length of perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth up to the middle, entire, the 
outer triangular -subulate, the inner twice as broad, triangular; anthers 
yellow; style not exserted; capsule half as long as perianth, the valves 
suborbicular, crestless. May. 

Gravelly and stony slopes.— Centr. Asia: Tien Shan. Endemic. 
Described from the Mashat River. Type in Tashkent. 

Note. Known from a very restricted area in the NW foothills of the 
Talass Ala Tau, where it was gathered by many collectors. 

29. A. longiradiatum Vved. in Opred. rast. okrest. Tashk. I (1923) 
67.— A. tataricum var. longiradiatum Rgl. in A. H. P. Ill (1875) 
180. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. XIV, f.6.-Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. 
No. 60. 

Perennial; bulbs l-2-(4), attached to an oblique rhizome, ovoid-conical 
or elongate-conical, 0.75-1.5 cm thick, 2-5-(7) cm long; tunics brown, 



122 



reticulate; scape 25-50 cm long, covered to l/3 with leaf sheaths, these 
smooth or the lower ones often scabrous; leaves 4 or 5, linear, 1-3 mm 
broad, canaliculate, fistulous, smooth or scabrous, commonly shorter than 
scape; spathe short-acuminate, one-eighth to one-fourth as long as the 
umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or rarely hemispherical, loosely 
many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 4-6 times as long as perianth, 
bracteolate at base, the outer ones usually ascending; segments of the 
narrowly campanulate perianth purplish-violet, 7-9 mm long, subequal, 
linear-lanceolate, tapering, acute; filaments half as long as perianth 

160 segments, connate and adnate to perianth up to the middle, entire, the 
outer triangular -subulate, the inner 3 times as broad, triangular; style 
not exserted; ovary crestless; capsule half as long as perianth. May. 

Foothills, chiefly on outcrops of mottled strata. — Centr. Asia: Tien 
Shan (Tashkent Ala Tau). Endemic. Described from the vicinity of Tashkent. 
Type in Tashkent. 

30. A. dolichomischum Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 606. 
Perennial; bulbs l-2-(3), attached to an oblique rhizome, oblong-ovoid 

to conical-ovoid, (0.5)-0.75-l cm thick, 1.5-3 cm long; tunics brown, 
finally reticulate; leaves 4 or 5, linear, (l)-3-4 mm broad, flat, revolute, 
falcately recurved, smooth, shorter than scape; spathe short-acuminate, 
one-fourth to one-third (or one-half) as long as the umbel, persistent; 
umbel hemispherical, commonly many-flowered, loose; pedicels subequal, 
(2)-3-4 times as long as perianth, bracteolate; segments of the narrowly 
campanulate perianth commonly pale violet, with a dark violet nerve, 
rarely dark violet throughout, 5-7 mm long, equal, linear-lanceolate to 
lanceolate, tapering, acute, the outer slightly broader; filaments two-thirds 
as long as perianth, connate and adnate to perianth for l/3 their length, 
entire, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner twice as broad, narrowly 
triangular; anthers yellow or violet; style not exserted; ovary crestless; 
capsule two-thirds as long as perianth. May- June. (Plate XI, Figure 1, a). 

Middle mountain zone, on outcrops of mottled strata (always?).— 
Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (W. part of Gissar Range, Chul'bair). Endemic. 
Described from Chul'bair: Sina. Type in Tashkent. 

31. A. dolichostylum Vved. in Bull. Univ. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 120. 
Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to an oblique rhizome, elongate -conical 

to ovoid-conical, 0.5-1.5 cm thick, 1.5-4 cm long; tunics brown; 
reticulate; scape 30-70 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 its length with smooth 
or rarely scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, linear, 1.5-4 mm broad, 
canaliculate, commonly rough-margined, shorter than scape; spathe 
short-acuminate, one-half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, persistent; 
umbel commonly hemispherical, rarely fasciculate-hemispherical to 
subspherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, equaling to half 
as long again (or twice as long) as perianth, subtended by numerous 
bracteoles; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth rose, with a 
darker nerve, (5) -7 -9 mm long, equal, tapering, acute, the inner lanceolate 
to linear-lanceolate, the outer oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate; filaments 

161 equaling or barely exceeding the perianth segments, connate and adnate to 
perianth for 1/6 their length, entire, the outer triangular -subulate, the 
inner narrowly triangular, half as broad again as the outer; anthers 



123 



commonly yellow; style exserted; capsule half as long as perianth; valves 
suborbicular, emarginate, crestless. June- July. 

Stony and gravelly slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (Alai Range), T.Sh. Endemic. Described from Sary-chilek. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Small-flowered specimens (with flowers 5-6 mm long), often 
collected in Chatkal Range, deserve further study. 

32. A. inderiense Fisch. ex Bge. in Goebel. Reise. . . II (1838) 311 . — 

A. tataricum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 185; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 246 
(quoad pi. Lehmannianam). — A. diaphanum Janka, Linnaea XXX (1860) 
605. — A. Beckerianum Rgl. Ind. Sem. Horti. Petrop. (i860) 30.— 
Ic: Fl. Yugo-Vostoka III (1929), Figure 180. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-4, attached to an oblique rhizome, ovoid-conical, 
0.75-1.5 cm thick, 1-3 (4) cm long; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 
20-40 cm long, covered at base or up to one-fourth its length with smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, linear, 1-3 mm broad, canaliculate, commonly 
rough-margined, shorter than scape; spathe short-beaked, half as long 
as the umbel, peristent; umbel fasciculate or fasciculately hemispherical, 
rarely hemispherical, relatively few -flowered, dense; pedicels subequal, 
half as long as to equaling or (in fruit) half as long again as the perianth, 
rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 7-10 mm long, equal, tapering, acute, 
the outer oblong-lanceolate, the inner lanceolate; filaments equaling the 
perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth for 1/5 their length, 
entire, the outer triangular -subulate, the inner half as broad again, 
narrowly triangular; anthers violet; style exserted; capsule half as long 
as perianth; valves suborbicular, emarginate, crestless. May- June. 

Solonetz steppes. — European part: L. V. ; W. Siberia: U. Tob. (SE); 
Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. , Balkh. Endemic. Described from Lake Inder. 
Type in Leningrad. 

33. A. stephanophorum Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. V 
(1924)94. — A. tataricum auct. fl. As. Med. p.p. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-4, attached to an oblique or ascending rhizome, 
elongate -conical to oblong-ovoid, 0.5-1 .5 cm thick, 2-5 cm long; tunics 
rufous-brown, reticulate; scape 15-50 cm long, covered at base with leaf 
sheaths, these smooth or (especially the lower ones) scabrous; leaves 3-5, 
narrowly linear, 0.5-2.5 mm broad, slightly canaliculate, often recurved, 
162 commonly rough-margined; spathe short-acuminate, one-half to two-thirds 
the length of umbel, persistent; umbel fasciculate or nearly hemispherical, 
relatively few -flowered, rather dense; pedicels unequal, half as long as 
to slightly longer than or (in fruit) twice as long as perianth, ebracteolate; 
segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth dingy violet or rosy- 
violet (?), with a darker nerve, tapering, acutish to obtusish, the outer 
(6)-8-12 mm long, linear -lanceolate to lanceolate, one-fourth as long 
again as the lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate inner segments; filaments half 
as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth up to the 
middle, entire, the outer triangular- subulate, the inner about 3 times as 
broad, triangular; anthers yellow; style not exserted; ovary with a crest 
of cartilaginous teeth surrounding the style; capsule half as long as perianth. 
May. 



124 



Argillaceous and gravelly slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. (Turkestan Range, Nura-tau, Baisun low mountains, 
Shurab), T.Sh. (Mogol-tau). Endemic. Described from Turkestan Range. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Plants collected in Kyzyl Kum deserts (Ak-tau, Changil'dy) 
are very closely related to A. stephanophorum, but are distinguished 
by the equal perianth segments. These plants require further study. 

34. A. tenuicaule Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 348, t.IV, f. 4.— 
A. tataricum auct. fl. As. Med. p.p. 

Perennial; bulbs 2-6, attached to a rhizome, ovoid-conical, 0.5-0.75 cm 
thick, 1-2 cm long; tunics brown, reticulate; scape 10-20-(3) cm long, 
slender, covered to 1/4-1/3 with smooth or scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 
2 or 3, subfiliform, revolute, rough-margined; spathe short -acuminate, 
slightly shorter than the umbel, persistent; umbel fasciculate or nearly 
hemispherical, commonly few-flowered, dense; pedicels subequal, half as 
long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth dark 
rose, 7-8 mm long, subequal, acute, the outer oblong, half as broad again as 
the lanceolate inner segments; filaments two-thirds as long as perianth, 
connate and adnate to perianth up to the middle, entire, the outer triangular- 
subulate, the inner twice as broad, triangular; anthers yellow; style not 
exserted; ovary crested around the style base; capsule two-thirds as long 
as perianth. June -July. 

Gravelly and stony slopes in the alpine zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
(Zeravshan Valley, Chul'bair and Kugitang). Endemic. Described from 
Zeravshan River valley. Type in Leningrad. 

35. A. oreoprasum Schrenk. in Bull. Scient. Acad. Petersb. X (1842) 
354; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 185. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. XIV, f. 7-9. 

163 Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a horizontal 
rhizome, cylindric -conical, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics rufous-brown, 
reticulate; scape 20-40 cm long, always ribbed, subancipital at the summit; 
leaves 3-5, narrowly linear, 1-4 mm broad, more or less canaliculate, 
rough- or smooth-margined, approximate at scape base, slightly shorter 
than scape; spathe short -acuminate, one-half to two-thirds as long as the 
umbel, persistent; umbel fasciculate or fasciculately hemispherical, 
rather few -flowered; pedicels equal, 12-2- (3) times as long as perianth, 
bracteolate; segments of the hemispherical perianth rose, with a prominent 
dingy purple nerve, 5-7 mm long, subequal, broadly elliptic, acute, 
reflexed at the tips; filaments one -half to two-thirds the length of perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth for 1/3 their length, entire, 
subulate from a triangular base, the inner twice as broad, rather broadly 
triangular; style not exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. 
May- July. 

Rocks and stony slopes.— Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Dzungarian Ala 
Tau), Pam.-Al. (Alai Range, Pamirs), T. Sh. (Central Tien Shan, 
Aleksandrovskii Range, T alas s Ala Tau). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash., Tibet. 
Described from Kul'-asu. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Location: Kara-tau (Maev) and Guberlinskie Mountains (Regel 1 ) 
very dubious. 



125 



36. A. odorum L. Mant. (1767) 62; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 185; Turcz. in 
Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII 2 (1854) 127; Krylov, Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 
630; Kom. , Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I ( 193 1 ) 365. — A. tataricum 
L. f. Suppl. (1781) 196.— Ic. : Redoute Lil. II (1805) t. 98. — Exs. : HFR, 
No. 1241. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-3, rarely more, attached to a horizontal rhizome, 
narrowly cylindric- conical, obsolescent; tunics rufous -brown, reticulate; 
scape (l5)-30-50 cm long, slightly ribbed; leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, 
(l.5)-2-4 mm broad, approximate at scape base, slightly shorter than the 
scape; spathe short -acuminate, one-half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, 
persistent; umbel fasciculate or fasciculately hemispherical, rather many- 
flowered, dense; pedicels equal, 2-3 times as long as perianth, bracteolate 
at base; segments of the substellate perianth white with a greenish nerve, 
6-9 mm long, subequal, lanceolate or elliptic, obtuse to acutish; filaments 
two-thirds as long as perianth, connate and adnate to perianth for 1/4 their 
length, entire, subulate from a slightly enlarged base; style not exserted; 
capsule 5 mm long. July-August. 

Meadows, solonetz soils, and slopes, rarely as a weed. Cultivated in 
the Far East. — W. Siberia: Irt. (E. ), Alt.; E. Siberia: Lena-Kol., Ang.- 
Say. , Dau. ; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss.; Centr. Asia (advent.): Pam.-Al. 
164 (Roshan), T.Sh. (Aleksandrovskii Range). Gen. distr. : Ind.-Him., Jap.-Ch., 
Tibet. Described from S. Europe. 

Note. Prokhanov (Tr. Prikl. Bot. XXIV, 2, 1930, 175) establishes 
the cultivated plant as a distinct species, A. chinense Don, distinguishing 
it by its flat carinate leaves and white flowers. The author has, however, 
observed similar characteristics in herbarium specimens of wild-growing 
A. odorum. 

37. A. angulosum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 299; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 180; 
Kryl. Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 6 19. — A. acutangulum Cat. sem. hort. 
Goett. (1808); Shmal'g. Fl. II, 494. — A. laxum Don Mon. (1926)63.— 
Ic: Syreishch. , 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 236. — Exs.: Kerner. Fl. 
exsicc. Austro-Hung. No. 3481. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-2- (3), attached to a horizontal or ascending rhizome, 
narrowly conical, 0.5-0.75 cm thick; tunics grayish, membranous, more 
or less entire; scape 25-50 cm long, angled, slender; leaves 5 or 6, 
approximate at scape base, more or less carinate, narrowly linear, 
2-4 mm broad, obtuse, smooth, erect, exceeding half the length of scape; 
spathe short-acuminate, half as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate-hemispherical or often hemispherical, rather densely many- 
flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times the length of perianth, subtended by 
numerous bracteoles; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth 
rosy-violet, obscurely nerved, 6-(7) mm long, acute, oblong, subequal; 
filaments three-quarters as long as to slightly shorter than perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate from 
a slightly enlarged base, the inner somewhat broader; style not exserted; 
capsule about two-thirds as long as perianth. June-August. 

Meadows. — European part: Kar.-Lap., Dv.-Pech., Lad.-Ilm., U. V. , 
V.-Ka., U. Dnp. , V.-Don, Transv. , Bl., L. Don, L. V. ; W.Siberia: Ob, 
U. Tob., Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (W. ) Gen. distr.: Centr. Eur. 
Described from Siberia. 



1920 126 



38. A. albidum Fisch. ex Bess. Enum. pi. Volhyn. (1822) 55; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 181 (quoad pi. cauc. ); Shmal'g., Fl. II, 494. — A. angularum 
var. caucasicum Rgl. in A.H. P. Ill (1875) 145. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. pi. 
crit. (1827) f. 592. 

Perennial; bulbs 2-4, attached to a horizontal rhizome, conical, 
0.75-1 cm thick; tunics grayish, membranous, more or less entire; scape 
20-30 cm long, more or less angled, ribbed; leaves 6, narrowly linear, 
1 -2-(4) mm broad, flattish, canaliculate, somewhat fleshy, obtuse, 
commonly smooth, about half as long as the scape; spathe short -acuminate, 
two-thirds as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical to 
subspherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, slightly longer than 
or half as long again to twice as long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments 
165 of the hemispherical substellate perianth white, sometimes reddish-tinged, 
obscurely nerved, 4-5 mm long, obtuse, oblong to oblong-elliptic, entire, 
the outer scaphoid, the inner one-fourth as long again; filaments equaling 
to barely exceeding the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire or sometimes the inner ones 2 -toothed, the outer 
triangular-subulate, the inner narrowly triangular, half as broad again as 
the outer; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. July. 

Rocky places . — European part: Crim. ; Caucasus: Cisc. , Dag., E. and 
S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd. Described from the Caucasus. 

39. A. flavescens Bess. Enum. pi. Volhyn. (1822) 56; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 
494. — A. albidum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 181 (pp.); Krylov, Fl. Zap. 
Sib. Ill (1929) 621. — Exs. : HFR No. 1496 (sub A. albido). 

Perennial; bulbs in clusters of several, attached to a horizontal rhizome, 
conical, 0.5-0.75 cm thick; tunics blackish, subcoriaceous, more or less 
entire; scape 10-30 cm long, slender, erect, often flexuous, slightly 
ribbed; leaves 6-8, filiform, semicylindric, canaliculate, 0.5-0.75 mm 
broad, rough-margined, slightly less than half or half the length of scape; 
spathe half as long as the umbel, short-acuminate, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate-hemispherical or hemispherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels equal, 2 -3 -(4) times as long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments 
of the hemispherical perianth yellowish, obscurely nerved, 3-4 mm long, 
oblong-lanceolate to oblong, subentire, dull, the inner slightly longer than 
to one-fourth as long again as the scaphoid outer segments; filaments 
equaling to slightly exceeding the perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate, the inner half as broad again as the outer; 
style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. June-July. 
(Plate X, Figure la). 

Steppes and slopes. — European part: V.-Ka. (S. ), M. Dnp. , V.-Don, 
Transv. , Bl. , L. Don; W. Siberia: U. Tob. , Irt. Endemic (?). Described 
from S. Russia. 

40. A. Stellerianum Willd. Sp. pi. II (1799) 82; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV 
(1853) 181 (quoad var. a. ). 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a horizontal 
rhizome, narrowly conical, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics brownish or blackish, 
membranous to subcoriaceous, more or less entire; scape 10-30 cm long, 
slender, erect, slightly ribbed; leaves 4-6, approximate at scape base, 
semicylindric, canaliculate, 0.75- 1.5 mm broad, rough-margined, slightly 



127 



shorter than scape; spathe two-thirds as long as the umbel, short - 
acuminate, persistent; umbel spherical, rarely hemispherical, rather 
few -flowered, dense, often subcapitate; pedicels equal, slightly exceeding 
166 or half as long again (to twice as long) as the perianth, ebracteolate; 

segments of the hemispherical perianth yellow, sometimes rose-tinged, 
obscurely nerved, (4)-5 mm long, broadly elliptic to ovate, obtuse, entire, 
the inner slightly longer than the scaphoid outer segments; filaments slightly 
exceeding to half as long again as the perianth segments, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate, the inner half as broad again as 
the outer; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. July- 
August. 

Slopes. — W. Siberia: Alt. (?); E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. Gen. distr. : 
Mongolia. Described from Yenisei. 

41. A. prostratum Trev. Ind. sem. h. Wratislaw. (1821); Ej. All. 
(1822) 16; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 182; Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII 
2 (1854) 125. — Ic. : Trev. in Acta Acad. Leop.-Car. XIII (1826) t. XI. 

Perennial; bulbs paired (?), attached to a horizontal rhizome, cylindric, 
0.5-0.75 cm thick; tunics brownish, subcoriaceous, more or less entire; 
scape slender, weak, ascending, slightly ribbed, 10-25 cm long; leaves 
5-8, approximate at scape base, semicylindric, canaliculate, 0.75-1.5 mm 
broad, rough-margined, shorter than scape; spathe one -third to one-half 
as long as the umbel, short -acuminate, persistent; umbel hemispherical 
to subspherical, rather loosely few -flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times 
as long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the subhemispherical 
perianth rosy- violet, obscurely nerved, ca. 5 mm long, oblong or rarely 
oblong-ovate, obtuse, the more or less crenate inner segments slightly 
longer than the scaphoid outer ones; filaments equaling or rarely barely 
exceeding the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, subulate, the inner half as broad again as the outer; style exserted; 
capsule equaling the perianth. July. 

Stony places. — E. Siberia: Lena-Kol. , Ang.-Say. (E. ), Dau. Gen. distr.: 
Mongolia. Described from that part of Siberia adjacent to Lake Baikal. 

Note. Plants from the Lena-Kolyma region deserve further study. 
They often have conspicuously exserted stamens and, as far as can be 
deduced from herbarium specimens, the flowers are sometimes yellow - 
tinged. 

42. A. rubens Schrad. ex Willd. Enum. pi. Hort. Ber. I (1809)360.— 
A. Stellerianum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 181 (quoad var. ); Kryl., 
Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 620. — Ic. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. IV (1833) t. 384. 

169 Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a horizontal 
rhizome, narrowly conical, 0.5-1 mm [?] thick; tunics brownish, 
subcoriaceous, more or less entire; scape 10-25 cm long, slender, erect, 
slightly ribbed; leaves 5 or 6, approximate at scape base, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, l-1.5-(2) mm broad, more or less rough-margined, about 
equaling the scape; spathe short -acuminate, one -half to two-thirds as long 
as the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical to spherical, rather 
few-flowered, loose; pedicels equal, 2-(3) times as long as perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate to subhemispherical 
perianth rosy-violet, obscurely nerved, (4)-5 mm long, broadly elliptic 



128 




Plate XI 



1. Allium do lichom ischum Vved., la) portion of perianth.- 2. A.talassicum Rgl., 2a)portion 
of perianth.— 3. A. Maximowiczii Rgl., 3a) portion of perianth. 



129 



to ovate, obtuse, subentire, the scaphoid outer segments slightly shorter; 
filaments equaling to twice the length of perianth segments, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate, subequal; style not exserted; 
capsule slightly shorter than perianth. June -August. 

Rocks and stony slopes. — European part: V.-Ka. (S. Urals); W. Siberia: 
Ob (SE), U. Tob., Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (W. ); Centr. Asia: 
Dzu.-Tarb. Gen. distr. : Mong. Described without indication of provenience. 

43. A. tytthocephalum Roem. et Schult. Syst. VII 2 (1830) 1133.— 

A. senescens var. b r e v i p e du n c u 1 a t um Rgl. in A.H.P. 111(1875) 
140; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 618. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to a horizontal or ascending 
rhizome, narrowly conical to subcylindric, 0.5-0.75 cm thick; tunics 
blackish, membranous, more or less entire; scape 15-25 cm long, ribbed, 
in upper part anticipital; leaves 2-4, approximate at scape base, 
semicylindric, canaliculate, 1-2 mm broad, rough-margined, slightly 
shorter than the scape; spathe short-acuminate, two-thirds as long as the 
umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical, rather few-flowered, dense; 
pedicels equal, slightly shorter to slightly longer than perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth purple, 
obscurely nerved, 5-6 mm long, ovate to broadly elliptic, obtuse, the 
scaphoid outer segments one -fourth as long again as the inner; filaments 
purple, slightly exceeding the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, entire, subulate, subequal; style exserted; capsule two-thirds 
as long as perianth. August. (Plate X, Figure 2 a). 

Gravelly slopes in the alpine zone. — W. Siberia: Alt. (Lake Balyktykol', 
Saaskandy River); E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (Sayans (?), Khati-gol River). 
Endemic. Described from Siberia. 

44. A. senescens L. Sp. pi. (1753) 299; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 180; 
Turcz. in Bull. Soc . Nat. Mosc. XXVII 2 (1854) 124; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill 

170 (1929) 617; Kom., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 365.— 

A. montanum Schmidt. Fl. Boem. VI (1794) 28. — A. baicalense 
Willd. Enum. hort. Berol. I (1809) 360. — A. spirale Willd. Ibid. Suppl. 
(1813) 17. — A. glaucum Schrad. Cat. hort. Goett. (1814).— 
A. Andersonii Don. Mon. (1826)59. — A. spurium Don. I.e.— 
A. fallax Roem. et Schult. Syst. VII, 2 (1870) 1072; Shmal'g., Fl. II 
(1897) 494. — A. angulosum var. minus Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 
180. — Ic: Gmel. Fl. Sib. I (1747) t. 11, f . 2. -Exs. : HFR No. 1342; Karo 
PL Amur. Zeaen. No. 179. 

Perennial; bulbs (l)-2-3, attached to a horizontal rhizome, conical 
l-1.5-(2) cm thick; tunics blackish, membranous, more or less entire; 
scape (20)-30-60 cm long, in upper part ancipital or even narrowly winged; 
leaves 5-8, approximate at scape base, flat, linear, obtuse, glaucescent, 
the outer (2)-3-6-(l0) mm broad, smooth, erect or falcate or obliquely 
spiral, half as long as to slightly exceeding the scape; spathe short - 
acuminate, (one third or) half as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel 
hemispherical or rarely spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
2-3-(4) times as long as periantti, subtended by few bracteoles or 
ebracteolate; segments of the hemispherical perianth rose or dark rose 
or rosy-violet, faintly nerved, (4)-5-(6) mm long, obtuse, 



130 



oblong-lanceolate to ovate, the inner slightly longer than to one -fourth as 
long again as the scaphoid outer segments; filaments at the very base 
connate and adnate to perianth, slightly exceeding to half as long again as 
the perianth, entire, subulate, the inner 2l times as broad as the outer; 
style exserted; capsule equaling the perianth, the valves obcordate. 
May- July. 

Stony and sandy places, and meadows. — European part: U. Dnp. , 
M. Dnp., V.-Don (E.) ( ? ); Caucasus (??); W. Siberia: Alt; E. Siberia: 
Lena-Kol. (S. ), Ang.-Say., Dau; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss.; Centr. Asia: 
Dzu.-Tarb. (Tarbagatai). Gen. distr. : W. Europe, Mongolia, Manchuria. 
Described from Siberia and from Sicily. 

Note. The species is differentiated into four races. The European race, 
named A. montanum(= A. fallax), with erect leaves (2)-3-(4)mm 
broad, ancipital (wingless) scape, and usually oblong-lanceolate slightly 
tapering inner perianth segments. Altai-Sayan race, more stocky, with 
leaves half the length of scape and commonly ovate rosy-violet perianth 
segments; Transbaikal race, the typical (A. senescens s.s. = 
A. baicalense); stronger plants with falcately recurved leaves 5-10 mm 
broad, scape often narrowly winged at summit, and commonly oblong- 
lanceolate perianth segments. Far Eastern form, apparently corresponding 
to A.spirale and A. glaucum, with obliquely spiral leaves about the 
length of the usually narrow -winged scape, and ovate perianth segments. 
171 The insufficiently definite morphological determination of these races 
and, more important, the extensive and complicated synonymy, due to the 
lack of precise indication of origin in the short descriptions, make it 
impossible to consider these races as independent entities. 

45. A. nutans L. Sp. pi. (1753) 299; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 180; Kryl. , 
Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 616. - Ic. : Bot. Mag. (1808) t. 1143. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to a horizontal or slightly 
ascending stout rhizome, conical, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, 
membranous, more or less entire; scape (20) 30-60 cm long, stout, with 
2 usually winged ribs in upper part; leaves 6-8, approximate at scape 
base, flat, glaucous, obtuse, subfalcate, smooth, the outer (5)-8-15 mm 
broad, half the length of the scape; spathe short -acuminate, two -thirds as 
long as the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical, rarely subspherical, 
densely many-flowered to subcapitate, drooping before flowering; pedicels 
equal, half as long again to twice as long as the perianth, bracteolate; 
segments of the hemispherical perianth rose to rosy-violet, obscurely 
nerved, (4)-5-(6) mm long, obtuse, oblong-ovate, the inner segments 
somewhat longer than the scaphoid outer ones; filaments at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, half as long again to twice as long as perianth; 
capsule equaling the perianth. June-July. 

Steppes and meadow and stony slopes. — W. Siberia: Ob (SE), U. Tob., 
Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say (W. ); Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Saur 
Range). Endemic. Described from Siberia. 

46. A. pumilum Vved. in Bull. Univ. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 121. 
Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to a horizontal rhizome, mostly conical, 

ca. 0.5 cm thick, 2-3 cm long; tunics grayish, coarsely reticulate -fibrous; 
scape ca. 10 cm long, covered at base with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 



131 



2 or 3, narrowly linear, 1-2 mm broad, flat or at base slightly canaliculate, 
subfalcately recurved, smooth, shorter than scape; spathe acuminate, 
equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel few-flowered, capitate; pedicels 
half as long as to rarely slightly shorter than perianth, ebracteolate; 
segments of the broadly campanulate perianth rosy, ca. 4 mm long, 
oblong-elliptic, obtuse, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; filaments 
about as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, triangular- subulate, subequal; style not exserted. July. 

Dry slopes. — W. Siberia: Alt. (Collected by B. K. Shishkin on a single 
occasion in 1931 on the Ukok Plateau). Type in Leningrad. 

172 47. A. polyrrhizum Turcz. ex Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 162. 

Perennial; roots numerous, almost rosy; bulbs in a cluster of several, 
attached to a horizontal rhizome, forming together with sterile bulbs a 
dense clump, subcylindric, ca. 0.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 
separated into subreticulate fibers; scape 10-20 cm long, slender, erect, 
slightly ribbed; leaves 2 or 3, filiform, 0.5-0.75 mm broad, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, rough-margined, approximate at scape base, exceeding half 
the length of scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate, 
persistent; umbel fasciculate or often hemispherical, rather few -flowered, 
dense; pedicels equal or half as long again (or even twice as long) as 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth rose, 
obscurely nerved, 4-5 mm long, obtuse, oblong-elliptic, the inner slightly 
longer than the outer; filaments equaling to slightly exceeding the perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate from 
a somewhat enlarged base, the inner twice as broad, toothed at base, rarely 
nearly entire; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. 
August. (Plate X, Figure 3 a). 

Solonetz sites.— E. Siberia: Dau. ; Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. 
(Tarbagatai). Gen. distr. : Mong. Described from the Argun River. Type 
in Leningrad. 

Note. The variety collected in Tarbagatai (Tasbeit-kuduk — Ters- 
airuk), var. P r z e w a 1 s k i i Rgl. inA.H.P. 111(1875)162, et X (1887) 
339, t. IV, f . 1, is distinguished by larger flowers (6 mm long), larger 
umbels, the inner filaments dilated nearly to the middle, and the more 
numerous, rufescent or rufous bulb tunics. Further study of this variety 
is needed. 

48. A. bidentatum Fisch. ex Prokh. in Mater, izuch. Mong. . . 2 (1929) 
83 in adn. et. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. URSS. XXIX (1930) 564, t. V.— 
A. tenuis simum Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII 2 (1854) 126 
(excl. syn. ). — A. omiost e ma Airy-Shaw in Notes Bot. Gard. Edinb. 
XVI (1931) 144. — Ic. : Prokh., I.e.— Exs. : Karo. PI. daur. No. 120 
(sub A. tenuissimo). 

Perennial; roots numerous, almost rosy; bulbs in a cluster of several; 
attached to a horizontal rhizome, forming together with sterile bulbs a 
fairly dense clump, subcylindric, ca. 0.5 cm thick; tunics brownish, 
subcoriaceous, laciniate; scape 10-25 cm long, slender, erect, ribbed; 
leaves 3, approximate at scape base, semicylindric, canaliculate, 
1-1.5 mm thick, rough-margined, slightly shorter than the scape; spathe 
half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate, persistent; umbel 



132 



173 hemispherical, rarely subspherical, densely few-flowered; pedicels 
equaling to half as long again as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
broadly campanulate perianth dark rose, obscurely nerved, 5-6 mm long, 
the inner oblong -elliptic to sublinear-oblong, obtuse, subtruncate, one- 
fourth as long again as the oblong obtuse outer segments; filaments slightly 
shorter than perianth segments, at the very base connate and adnate to 
perianth, the outer subulate, the inner twice as broad, 2 -toothed at 2/3-3/4 
their length; style not exserted; capsule two-thirds as long as perianth. 
June -August. 

Gravelly and stony slopes. — E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. , Dau. ; Far East: 
Uss. (advent.); Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Tarbagatai). Gen. distr. : 
Mong. Described from Transbaikalia. Type in Leningrad. 

49. A. bellulum Prokh. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. URSS XXIX (1930) 
568. t. VI. 

Perennial; roots numerous, almost ropy; bulbs in a cluster of several, 
attached to a horizontal rhizome, together with sterile bulbs forming a 
rather dense clump, subcylindric, ca. 0.5 cm thick; tunics brownish, 
laciniate; scape 7-20 cm long, slender, erect, ribbed; leaves 2, filiform, 
canaliculate, rough-margined, slightly shorter than scape; spathe one-third 
as long as the umbel, short -acuminate, persistent; umbel hemispherical, 
loosely few -flowered, the flowers subpendulous; pedicels equal (half as 
long again or) twice as long as perianth, slender, ebracteolate; segments of 
the broadly campanulate perianth dark rose, 3.5-4.5 mm long, obtuse, 
ovate, the inner segments slightly longer than the outer; filaments equaling 
the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, the outer 
subulate, the inner twice as broad, toothed at 2/3 their length; style not 
exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. July. 

Stony slopes— W. Siberia: Alt. (Bukhtarma River valley). Gen. distr.: 
Mong. Described from the Turgen River valley. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Closely related to A. bidentatum and in need of further study. 

50. A. tenuissimum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 301; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 183; 
Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 623. - Ic. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. IV (1833) 
t.358 — Exs.: HFRNo.1389. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a horizontal 
rhizome, narrowly cylindric -conical, obsolescent; tunics blackish or 
brownish, submembranous, slightly split to subentire; scape 5-25 cm long, 
slender, erect, terete, ribbed; leaves 2 or 3, filiform, 0.5-1 mm broad, 
semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth or scabrous, slightly shorter than to 

174 equaling to scape; spathe short -acuminate, one-third to one-half as long 
as the umbel, persistent; umbel hemispherical, loosely few-flowered; 
flowers nodding; pedicels equal, l2-2-(3) times as long as perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the hemispherical perianth whitish or rosy, 
ca. 4 mm long, truncate or very obtuse, the inner obcuneate, the outer 
slightly shorter, suborbicular-elliptic; filaments about two-thirds as long 
as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, 
subulate from an enlarged base, the inner twice as broad, subtriangular; 
style not exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. June-July. 

Rocks, stony and gravelly slopes. — W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: 
Ang.-Say. Endemic (?). Described from Siberia. 



133 



51. A. anisopodium Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 183; Turcz. in Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Mosc. XXVII 2 (1854) 126; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 622; Kom„ 
Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 366 . — Ic, : Kom. I.e. t. 112, f . II. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a horizontal or 
ascending rhizome, narrowly cylindric-conical, obsolescent; tunics 
blackish-brown or brownish, more or less split, sometimes nearly 
separated into fibers; scape 20-40 cm long, slender, erect, terete; leaves 
2 or 3, semicylindric, canaliculate, ca. 1 mm broad, smooth, slightly 
shorter than scape; spathe short -acuminate, one-third to one-half as long 
as the umbel, persistent; umbel fasciculate or fasciculately spherical, 
rather many-flowered, loose; pedicels unequal, 3-7 times as long as 
perianth, ebracteolate, the outer somewhat ascending; segments of the 
broadly campanulate perianth rosy, obscurely nerved, 3.5-4.5 mm long, 
obtuse or truncate, the inner obcuneate or linear-obcuneate, the outer 
oblong-elliptic to broadly elliptic, slightly shorter than the inner ones; 
filaments two-thirds as long as perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate from dilated base, the inner twice as broad, 
subtriangular; style barely exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. 
June- July. 

Dry slopes and sands. — W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., Dau; 
Far East: Ze.-Bu. , Uss.; Centr. Asia: Balkh. (NE). Gen. distr. : Mong. , 
Jap.-Ch. Described from Tranbaikalia. Type in Leningrad. 

52. A. caespitosum Sievers ex Bong, et Mey. in Bull, scient. Acad. 
Petersb. VIII (1841) 341; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 183; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill 
(1929) 622. — Ic. : Bong, et Mey. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. VI, ser. IV, 
228 (1845) t.XVI. 

Perennial, loosely cespitose by rhizomes to 10 cm long; bulbs 
175 obsolescent; tunics light grayish-brown, membranous, split, the inner 
ones white; scape 15-20 cm long, terete; leaves 4-6, approximate at 
scape base, semicylindric, canaliculate, ca. 1 mm broad, smooth, 
shorter than scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate, 
persistent; umbel hemispherical, rather loosely few -flowered; flowers 
nodding; pedicels about as long or half as long again as perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth whitish, 
sometimes rose-tinged, 6-7 mm long, obtuse, the inner broadly elliptic, 
slightly longer than the ovate outer segments; filaments two-thirds to three- 
quarters as long as perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, 
the outer subulate, the inner about 3 times as broad, subulate from a 
triangular base to narrowly triangular; style not exserted; capsule slightly 
shorter than perianth. June -August 

Sands.— Centr. Asia: Balkh. (Irtysh, Kurtu). Gen. distr.: Dzu.-Kash. 
(?). Described from Piketnaya rybalka [marked-off fishing-ground] on the 
Irtysh River. Type in Leningrad. 

53. A. obliquum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 296; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 173; 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 492; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 614. — Ic: Redoute 
Lil. VII (1913) t. 364. — Exs.: Schultz. Herb. norm. nov. ser. No. 2390. 

Perennial; bulb solitary, attached to a vertical rhizome, oblong-ovoid, 
2-3 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, reddish-brown; scape robust, 
60-100-(150) cm long, covered up to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; 



134 



leaves 6-9, linear, 5-20 mm broad, gradually attenuate toward apex, flat, 
subobtuse, smooth-margined, much shorter than scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, slightly shorter than the umbel; umbel spherical, densely 
many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 2-3 times the length of perianth, 
bracteolate; segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth greenish-yellow, 
4-5 mm long, ovate, acutish to obtuse, the scaphoid outer segments shorter 
than the inner; filaments half as long again as perianth segments, subulate, 
subequal; style conspicuously exserted. April-July. 

Meadows and wooded slopes. — European part: Transv. , L. Don (?)*] 
W. Siberia: Ob. (SE), U. Tob. , Alt; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. (W.); 
Centr. Asia: Dzu. -Tarb. , T.Sh. (Fergana Range). Gen. distr. : Centr. 
Eur., Dzu.-Kash. Described from Siberia. 

54. A. platyspathum Schrenk. Enum. pi. nov. I ( 184 1 ) 7; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV 184; Kryl. Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 614. — A. a m b 1 y o ph y 1 lu m Kar. 
etKir. inBull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XV (1842) 510. — A . alataviense Rgl.inBull. 
Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI, I (1862)448. -Ic: Rgl. Fl. Turk. (1876)t.XII, f. 4-6. 

Perennial; bulbs 1 — (2 .3), attached to a vertical rhizome, subcylindric, 
1-2 cm thick, the inner tunics white, the outer blackish-brown, papery; 
1^6 scape 10-70 cm long, covered at base or up to half its length with smooth 
sheaths; leaves 2-6, linear; 3-17 mm broad, flat, obtuse, smooth or 
rarely rough-margined, equaling or slightly exceeding the scape; spathe 
short -acuminate, sometimes colored, slightly shorter than the umbel, 
persistent; umbel hemispherical to spherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels equal, as long to half as long again as perianth, ebracteolate; 
segments of the broadly campanulate perianth rose, obscurely nerved, 
lustrous, 6-8 mm long, subequal, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, subobtuse 
to subacute; filaments slightly shorter than to half as long again as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, equal, entire, subulate 
from a somewhat dilated base; style conspicuously exserted; capsule two- 
thirds as long as perianth. June-July. 

Alpine and subalpine zones. — W. Siberia: Alt.; Centr. Asia: Dzu. -Tarb., 
Pam.-Al. (Pamirs, Alai and Trans -Alai ranges), T. Sh. (Central Tien 
Shan, Aleksandrovskii Range, Talass Ala Tau). Gen. distr.: Dzu.-Kash. 
Described from Dzhilkaragai Alps. Type in Leningrad. 

55. A. polyphyllum Kar. etKir. inBull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XV (1842) 
509; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 174. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. XII, f. 1-3.— 
Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 338. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to a vertical or obliquely 
ascending rhizome, broadly cylindric-conical, 1 .5-2.5 cm thick; tunics 
brown, coriaceous, entire, dull; scape robust, 20-60 cm long, covered 
to 1/4-1/2 its length with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 5-7, broadly linear, 
3.5-15 mm broad, flat, obtuse, commonly falcately recurved, nearly 
smooth-margined, shorter than scape; spathe short-acuminate, equaling 
the umbel, sometimes colored; umbel spherical, rarely hemispherical, 
densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, as long to twice as long as perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth rose, obscurely 
nerved, 5 — 8 mm long, obtuse, the outer oblong to oblong-ovate, three- 
quarters as long as to slightly shorter than the obovate to oblong-obovate 
inner segments; filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate from 

* Novocherkassk, Pabo — needs confirmation. 

135 



a dilated base, the inner twice as broad as the outer; style conspicuously 
exserted; capsule about two-thirds as long as perianth. July-August. 

Gravelly and stony slopes in the subalpine and alpine zones. — Centr. 
Asia: Dzu.-Tarb., Pam.-Al., T.Sh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described 
from Dzungarian Ala Tau, Sarkhan River. Type in Leningrad. 

56. A. hymenorrhizum Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830); 12; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
184; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 248; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 615.— 

177 A. macrorhizum Boiss. Diagn. pi. or. nov. I, 13 (1853) 32. — Ic. : 
Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. IV (1833) tab. 359. — Exs . : Herb. Fl. As. Med. 
No. 58. 

Perennial; bulbs 1 to several, attached to a rhizome and forming a 
rather loose clump, (l)-l. 5-2 cm thick; tunics numerous, coriaceous, 
brown, lustrous, splitting; scape 30-90 cm long, covered nearly to the 
middle with smooth distant sheaths; leaves 4-6, linear, 2-5 mm broad, 
flattish, commonly strict, smooth, slightly shorter than scape; spathe 
short -acuminate, slightly shorter than to equaling the umbel, persistent; 
umbel spherical or hemispherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
l2-2-(3) times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
campanulate perianth rose, obscurely nerved, 4-6 mm long, obtusish to 
acutish, the outer lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, slightly shorter than the 
oblong to oblong-elliptic inner ones; filaments half as long again to twice 
as long as the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, subulate, subequal; style conspicuously exserted; capsule as long 
as perianth. July- August. 

Meadows. — W. Siberia: U. Tob. (Iryndyk), Alt.; Centr. Asia: Dzu.- 
Tarb., Pam.-Al. , T.Sh. Gen. distr.: Iran., Dzu.-Kash. Described from 
the Koksu and Uba rivers in Altai. Type in Leningrad. 

57. A. kashchianum Rgl. in A. H. P. X (1887) 338 tab. lilt. 2. 
Perennial; bulbs 1 to several, attached to a rhizome, forming a loose 

clump, subcylindric, 1 -1 .5 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, dark brown, 
laciniate; scape 15-40 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 4 or 5, narrowly linear, 1-3 mm broad, flattish, rough-margined, 
slightly shorter to slightly longer than scape; spathe short -acuminate, 
equaling the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or hemispherical, 
relatively few -flowered, dense, subcapitate; pedicels equal, two-thirds as 
long as to equaling perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate 
perianth pale rose-lilac, with a prominent darker nerve, ca. 5 mm long, 
obtusish, the outer oblong-lanceolate, slightly shorter than the inner 
oblong-elliptic segments; filaments half as long again as perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate, subequal; style 
conspicuously exserted; capsule as long as perianth. July-September. 

Meadow -steppe mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: T.Sh. (Centr. Tien 
Shan, rare). Gen. distr.: Dzu.-Kash. Described from Kash and Kegen 
rivers. Type in Leningrad. 

58. A. glaciale Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 121. 
178 Perennial; bulb solitary, attached to an ascending rhizome bearing 

vestiges of old bulbs, conical, 0.75-1 cm thick, 2-3 cm long; tunics 



136 



yellowish-brown, coriaceous, entire or sometimes somewhat separated into 
fibers; scape 20-30 cm long, stoutish, terete, smooth, scarcely ribbed, 
covered to one -third its length or nearly to the middle with smooth distant 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 2-3 mm broad, flat, smooth- or 
scaberulous -margined, apparently shorter than scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, as long as or somewhat longer than the umbel, persistent; 
umbel spherical, densely many-flowered, capitate; pedicels equal, as long 
as to slightly longer than perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
campanulate perianth rose, with a prominent purple nerve, ca. 4 mm long, 
linear-oblong, very obtuse, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; 
filaments slightly exceeding the perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate, the inner somewhat broader; style exserted. 
July. 

Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Found on a single occasion by Drobov in 
Turkestan Range on the southern rocky slopes toward the Zeravshan Glacier. 
Endemic. Type in Tashkent. 

59. A. setifolium Schrenk. Enum. pi. nov. I (1841) 6; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, 172. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. Turk. (1876) t. XI, f. 1-3. 

Perennial; bulbs commonly numerous, attached to a rhizome, forming 
a compact clump, elongate -ovoid or often subcylindric, 0.5-0.75 cm thick, 
2-3 cm long; tunics coriaceous, yellowish-brown, entire, splitting at the 
top; scape slender, 5-10 cm long, covered at base with smooth leaf 
sheaths, leaves 2, capillary, smooth, about equaling the scape; 
spathe acuminate, small, persistent; umbel several times as long as the 
spathe, fasciculate, loosely few -flowered; pedicels subequal, as long to 
twice as long as the perianth, bracteolate; segments of the campanulate 
perianth rose, with a darker nerve, 6-7 mm long, subequal, linear- 
lanceolate, obtusish; filaments two-thirds as long as perianth segments, 
connate and adnate to perianth for half their length, entire, subulate from 
slightly dilated base, subequal; style not exserted; capsule two-thirds as 
long as perianth. June -July. 

Stony places in foothills. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Dzungarian 
Ala Tau), T.Sh. (Trans -Hi Ala Tau, Chu -Hi Mountains). Gen. distr. : 
Dzu.-Kash. Described from Labasa. Type in Leningrad. 

60. A. subtilissimum Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 22; Ej: Fl. Ross. IV, 173; 
Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 612. - Ic . : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. IV (1833) 
t. 360. 

Perennial; bulbs elongate -conical, 0.75-1 cm thick, clustered, forming 
179 readily disintegrating clumps; tunics coriaceous, grayish-brown; scape 
5-20 cm long, slender, erect; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm 
broad, semicylindric, canaliculate, rough-margined, slightly shorter 
to slightly longer than scape; spathe small, half as long as the 
umbel, persistent, the beak as long as the blade; umbel fasciculate or 
hemispherical, very loosely few-flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times as 
long as perianth, bracteolate, the outer ascending; segments of the 
substellate perianth rosy-purple, with a darker nerve, ca. 4 mm long, 
elliptic, obtuse, equal, the outer involute; filaments purple, slightly ionger 
than perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, 
subulate, equal; style longer than perianth; capsule scarcely shorter than 
perianth. July- August. 



137 



Solonetz soils and stony slopes. — W. Siberia: Irt. ; Centr. Asia: 
Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb. Gen. distr. : Mong. Described from the Irtysh River. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Reports for Ural'sk and for Pamir- Alai are erroneous. 

61. A. jucundum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 122.— 
Perennial; bulbs apparently several, attached to a short rhizome, 

cylindric-conical, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics brown, subcoriaceous, more or 
less entire; scape 10-15 cm long, covered at base with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, 1-1.5 mm broad, flat, smooth, about as 
long as the scape; spathe persistent, slightly shorter than the umbel, not 
colored, beakless; umbel hemispherical, loosely few -flowered; pedicels 
equal, as long as or slightly longer than perianth, ebracteolate or subtended 
by few bracts; segments of the campanulate perianth purple, with a darker 
nerve, ca. 5 mm long, oblong, obtusish, subequal; filaments one-fourth 
to one -half as long again as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, purple, subulate, entire, equal; style exserted. July. 

Rocks. — Centr. Asia: T.Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). Endemic. Described 
from Ulakhol. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Related to a certain extent to species of the high-mountain group 
A. globosum s. 1., but differing from all of them in the beakless spathe 
and the flat leaves. Also related, though perhaps more distantly, to 
A. Pevtzovi Prokh. , from which its differs in the longer stamens and 
the general flower structure characteristic of the A. globosum group. 

62. A. tytthanthum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 122. 
Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome; 

ovoid-conical to elongate -conical, ca. 1 mm thick; tunics brown, 
180 coriaceous, entire; scape 10-15 cm long, covered at base or nearly to the 
middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, 0.5-1 mm broad, 
canaliculate, scabrous, apparently shorter than scape; spathe persistent, 
half as long as the umbel, the beak short or sometimes up to half the length 
of blade; umbel fasciculately spherical, loosely few -flowered; pedicels 
equal, (I2) 2 times the length of perianth, slender, bracteolate; flowers 
nodding; segments of the hemispherical perianth pale yellow turning rosy, 
ca. 3 mm long, elliptic, obtuse, the inner mucronulate, slightly shorter 
than the outer; filaments half as long again as perianth, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, subulate, entire, equal; style exserted. July. 

Rocks and stony slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (Chul'bair mountains). Endemic. Described from Chul'bair 
mountains: Khodzha-barku. Type in Tashkent. 

Note. Collected at two points situated very close to one another, in 
Chul'bair mountains. A species differing from all the other species of the 
A. globosum s.l. group in the loose umbel with pendulous flowers. 

63. A. kokanicum Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 104. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. Turk, 
(1876) t.X, f. 4-6. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 
cylindric-conical, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, more or 
less entire; scape 5-20-(40) cm long, covered at base with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 2-4, filiform, canaliculate, 0.5-1 mm broad, hispid; 



138 



spathe persistent, as long as or slightly longer than the umbel, the beak 
as long to twice as long as the blade; umbel hemispherical or spherical, 
commonly many-flowered, dense; pedicels equal, shorter than to equaling 
the perianth, bracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth rose, 
with a purple nerve, 4-5 mm long, subacute, subequal; filaments one-fourth 
to one-half as long again as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, more or less purple, the outer subulate, the inner half as broad 
again, 2-toothed at base; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the 
perianth. July- August. 

Stony and rocky slopes in the upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Dzu. Tarb. (Dzungarian Ala Tau), Pam.-Al. (Alai Range), T. Sh. 
(Aleksandrovskii Range, Fergana Range). Endemic. Described from Alai 
Range. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A species with unusual distribution. Related to A. caricoides 
from which it differs in the toothed filaments of the inner stamens. 

64. A. filifolium Rgl., A.H.P. X (1887)352, t. VI, f. 3. 
Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 

elongate -conical to subcylindric, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, 
181 more or less entire; scape 10-20 cm long, covered at base with smooth 

leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, filiform to subcapillary, 0.25-0.5 (l) mm broad, 
canaliculate, smooth or scaberulous-margined, slightly shorter than the 
scape; spathe persistent, slightly exceeding the umbel, usually colored, 
the beak shorter than to as long as the blade; umbel hemispherical, rarely 
spherical, densely few -flowered; pedicels equal, half as long to half as 
long again as perianth, bracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth 
rose, with a purple nerve, (4)-5 mm long, oblong, acutish, subequal; 
filaments half as long again to twice as long as the perianth segments, at 
base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, equal, subulate, usually faintly 
colored; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. July- August. 

Gravelly and stony slopes in the upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al., T.Sh. Endemic. Described from Talass Ala Tau: Bish-tash. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The Talass Ala Tau and the Aleksandrovskii Range are inhabited 
by typical A. filifolium, with subcapillary smooth leaves. In the 
remaining parts of the distribution area (Tashkent Ala Tau, Pamir-Alai) 
one often comes across specimens with broader scabrous leaves and thus 
resembling A. caricoides Rgl. 

There is need for further collecting of alliums of the A. globosum 
s. 1. group in the high mountains of Central Asia, as the material from 
very interesting parts of their distribution area is often inadequate. 

65. A. caricoides Rgl. in A.H.P. VI (1880) 532. — A. Hoeltzeri Rgl. 
A.H.P. VIII (1884) et in Gartenfl. (1884)291. t. 1169. — Ic: Rgl. in A.H.P. 
X (1887) t.X, f.4-6. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 
cylindric -conical, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, more or less 
entire; scape 5-20 cm long, covered at base with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 3 or 4, filiform, 0.5-1 mm broad, canaliculate, with ciliate-scabrous 
margin, commonly exceeding the scape; spathe persistent, slightly shorter 
to slightly longer than the umbel, colored, the beak slightly shorter to 



139 



slightly longer than the blade; pedicels equal, half the length of perianth, 
bracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth pale rose, with a purple 
nerve, 4-4.5 mm long, oblong, acute, subequal; filaments half as long 
again as the perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, 
subulate, more dr less purple; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter 
than perianth. June -September . 

Gravelly slopes in the middle and upper mountain zones.— Centr. Asia: 
T. Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). Endemic (?). Described from Trans -Ili Ala 
Tau: Malaya Alamaatinka. Type in Leningrad. 
182 Note. Known from a few localities in Central Tien Shan and requiring 
further study. Appears to be intermediate between A. filifolium Rgl. 
and A. tianschanicum Rupr. 

66. A. tianschanicum Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. VII, XIV, 4 
(1869)33. — A. hy m e n o r r hi z u m var. tianschanicum Rgl. in 
A.H.P. Ill (1875) 132.— A. macrorrhizum Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 
154. — A. globosum var. albidum Rgl. in A. H. P. X (1887) 352. — 
Ic: Rgl. Fl. Turk. (1876) t. XIII, f. 12-14. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 
cylindric -conical to subcylindric, (0.75)-l-2 cm thick, (5)-10-15 cm long; 
tunics brown, coriaceous, more or less splitting; scape 15-25 cm long, 
covered at base with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, narrowly linear, 
1 -1.5 mm broad, canaliculate, ciliate -scabrous, commonly shorter than 
the scape; spathe persistent, slightly exceeding the umbel, the beak about 
as long as the blade; umbel hemispherical to subspherical, rather many- 
flowered, dense; pedicels equal, slightly shorter to slightly longer than 
perianth, bracteolate; segments of the subspherical perianth yellowish or 
whitish turning red, 5-6 mm long, ovate, obtuse, the outer sometimes 
emarginate, l/6 shorter than the inner; filaments one-fourth to one-half 
as long again as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
subulate, entire, equal; style exserted; capsule scarcely shorter than the 
perianth. July-September. 

Stony and rocky slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (Alai Range, Pamirs), T.Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). Gen. distr. : 
Dzu.-Kash. Described from Dzhaman-daban. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The herbarium material suggests that the Pamir and some Tien 
Shan specimens have yellow -tinged flowers. The plants which the author 
collected himself in the Terskei Ala Tau have flowers without any yellow 
tinge. 

67. A. condensatum Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII, 2 (1855) 
121. — Kom., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 365. — A. Steveni 
var. f. Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 177. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary (or paired), attached to a short rhizome, 
cylindric-conical, 1-2 cm thick; tunics brown, often lustrous, 
subcoriaceous, more or less entire; scape 30-80 cm long, covered at base 
or up to 1/4 their length with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4-7, 
semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, 1 -2.5 mm broad, smooth, shorter 
than the scape; spathe persistent, about equaling the umbel, the beak 
sometimes as long as the blade; umbel spherical or nearly so, densely 
many-flowered; pedicels equal, (ll)-2-3-(4) times as long as the perianth, 



140 



bracteolate; segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth pale yellow, with 
a greenish nerve, 4-5 mm long, ovate, obtusish, the outer slightly shorter 

183 than the inner; filaments half as long again as the perianth, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth; capsule slightly shorter than perianth. July- 
September. 

Conglomerates and rocks. — E. Siberia: Dau. ; Far East: Ze.-Bu. , 
Uss. Gen. distr. : Mong., Jap.-Ch. Described from Dauria. Type in 
Leningrad. 

68. A. petraeum Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XV (1842) 512.- 
A. Steveni var. 5Ldb., Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 177. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to a short rhizome, elongate-conical to 
subcylindric, 0.75-1-1.5 cm thick; tunics grayish, the inner ones often 
violet, coriaceous to subchartaceous, splitting; scape (20)-30-50 cm long, 
covered to 1/4-1/3 with scabrous or smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, 
0.5-1 mm broad, canaliculate, commonly smooth, slightly shorter than 
the scape; spathe persistent, 2-4 times as long as the umbel, the beak 
several times the length of the blade; umbel spherical, densely many- 
flowered; pedicels equal, half as long again as the perianth, bracteolate; 
segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth pale yellow, with a greenish 
or rarely dingy green nerve, ca. 4 mm long, oblong-ovate, obtuse, 
mucronulate, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; filaments half as 
long again to twice as long as the perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate, equal; style exserted; capsule slightly exceeding 
the perianth. July. 

Stony slopes in foothills. — Centr. Asia: Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., T. Sh. 
(Chu-Iii Mountains). Endemic. Described from the Dzungarian Ala Tau: 
Lepsa. Type in Leningrad. 

69. A. talassicum Rgl. in A.H.P. V (1878) 628. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to a short rhizome, cylindric -conical, 
0.75- 1 .5 mm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, nearly entire; scape 
(l5)-30-75 cm long, covered to l/3 or nearly to the middle with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 3-7, narrowly linear to filiform, 0.5- 1 .5 — (2) mm broad, 
canaliculate, smooth or rough-margined; spathe persistent, half as long 
again to 3 times as long as the umbel, the beak li-5 times the length of 
the blade; umbel spherical or hemispherical, commonly many-flowered, 
dense; pedicels equal, (l.5)-2-3 times as long as the perianth, bracteolate; 
segments of the ovoid perianth pale yellowish-green, turning rosy, oblong- 
lanceolate, acute, 3-4 mm long, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; 
filaments half as long again as the perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate, equal; style exserted; capsule slightly longer 
than the perianth. July-August. (Plate XI, Figure 2 a). 

184 Rocky and stony slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 

T. Sh. Endemic. Described from Talas, Kara-choku. Type in Leningrad. 

70. A. Marschalianum Vved. nom. nov. — A. saxatile MB. Fl. taur.- 
cauc. I (1808) 264, Suppl. (1819) 260 (non MB. 1798 et auct. fl. Taur. ).— 
A. Steven, var. y Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1854) 177.— A. globosum var. 
ochroleucum Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 248 (quoad pi. taur.).— 

A. globosum var. saxatile Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 493 (p. p. ). — 
Ic: MB. Cent. pi. rar. (1810) t. 29. 



141 



Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 
elongate-conical, 0.75- 1 .5 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, splitting; 
scape 10-35 cm long, covered at base of up to 1/4 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 3 or 4, filiform, 0.5-1 mm broad, canaliculate, smooth or scabrous, 
slightly shorter than to equaling the scape; spathe persistent, half as long 
again to 3 times as long as the umbel, the beak usually several times the 
length of the blade; umbel spherical or hemispherical, dense, commonly 
many-flowered; pedicels equal, as long as to twice as long as perianth, 
bracteolate; segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth white or very 
faintly rosy, sometimes very faintly yellow in drying, 4-5 mm long, oblong - 
ovate, acute, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; filaments half as 
long again to twice as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, entire, subulate, equal; anthers commonly yellow; style 
exserted; capsule barely shorter than the perianth. July-August. 

Rocks, stony places, and mountain slopes . — European part: Crim. 
Endemic (?). Described from the Crimea. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Closely related to A. saxatile M. B., with which it was at first 
confused by Bieberstein himself. In considering it as a distant species, 
in conformity with present practice (c.f. Wolf. Fl. Kryma, 3, 34), the 
author was obliged to give it a new name, although he is not convinved as 
to the characteristics distinguishing it from A. saxatile M.B. or from 
A. szurulense Lerchenf. (if one regards the latter as distinct from 
A. saxatile). 

71. A. saxatile M.B. Tabl. prov. casp. (1798) 114. — A. savranicum 
Bess. Cat. Hort. Crem. Suppl. (1818) (n. v. ). — A. caucasicum MB. 
Fl. taur.-cauc. Suppl. (1819) 258. — A. Steveni var. ]3 Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV (1853) 177. — A. globosum Boiss. Fl. Or. I (1884) 247 (p.p. ).— 
A. Ruprechtii Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 264 (?). — A. globosum var. 
saxatile Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 493 (p. p. ). — A . globosum f. dilute- 
rose u m Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 632— Exs. : PL or. exs. No. 130 
(sub A. gl ob o s o). 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 
ovoid-conical to elongate-conical, 0.75-1 cm thick; tunics brown, 
coriaceous, splitting; scape 20-50 cm long, covered at base or up to 
1/4 -(1/3) with smooth or scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 5-7, filiform, 
0.5-1 mm broad, canaliculate, smooth or scabrous, shorter than the scape; 
spathe persistent, half as long again to 3 times as long as the umbel, 
185 the beak usually several times as long as the blade; umbel hemispherical 
or spherical, commonly many-flowered, dense; pedicels equal, as long as 
or often half as long again to twice as long as the perianth, bracteolate; 
segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth pale rose, darker on the back, 
4-5-(6) mm long, oblong, acute, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; 
filaments half as long again to twice as long as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, entire, equal, subulate; anthers commonly 
violet; style exserted; capsule barely shorter than the perianth. July- 
August. 

Rocks, stony places, sands, and steppes. — European part: M. Dnp., 
BL, Crim., L. Don (W. ); Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W. and E. Transc; 
Centr. Asia: Balkh. (NE part), Dzu.-Tarb. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., 
Dzu.-Kash. Described from E. Transcaucasia: Kurt-bulak. 



142 



Note. The differences of habitat between the Ukrainian (sands and 
steppes) and the Caucasian plants (rocks and stony slopes), as well as the 
marked isolation of the Dzungarian-Tarbagatai distribution area, suggest 
the existence of different races, but it has not been possible to arrive at 
a definite conclusion with herbarium material alone. Also worthy of 
attention is the high-mountain Caucasian form with larger flowers. 

72. A. globosum M.B. ex Redoute Lil. Ill (1807) t. 179; Boiss. Fl. Or. 
V (1884) 247 (p.p.); Shmal'g. , Fl. II. 493 (p.p.); Krylov, Fl. Zap. 

Sib. Ill (1929) 631. — A. caucasicum Ker. -Gawl. Bot. Mag. XXVIII 
(1808) in adn. ad tab. 1143. (?). — A. Steveni var. a Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV 
(1853) 176. — A. Gmelinianum Miscz. ex Gross., Fl. Kavk. 1(1928) 
269. — Exs.: HFRNo.536. 

Perennial; bulbs commonly in a cluster of several, attached to a short 
rhizome, ovoid-conical to elongate -conical, 0.75-1 .5 cm thick; tunics 
brown, coriaceous, splitting; scape 20-60 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 with 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 5 or 6, subulate, 0.5 mm broad, canaliculate, 
smooth or rarely scabrous, shorter than the scape; spathe persistent; 
commonly 2-3 (4) times as long as the umbel, the beak usually several 
times as long as the blade; umbel commonly spherical, rarely 
hemispherical, dense; pedicels equal, half as long again to twice as long 
as perianth, bracteolate; segments of the oyoid-campanulate perianth dark 
rose to nearly purple, with a darker nerve, 4-4.5 mm long, oblong-ovate 
acute, the outer barely shorter than the inner; filaments half as long 
again to twice as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subulate, equal; anthers violet; style exserted; capsule 
as long as the perianth. June -August. 

Stony slopes, chalk, limestone, and solonetz soils. — European part: 
186 V.-Ka., V.-Don, Transv., Crim. (?), L. Don, L. V. ; Caucasus: Cisc; 

W. Siberia: U. Tob. , Irt.; Centr. Asia: Balkh. (NE). Endemic. Described 
from the Caucasus. 

73. A. Alexandrae Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. V 
(1924) 95. 

Perennial; bulbs in clusters of several, attached to an oblique rhizome, 
elongate -ovoid to subcylindric, 0.75-1.5 cm thick, 2-6 cm long; tunics 
coriaceous, entire, split only at the top, parallel-nerved; scape 
(l0)-20-30 cm long, covered to the middle with smooth or scabrous leaf 
sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm broad, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, sulcate, smooth or scabrous, usually shorter than the scape; 
spathe small, long-beaked, sometimes up to 3 times as long as the umbel, 
persistent; umbel hemispherical, densely few -flowered; pedicels subequal, 
half as long to as long or (in fruit) twice as long as the perianth, 
bracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth rose, with a purple 
nerve, 4-5 mm long, obtuse, the inner oblong-elliptic, slightly longer 
and much broader than the oblong-lanceolate outer segments; filaments 
barely shorter than perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth for 
l/4 their length, the outer oblong- subulate, the inner 3 times as broad, 
abruptly attenuate at 3/4 their length, sometimes nearly toothed; style not 
exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the perianth. July- August. 



143 



Steppe slopes. — Centr. Asia: T.Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). Endemic. 
Described from several localities in Central Tien Shan. Type in Leningrad. 

74. A. teretifolium Rgl. inA.H.P. V (1878) 629 . — A. Grimmii 
Rgl. in Trautv., Rgl. Maxim, et Winkl. Dec. pi. nov. (1882) 10. 

Perennial; bulbs 2 to several, attached to a short rhizome, elongate- 
ovoid, 1 -1 .5 cm thick; tunics brown or rufous -brown, coriaceous, 
reticulate-nerved, the outer reticulately fibrous, enveloping the scape 
base; scape 15-50 cm long, covered to l/4 or up to the middle with smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm broad, canaliculate, 
sulcate, smooth, shorter than the scape; scape with beak as long again 
as the blade, equaling or slightly exceeding the umbel, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate or often fasciculate -hemispherical, commonly many-flowered, 
bracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth rose, with a purple 
nerve, 6-9 mm long, subequal, lanceolate, acutish; filaments two-thirds 
as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth for l/5 their 
length, commonly entire, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner 3 times 
as broad at base, triangular; style not exserted; capsule half as long as 
the perianth. July- August. 
187 Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Dzungarian Ala Tau), 
T. Sh. (Ketmen). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from Dzungarian 
Ala Tau: Altyn-imel'. 

75. A. Korolkovii Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 158. — A. oliganthum 
var. elongatum Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat, Mosc. XV (1842) 511 . — 
A. moschatum var. dubium et var. brevipedunculatum Rgl. 
A.H.P. VI (1880) 522, 523. — A. oliganthum auct. fl. As. Med.— 

Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. 13-15. 

Perennial; bulbs 2 to several, attached to a short rhizome, oblong-ovoid, 
0.75—1 (1.5) cm thick; tunics coriaceous, brown, often lustrous, densely 
subreticulately nerved, clasping the scape base and there slightly reticulate - 
fibrous; scape slender, 10-20-(45) cm long, covered at base or up to l/3 
with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2-4, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm broad, sulcate, 
canaliculate, smooth or rarely scabrous, much shorter than the scape; 
spathe somewhat shorter than the umbel, persistent, the beak short or 
sometimes up to one -half the length of blade; umbel fasciculate or 
hemispherical, commonly few-flowered; pedicels more or less unequal, 
slightly shorter than to twice the length of perianth, bracteolate; segments 
of the campanulate perianth nearly white, in drying rose with purple nerve, 
5-8 mm long, subequal, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acutish or 
sometimes short-acuminate; filaments two-thirds as long as perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth for one -fourth their length, 
commonly entire, abruptly subulate from a triangular base, the inner about 
twice as broad at base as the outer; style not exserted; capsule half as 
long as the perianth. July- August. 

Dry steppe slopes. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Dzungarian Ala Tau), 
Pam.-Al. (Irkeshtam), T. Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). Gen. distr.: Dzu.-Kash. 
Described from the mountains between the Malyi Naryn and Ulan rivers. 
Type in Leningrad. 

76. A. Albovianum Vved. nom. nov. — A. gracile Albov. in Tr. 
Tifl. Bot; Sada I (1895) 239, no n Ait. (1789). 



144 



Perennial; bulbs 2 or 3, attached to a rhizome, narrowly conical, 
ca. 0.75 cm thick; tunics brownish, coriaceous, separated into fibers, 
obscurely reticulate -fibrous; scape 20 — 30 cm long, ribbed, covered at 
base with subapproximate smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, narrowly 
linear, ca. 2 mm broad, stoutish, canaliculate, smooth or minutely 
scaberulous -margined, slightly shorter than the umbel, persistent; umbel 
hemispherical, rather few -flowered, dense; pedicels equal, about as 
long as perianth, dark rose, obscurely nerved, 5-6 mm long, elliptic, 
obtuse, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; filaments dark rose, half 
as long again as the perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, subulate, equal; style scarcely exserted. July. 

Alpine pastures. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. Described from the 
town of Dzhvari. 

77. A. gunibicum Miscz. ex Grossh. , Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 208. 
Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a short rhizome, 

ovoid-conical to elongate-conical, 0.5-0.75 cm thick, (l) — 2-7 cm long; 
tunics brown, coriaceous, splitting, obscurely reticulate -fibrous; scape 
10 — 20 cm long, slender, covered at base with smooth approximate leaf 
sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, 0.5-1 mm 
broad, about as long as the scape; spathe persistent, somewhat shorter 
than the umbel, the beak as long as or slightly shorter than the blade; 
umbel fasciculately hemispherical or hemispherical, few-flowered, loose; 
pedicels equal, half as long again to twice as long as the perianth, subtended 
by few bracteoles; segments of the hemispherical perianth rosy-purple, 
ca. 5 mm long, elliptic, obtuse; filaments rose, half as long again as the 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate, 
equal; style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the perianth. August. 

Rocks and stony slopes, at 1,300-2,000 m.— Caucasus: Dag. Endemic. 
Described from Gunib. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A plant collected by A. Poretskii on limestone near village of 
Gimry, at the altitude of about 700 m, approaches closely this species, 
but its perianth segments are only ca. 4 mm long, narrower, and 
mucronate. 

A. gunibicum is closely related to A. Albovianum. The 
differences between the two are not quite clear to the author, who knows 
the latter species only from cultivated specimens. 

78. A. daghestanicum Grossh. in Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 208. 
Perennial; bulbs ovoid -lanceolate, attached to a rhizome; tunics gray, 

slightly reticulate-fibrous; leaves shorter than the scape, thick; flat, 
canaliculate, 4-5 mm broad; spathe subulate -tipped, shorter than the 
pedicels; umbel loosely few-flowered; pedicels unequal, 4-6 times the 
length of flower; perianth segments rose, 5-7 mm long, acute, ovate - 
lanceolate, the outer lanceolate; filaments half as long again as the perianth 
segments; anthers dark; style slightly longer than the ovary. 

High-mountain zone.— Caucasus: Dag. Endemic. Type in Tiflis [Tbilisi]. 

79. A. Veschnjakovii Rgl. inA.H.P. VI (1880) 531. — Ic. : Rgl. in 
A.H. P. X (1887) t. VIII, f. 3. 



145 






189 Perennial; roots numerous, nearly ropy; bulbs in a cluster of several, 
attached to a horizontal rhizome, obsolescent; tunics grayish-brown, 
membranous, more or less entire; scape 10-15 cm long, slender, erect, 
ribbed; leaves 2 or 3, subulate, 0.5-1 mm broad, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, smooth, slightly shorter than the scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, one-third to one-half as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate; few-flowered, fairly loose; pedicels equal, half as long again 
to twice as long as the perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate 
perianth rosy-violet, with a prominent dingy violet nerve, 5-6 mm long, 
oblong-elliptic, obtuse, the outer slightly shorter than the inner; filaments 
two-thirds to three-quarters as long as perianth segments, adnate to 
perianth for half its length, connate to 3/4, the outer subulate in free part, 
the inner narrowly triangular; style not exserted; capsule about half as 
long as the perianth. June -July. 

Pebbles and gravelly and stony slopes in the alpine zone. — Centr. Asia: 
T. Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from the 
Kegan River. Type in Leningrad. 

80. A. Semenovi Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI, 1 (1868)449.— 
Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. VIII, 4-5. 

Perennial; bulbs 1 to several, attached to a rhizome, cylindric, 
obsolescent, 0.75-1 cm thick; tunics brownish, subreticulate-fibrous; 
scape stoutish, 10-40 cm long, covered to the middle or nearly so with 
smooth subapproximate leaf sheaths; leaves (2) 3, broadly linear, 5-15 mm 
broad, gradually attenuate toward apex, not fistulous, smooth, slightly 
longer than the scape; spathe short-acuminate, about as long as the umbel, 
commonly colored, persistent; umbel spherical-ovoid, rather many- 
flowered, dense, capitate; pedicels unequal, the inner several times as 
long as the outer, slightly shorter than to equaling the perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth yellow, at length turning 
reddish, 10-15 mm long, unequal, the outer half as long again as the inner, 
lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, tapering, acute, more or less crenate; 
filaments one -fourth to one -third the length of outer perianth segments, 
adnate to perianth for half their length, connate to 3/4, in free part 
triangular -subulate, the inner twice as broad as the outer, commonly 
toothed; style not exserted, with 3 stigmas, sometimes parted nearly down 
to base. June -July. 

Alpine meadows. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Dzungarian Ala Tau), 
T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from several locations in 
Central Tien Shan. Type in Leningrad. 

81. A. monadelphum Less, ex Kunth Enum. IV (1843) 393; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 168; Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII, 2 (1854) 120.— 

190 A. at ros anguineum Schrenk. Bull. Acad. Petersb. X (1842) 355; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 168. — A. at r o s an gu in e u m Kar. et Kir. in Bull. 
Soc. Nat. Mosc. XV (1842) 508. -A. F e dt s c h e n ko anu m Rgl. in 
A.H.P. Ill (1875) 82. — A. Kaufmanni Rgl. inA.H.P. 111(1875)84.— 
Ic: Rgl. Fl. Turk. (1876) t. VIII, f. 1-3. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or clustered, attached to a rhizome, cylindric, 
obsolescent, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics brownish, more or less fibrous; 
scape stoutish, 10-60-(l00) cm long, covered to 1/5-1/2 with smooth leaf 



146 



sheaths; leaves l-2-(3), cylindric, fistulous, 2-7 mm broad, smooth, 
slightly shorter to slightly longer than the scape; spathe short-acuminate, 
as long as or slightly shorter than the umbel, usually colored, persistent; 
umbel spherical -ovoid, densely few-flowered, often capitate; pedicels 
unequal, the inner longer than the outer, 1/3-1/2 as long as to equaling the 
perianth or the inner ones in fruit to twice as long as the perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth lustrous, yellow or 
finally reddish or dark purple, 7-14 mm long, equal or the outer up to 
half as long again as the inner, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or oblong, 
often tapering, obtuse or acute, the margin entire or more or less crenate; 
filaments one -thirds to one -half as long as perianth segments, adnate to 
the perianth to the middle, connate to 2/3-3/4 their length, in free part 
triangular-subulate, the inner ones half as broad again as the outer, 
sometimes 2-toothed; style not exserted, with 3 stigmas, sometimes 3-fid 
for 2/3 its length; capsule half as long as the perianth. June-July. 

Fine -textured and stony places in the subalpine and alpine zones.— 
W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., Dau. ; Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb.; 
Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Ind.-Him., Dzu.-Kash., Mong. Described 
from W. Sayans: Sabin-daban. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A. monadelphum s. 1. is a highly complex and very 
polymorphic cycle. A reliable subdivision into elementary entities can only 
be achieved on the basis of field observations, particularly as regards 
flower color and degree of aggregation in clumps-. 

82. A. schoenoprasum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 301; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 166 
(excl. syn. A. oliganthum Kar. etKir.) Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. XXVII 2 (1854) 119; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 250; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 
493; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 606; Kom., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. 
193 kraya I (1931) 366. — A. sibiricum L. Mant. II (1771) 562> — 

A. Raddeanum Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 155. — Ic. : Syreishch. , 111. 
Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 235. — Exs. : HFRNo.85. 

Perennial; bulbs 1 to several, attached to a short rhizome, oblong-ovoid, 
to ovoid-conical, 0.75-1 cm thick; tunics brown, papery to subcoriaceous, 
sometimes slightly separated into parallel fibers; scape stoutish, 10-60 cm 
long, smooth or rarely scabrous, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth or rarely 
scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 1 or 2, cylindric or at base semicylindric, 
2-6 mm broad, fistulous, smooth or rarely scabrous, commonly shorter 
than the scape; spathe short -acuminate, as long as or somewhat shorter 
than the umbel, often colored, persistent; umbel fasciculate -spherical to 
subspherical, dense, subcapitate; pedicels unequal, the inner longer, 
one-third to one-half the length of or rarely as long as the perianth segments, 
ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth lustrous, 
pale rose to rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 7-17 mm long, linear- 
lanceolate, lanceolate or oblong, more or less tapering, acute to obtusish, 
often with reflexed tips; filaments one-third to one-half as long as perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth for 1/4-1/3 their length, entire, 
tapering from a triangular base, the inner half as broad again at base as 
the outer; style not exserted; capsule one-third to one-half as long as the 
perianth. May -August. 



147 



(i9i; 




Plate XII 

1. Allium pseudoflavum Vved . ; la) portion of perianth; lb) bulb scale; lc) bulb.— 

2. A.Kunthianum Vved.; 2a) portion of perianth; 2b) bulb scale.- 3. A. t ra ns ves t iens Vved. 
3a) portion of perianth, 3b), 3d)bulblets. 



148 



Meadows, river valleys, rarely stony slopes. — Arctic: Arc. Eur., 
Nov. Z., Arc. Sib., Chuk., An.; European part: Kar.-Lap., Dv.-Pech., 
Lad.-Ilm., U. V., V.-Ka., U. Dnp., M. Dnp. (rare), V.-Don, Bl. (rare), 
L. Don (rare); Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W., E. and S. Transc; W. Siberia: 
Ob, Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: Yen., Lena-Kol., Ang.-Say., Dau. ; Far East: 
Kamch., Okh., Uda, Uss.; Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb., T. Sh. (Centr. Tien 
Shan). Gen. distr. : Scand., Centr. Eur., W. Med., Bal.-As. Min., Iran., 
Ind.-Him., Dzu.-Kash., Mong., Jap.-Ch., Ber., N. Am. Described from 
Siberia and Elandiya. 

Note. A. schoenoprasum, as here presented, is a very 
polymorphic species. Of particular interest for further study is the strongly 
scabrous Central Asian race. Scabrous scapes and leaves also occur 
sometimes in the Caucasian A. schoenoprasum and this prompted 
certain Caucasian florists to identify such plants quite erroneously with 
A. scabrellum Boiss. etBuhse. 

Economic importance. Sometimes cultivated in the western part of the 
European U.S.S.R. for the tender tops. In Siberia it is pickled for winter 
use. 

194 83. A. Ledebourianum Roem. et Schult. Syst . VII (1830) 1029; Ldb. 

Fl. Ross. IV, 168; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 607. - A. uliginosum 
Ldb. Ic. pi. fl. Ross. I (1829) 20, t. 83. 

Perennial; bulbs 2 to several, attached to a rhizome, cylindric to 
elongate -ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; tunics grayish-brown, shelly-coriaceous, 
breaking up; scape stoutish, 40-80 cm long, smooth, covered up to the 
middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 1 or 2, semicylindric (?), fistulous, 
5-10 mm broad, smooth, shorter than the scape; spathe short -acuminate, 
one-half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel fasciculate - 
spherical or subspherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, half 
as long again to 3 times as long as the perianth, ebracteolate; segments 
of the narrowly campanulate perianth lustrous, rosy- violet, with a darker 
nerve, 7-12 mm long, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, acute; filaments 
two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than the perianth segments, at base 
connate, and adnate to perianth, entire, the outer triangular -subulate," 
the inner half as broad again at base, very narrowly triangular; style 
conspicuously exserted; capsule half as long as the perianth. June-July. 

Meadows and river valleys. — W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., 
Dau.; Far East: Ze.-Bu. , Uda. Gen. distr.: Mong. Described from 
Belaya Uba and Koksun rivers. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The form described by Krylov (Fl. Alt. VI (1912) 1379) as var. 
intermedium, is apparently a hybrid between A. Ledbourianum 
and A. schoenoprasum. 

84. A. Maximowiczii Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 153; Kom., Opred. rast. 
Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 366. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to a rhizome, 
cylindric -conical, 0.75-1 cm thick; tunics reticulate, subchartaceous, 
brittle; scape 15-60 cm, covered at base or up to l/3 with smooth 
sometimes violet -tinged leaf sheaths; leaves l-(2), cylindric (?), fistulous, 
1-5 mm broad, smooth, slightly shorter than the scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, slightly shorter than the umbel, persistent; umbel 
hemispherical to spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 



149 



(ll)-2- (3) times as long as the perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
campanulate perianth, lustrous, rose, with a darker nerve, 5-6 -(7) mm long, 
oblong-lanceolate, acute; filaments slightly shorter to scarcely longer than 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, the outer 
subulate from a slightly dilated base, the inner about half as broad again at 
base, gradually attenuate; style slightly exserted; capsule two-thirds as 
long as the perianth. June-July. (Plate XI, Figure 3 a). 
195 Meadows and river valleys. — E. Siberia: Dau. ; Far East: Okh., 

Ze.-Bu., Uda, Uss., Sakh. Gen. distr. : Jap.-Ch. Described from Amur 
and Ussuri areas. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Closely related to A. Ledebourianum. Additional studies 
are needed, as the differences between the two species are not quite clear. 

85. A. oliganthum Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIV (1841) 
856. — A. stenophyllum Schrenk. in Bull. Acad. Petersb. 111(1845)210; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 172; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 613. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. 
turk. (1876) t. IX, f. 4-6. 

Perennial; bulbs several, attached to a short rhizome, elongate -ovoid, 
ca. 1 cm thick; tunics shelly-coriaceous, brownish or violet-brown, brittle, 
clasping the scape base and there more or less separated into parallel 
fibers; scape 15-35 cm long, covered to l/3 or nearly to the middle with 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 1 or 2, semicylindric, fistulous (?), 
canaliculate, 1-2 mm broad, shorter than the scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, one-half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel 
fasciculate -hemispherical to spherical, rather many-flowered, relatively 
loose; pedicels subequal, 2-3 times as long as the perianth, ebracteolate; 
segments of the campanulate perianth rose, with a darker nerve, 5-6 mm 
long, oblong, acute; filaments slightly shorter than perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subequal, subulate from a 
scarcely dilated base; style slightly exserted; capsule two-thirds as long 
as the perianth. June-July, 

Solonetz meadows. — W. Siberia: Irt.; Centr. Asia: Balkh. (N. ). 
Described from the area between the Ayaguz and Donzuk rivers. Type in 
Leningrad. 



Section 4. PHYLLODOLON (Salisb.), Prokh. in Tr. Prikl. Bot., Gen. 
i Sel. XXIV (1930) 178.- Phyllodolon Salisb. Gen. PL Frag. (1866)90.- 
Bulbs (in wild species) attached to rhizome, elongated, more or less 
clustered; scape robust, hollow, the aerial part covered to rather high up 
with leaf sheaths; leaves fistulous; pedicels ebracteolate; perianth 
campanulate, the segments 1 -nerved; filaments entire; capsule ovoid- 
triangular, obscurely pitted; seeds angular. 

86. A. microbulbum Prokh. in Bull. appl. Bot. XXIV, 2 (1930) 180. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to a short rhizome, ovoid-conical, 
0.75-1.5 cm thick; tunics reddish-brown, subcoriaceous, entire; scape 
20-25 cm long, 0.75-1.5 cm thick below the middle, gradually attenuate 
toward apex, half as long as to slightly shorter than the scape; spathe short - 
acuminate, as long as the umbel, persistent; umbel spherical or 



!50 






196 subspherical, densely many-flowered, capitate; pedicels stout, unequal, 
the central ones somewhat longer, slightly shorter than or (the central) 
to twice as long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate 
perianth yellowish, lustrous, 6-7 mm long, acute, the inner oblong-elliptic, 
slightly longer than the oblong-lanceolate outer segments; filaments twice 
as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, subequal, subulate from a triangular base; style conspicuously 
exserted; capsule about half as long as the perianth. 

E. Siberia: Dau. (known from 3 localities). A cultivated plant, according 
to Prokhanov. Described from Shavka River. Type in Leningrad. 

87. A. alt aicum Pall. Reise. . . 11(1773)737, t. R.— A. fistulosum 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 169; Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXVII, 
2 (1854) 120; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 609. — Ic: Prokhanov in Tr. 
Prikl. Bot. XXIV, 2 (1930) 132. 

Perennial; bulbs 1 to several, attached to an oblique rhizome, oblong- 
ovoid, 2-4 cm thick; tunics reddish-brown, subcoriaceous, entire; scape 
robust, 30-70-(l00) cm long, stout, 1-3 cm thick below the middle, 
gradually attenuate toward summit, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 2-4, cylindric, fistulous, 8-20 mm broad, gradually 
attenuate toward apex, short, one -third to one -half the length of scape; 
spathe short-acuminate, about as long as the umbel; umbel spherical, 
densely many-flowered, capitate; pedicels stout, subequal, slightly shorter 
than to half as long again as the perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
campanulate perianth yellowish, lustrous, 6-8 mm long, acuminate, the 
inner elliptic, the outer oblong-lanceolate, slightly shorter than the inner; 
pedicels about twice the length of perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, entire, subequal, subulate from a triangular base; style exserted; 
capsule two-thirds as long as the perianth. July- August. 

Rocks and stony places. — W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., 
Dau.; Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash., Mong. Described 
from the Altai. 

(88). A. fistulosum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 301; Shmal'g., Fl. 11(1897) 489.— 
Ic: Prokhanov in Tr. Prikl. Bot. XXIV, 2 (1930) 133. 

Perennial; bulbs oblong, sometimes obsolescent; scape to 1 m long, 
stout, fistulous, obliquely inflated; leaves fistulous; umbel spherical, 
many-flowered; pedicels slender, 2-3 times as long as perianth; segments 
of the campanulate perianth yellowish, oblong, acute; filaments 2-3 times 
as long as the perianth, entire. — A. cultivated plant. 

Economic importance Extensively cultivated in the Far East and in 
Siberia. To the west, beyond Bashkiria, not grown on a larger scale. The 
Chinese in the Far East use the blanched stem bases (Japanese leek""). 

197 Owing to the early development of the top, it has recently come into use in 
Europe as a substitute for green common onion ("winter onion"). 



Section 5. CEPA Prokh. in Bull. appl. Bot. XXIV (1930) 180.- Bulbs 
(in wild species) attached to a rhizome, more or less clustered, often well 
developed, conical to ovoid; scape robust, the aerial part covered to rather 
high up with leaf sheaths; leaves fistulous; pedicels bracteolate; perianth 



151 



stellate; leaves 1 -nerved; filaments entire or the inner with 2 short 
toothlets at base; capsule applanate -globose, with broad nectaries at base. 

89. A. galanthum Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XV (1842) 508; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 169; Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. 111(1929)603.— 

A. pseudocepa Schrenk in Bull. Acad. Petersb. X (1842) 355. — Ic. : 
Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. VIII, t. 6-8. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to rhizome, conical- 
cylindric, 1.5-2 .5 cm thick; tunics reddish-brown, subcoriaceous, entire; 
scape robust, 20-50 cm long, solid, gradually attenuate toward summit, 
covered at base with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2- (3), cylindric, 
gradually attenuate toward apex, fistulous, erect, 3-10 mm broad, one-half 
to two-thirds as long as the scape; spathe one-half to two-thirds the length 
of the umbel; umbel hemispherical or often spherical, rather densely 
many-flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times as long as perianth, subtended 
by few bracteoles; segments of the stellate perianth white, obscurely 
nerved, 4-5 mm long, equal oblong, obtuse; filaments scarcely longer 
than perianth, at base adnate to perianth and connate to form a ring, 
subulate from the enlarged base, entire; style shorter than the capsule; 
capsule slightly longer than the perianth. July. 

Gravelly and stony slopes. — W. Siberia: Irt., Alt.; Centr. Asia: 
Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from the 
Lepsa River. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Plants from. Central Tien Shan deserve further study. 

90. A. pskemense B. Fedtsch. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Petersb. V (1905) 
43.— Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 417, a et b. 

Perennial; bulbs in a cluster of several, attached to rhizome, elongate - 
ovoid, 4-6 cm thick; tunics reddish-brown, subcoriaceous, entire; scape 
robust, 40-80 cm long, hollow, obliquely inflated below the middle, covered 
at base with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3, cylindric, attenuate toward 
apex, fistulous, erect, 2-3 cm thick, half as long as the scape; spathe 
about equaling the umbel; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
equal, 3-4 times as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments 
of the stellate perianth white, obscurely nerved, ca. 6 mm long, equal, 
198 oblong, obtuse; filaments slightly exceeding the perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, slightly connate in a ring higher up, the 
outer subulate, the inner about 3 times as broad at base as the outer and 
much broader than the perianth segments, subulate above the 2 -toothed 
base; style shorter than the capsule; capsule globose -trigonous. August. 

Rock crevices and stony places. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Tashkent Ala 
Tau, Chatkal Range). Endemic. Described from the Pskem River. Type 
in Leningrad. 

91. A. Vavilovi M. Pop. et Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 
122. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or paired, attached to rhizome, ovoid -oblong, 
2.5-4 cm thick; tunics reddish-brown, coriaceous, entire; scape robust, 
70-90 cm long, hollow, inflated at 1/4-1/3 their length, covered at base 
with approximate smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 7-9, flattened, canaliculate, 
fistulous, glaucous, subdistichous, recurved, 7-15 mm broad, greatly 



152 



exceeded by the scape; spathe short-beaked, about equaling the umbel; 
umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 3-4 times the 
length of perianth, bracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth white, 
with a green nerve, ca. 4 mm long, linear-oblong, obtuse, equal; filaments 
as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, the 
outer subulate, the inner twice as broad as the outer and slightly broader 
than perianth segments, subulate from a broadly ovate obtusely 2 -toothed 
base; anthers greenish-yellow; style shorter than the capsule; capsule 
subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. June. 

Rock crevices and stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr.: 
N. Iran. Described from Kopet Dagh: Germab. Type in Tashkent. 

92. A. Oschanini O. Fedtsch. in Progress. Sadov. i Ogorod. Ill (1906) 
332. cum. tab. — A. cepa var. sylvestre Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 314.— 
Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 334. 

Perennial; bulbs 1-3, attached to rhizome, ovoid, 2.5-4 cm thick; 
tunics reddish-brown, coriaceous, entire; scape robust, 45-100 cm long, 
hollow, inflated below the middle, covered at base with subdistant smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, cylindric, attenuate toward apex, fistulous, 
glaucescent, erect, 4-15-(40) mm broad, one-third the length of the scape; 
spathe about equaling the umbel; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels 3-4 times as long as perianth; bracteolate; segments of the stellate 
199 perianth white, with a green nerve, 4-5 mm long, equal, linear-oblong to 
oblong-lanceolate, obtuse; filaments one -fourth as long again as perianth, at 
base connate and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate, the inner at base 
twice as broad as the outer and slightly broader than perianth segments, 
subulate from a broadly ovate obtusely 2 -toothed base; style shorter than 
the capsule; capsule globose -trigonous, ca. 5 mm in diameter. June. 

Rock crevices and stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam. AL, T. Sh. 
(Mogol-tau). Endemic. Described without indication of provenience 
(probably from Alai Range). 

(93). A. cepa L. Sp. pi. (1753) 300; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 489. — Ic: 
Syreishch., 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 236. 

Perennial; bulb oblong or applanate- spherical; tunics yellowish-brown, 
reddish or white; scape to 1 m long, stout, inflated below the middle, 
fistulous; leaves fistulous; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered;; 
pedicels several times the length of perianth; perianth stellate, whitish- 
greenish, the segments oblong obtuse; filaments exceeding the perianth, 
the inner obtusely 2 -toothed at base. A cultivated plant. 

Economic importance. Cultivated throughout the Soviet Union for the 
preservable bulbs and tops. Grown on a large scale in the central part of 
the European USSR. Also widely cultivated in Transcaucasia and in Soviet 
Central Asia; rare in Siberia and in the Far East, where onion cultivation 
has penetrated only in recent times. In the north grown only as green onion. 



Section 6. HAPLOSTEMON Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 230.— Bulb solitary, 
spherical, ovoid or oblong-ovoid; rhizome none; aerial part of scape 
covered to high up with leaf sheaths; perianth segments 1 -nerved; filaments 
entire or short -toothed; seeds angular. 



153 



94. A. Margaritae B. Fedtsch. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XVIII, 

1 (1918) 14.— A. moschatum auct. Fl. As. Med.— Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. 
Med. No. 61. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics brown or grayish- 
brown, coriaceous, splitting, prominently subreticulately nerved; scape 
10-20 cm long, covered up to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 
3 or 4, filiform, apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, as long 
as the scape; spathe one-third to one-half as long as the umbel, with beak 
half as long as the blade, not splitting down to base, forming a short tube 
enveloping the umbel base; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate, loosely 
few -flowered; pedicels unequal, 2 -4 -(5) times as long as perianth, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth nearly white, 
with a prominent dingy purple nerve, 5-6 mm long, equal, lanceolate, 
200 acute; filaments two-thirds as long as the perianth, at base connate and 

adnate to perianth, subulate from triangular base, the inner twice as broad; 
anthers yellow; style not exserted; ovary subglobose, scabrous; capsule 
valves suborbicular, scarcely emarginate, ca. 3 mm long. June -July. 

Outcrops of mottled strata. — Centr. Asia: Balkh. , T. Sh. Endemic. 
Described from Chu River valley: Uspenskoe. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. It is very likely that, as a result of more detailed study of this 
species, this as well as the four following species, this as well as the four 
following species will have to be transferred to the section Rhiziridium. 

95. A. inaequale Janka in Linnaea, XXX (i860) 603 . — A. moschatum 
auct. p.p. — Ic: Fl. Yugo-Vost. I (1927) 367. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 — 2 cm thick; outer tunics brown or grayish- 
brown, subcoriaceous, splitting and more or less reticulate -fibrous, 
especially at the top where clasping the scape base; scape 10-25 cm long, 
covered to l/3 or nearly to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 
or 4 (5), apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth or often scabrous, 
shorter than scape, withering before flowering; spathe one-third to one-half 
as long as the umbel, with beak as long as the blade, split down to base; 
umbel without bulblets.. fasciculate, loosely few-flowered; pedicels 
commonly very unequal, (2)-3-6(l0) times as long as the perianth, 
subtended by few bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth pale 
rose, with a purple nerve, 4 — 5 — (7) mm long, equal, oblong-lanceolate, 
obtusish; filaments three-quarters as long as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, the inner narrowly triangular, twice as 
broad as the triangular-subulate outer ones; anthers violet; style not 
exserted, commonly about 1.5 mm long; ovary truncate-conical, scabrous; 
capsule valves orbicular, scarcely emarginate, ca. 3 mm long. June- 
August. 

Steppes slopes, limestone, chalk, and sands. — European part: V.-Don 
(SW), Bl., Crim. (Balaklava), L. Don, L. V.; Caucasus: Cisc. (Stavropol), 
Dag.* (?); Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. Endemic. Described from 
Krasnoarmeisk. 

Note. The typical A. inaequale occurs beyond the Volga. The form 
growing to the west in the southern part of the European USSR displays 
characteristics of transition towards A. moschatum, although still closer 
to A. inaequale. This form needs a detailed supplementary study. 

* Akhty, Becker — needs confirmation. 



154 



96. A. moschatum L. Sp. pi. (1762)427; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV 172 (p.p.); 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 265; Shmal'g., Fl. II 490 (p. p. ). — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. 
pi. Germ. X (1848) f. 1901. — Exs . : Fl. Hung, exs . No. 697. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, 1 - 1 .5 cm thick; outer tunics grayish- 
201 brown, subcoriaceous, splitting, reticulately nerved, at the top reticulately 
fibrous or reticulate and more or less clasping the scape base; scape 
10-25 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves (4)-5-6, 
filiform, canaliculate, more or less revolute, ciliate-scabrous on the 
margin, about as long as the scape, persistent nearly to fruiting; spathe 
commonly somewhat shorter than the umbel, with beak longer than the blade, 
split down to base; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate or often 
hemispherical, rather few -flowered; pedicels subequal, as long as to 
2 -(3) times as long as perianth, subtended by few bracts; segments of the 
campanulate perianth rose, with a purple nerve, (5)-6-7 mm long, 
subequal, lanceolate, obtuse; filaments about two -thirds as long as the 
perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, triangular-subulate, the 
inner half as broad again at base as the outer; anthers violet; style not 
exserted, commonly ca. 3 mm long; ovary pyriform, scabrous; capsule 
valves ca. 3 mm long, suborbicular, terminating in a short narrowly 
emarginate point. July- August. 

Rocks and dry places. — European part: M. Dnp. (W.), Crim., Caucasus: 
Cisc, W., E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., W. Med., 
Bal.-As. Min. Described from France and Spain. 

97. A. callidictyon C.A.M. ex Kunth Enum. IV (1843) 413; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 173; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 266. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics rufous, 
reticulate; scape 10-20 cm long, covered to l/3 or nearly to the middle 
with more or less hairy smooth upper leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, 
revolute, scabrous- or smooth-margined, shorter than the scape; spathe 
half as long as the umbel, with beak about as long as the blade, split down 
to base; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate, loosely few-flowered; pedicels 
unequal, one-fifth to one-third as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; 
segments of the campanulate perianth whitish, with a dingy green nerve, 
6-7 mm long, equal, oblong-lanceolate, the outer acutish, the inner obtuse, 
filaments three-quarters the length of perianth segments, connate and adnate 
to perianth to 1/4 their length, the inner triangular, twice as broad as the 
narrowly triangular outer ones; anthers yellow; style not exserted; ovary 
elongate -conical, truncate, smooth. June. 

Dry stony places.— Reported for E. and S. Transc. Specimens from 
there not seen. Gen. distr. : Asia Minor, Iran. Described from N. Iran. 
Cotype in Leningrad. 

98. A. lacerum Freyn on Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. XLII (1892) 373 et herb.— 
A. laceratum Freyn in Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. XLI(l89l)60, non Boiss. 
etNoe (1859). — A. incisum Fom. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis. 14 (1909) 
52.— A. araxanum Fom. ex Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928)211.— 

A. fimbriatum Schischk. in Izv. Tom. Gos. Un. 80(1929)432. 



155 



202 Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics brownish, 
reticulate, sometimes prolonged and clasping the scape base; scape 
5-40 cm long, slender, covered up to the middle with more or less hairy 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, 
0.5-1.5 mm broad, hirsute-margined; spathe half as long as to slightly 
shorter than the umbel, with a short tube enveloping the umbel base; umbel 
without bulblets, fasciculate, loosely few -flowered; pedicels unequal, 

12-3 — (5) times as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of 
the campanulate perianth pale rose to nearly white, sometimes yellowish 
in drying, 6-7 mm long, equal, the outer ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or 
acutish, with more or less reflexed tips, entire, the inner oblong-elliptic, 
obtuse, the margin in upper part rather deeply lacerate; filaments one-half 
to two-thirds as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, the inner triangular, twice as broad as the narrowly triangular 
outer ones; style not exserted. July. 

Rocky places. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Asia Minor, 
N. Iran. Described from Asia Minor: Amaziya. Cotype in Leningrad. 

99. A. stamineum Boiss. Diagn. pi. or. nov. II, 4 (1859) 119; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V (1884) 256. — A. kossoricum var. araraticum Miscz. ex 
Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 212 et in herb. 

Perennial; bulbs ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics grayish or blackish, 
papery, nearly nerveless; tunics of replacement bulb without perceptible 
nerves; scape 20-30 cm long, covered to ( l/3 ) - 1/2 - 2/3 with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 2-(4), semicylindric, ca. 1 mm broad, smooth, sulcate, 
exceeding the umbel; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate or often 
fasciculately hemispherical, commonly many-flowered; pedicels unequal, 
2 — 5 — (9) times as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of 
the campanulate perianth rose, with a dingy purple nerve, 4 mm long, 
elliptic -oblong, obtuse, and round-tipped, the outer scaphoid, slightly 
shorter than the inner; filaments one -fourth to rarely one -half as long again 
as the perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth for 1/5 their length, 
subulate, purple; anthers yellow; ovary subsessile, globose, scabrous; 
style conspicuously exserted; valves orbicular, shallowly emarginate, 
ca. 3.5 mm long. June -July. 

Mountain steppes. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr.: E. Med., Bal.- 
As. Min., Arm. -Kurd., Iran. Described from Asia Minor: Karia. 

100. A. kossoricum Fom. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis 14 (1909) 50. 

203 Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics blackish, separated 
into parallel fibers; scape ca. 20 cm long, covered to l/3 with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 3, cylindric -filiform, smooth; spathe slightly shorter than 
the umbel; umbel without bulblets, few-flowered, fasciculate -hemispherical; 
pedicels unequal, 2-5 times as long as perianth; segments of the ovoid- 
campanulate perianth whitish-greenish with a small violet spot and a green 
nerve, 3-3.5 mm long, elliptic -oblong, obtuse, round-tipped or terminating 
in a short -reflexed point, the outer scaphoid, slightly shorter than the inner; 
filaments half as long again to twice as long as the perianth segments, 
connate and adnate to perianth for l/5 their length, subulate, violet; anthers 
yellow; ovary subsessile, globose, scabrous; style conspicuous exserted. 
June. 



156 



Dry stony slopes .— Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd. 
Described from Ol'ta, vicinity of the village of Kosor. Type in Tiflis. 

Note. Reported by Grossheim (Fl. Kavk. I, 212) for various localities 
in Transcaucasia, but the author has not seen the plants identified by him. 
They are presented in the original description as having bulb tunics 
separated into parallel fibers, but the author has not seen bulbs from the 
classifical location. In all the green-flowered material of the 
A. stamineum s.l. group with bulbs retained which was at my disposal, 
the outer tunics were nerveless or faintly nerved. 

A. stamineum, A. kossoricum and A. pseudoflavum, as 
well as other related forms of Asia Minor require further study. It is 
necessary for their differentiation to call in characters other than flower 
color which has been chiefly used in their classification. 

101. A. pseudoflavum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 
123. — A. flavum auct. quoad pi. Transcauc. etpers. (pp.). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 3/4 — 1 cm thick; outer tunics grayish or brownish, 
subcoriaceous, distinctly parallel-nerved; scape (l0)-15-25 cm long, 
covered to l/3 or rarely up to the middle with scabrous or rarely smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 4, filiform ca. 0.5 mm broad, semicylindric, sulcate, 
scabrous- or smooth-margined, apparently shorter than the umbel; spathe 
half as long again to 3 times as long as the umbel; umbel without bulblets, 
few-flowered, fasciculate or often fasciculate -hemispherical; pedicels 
unequal, li-3-(5) times as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; 
segments of the ellipsoid -campanulate perianth yellow, rarely rosy-tinged, 
4 mm long, elliptic -oblong, obtuse, round-tipped or often terminating 
in a reflexed point, the outer scaphoid, scarcely shorter than the inner; 
filaments one -fourth or rarely half as long again as the perianth segments, 
204 connate and adnate to perianth for 1/5 the length, subulate, yellow; anthers 
yellow, ovary subsessile, globose, scabrous; style conspicuously exserted; 
capsule valves orbicular, shallowly emarginate, 2.5 mm long. June-July. 
(Plate XII, Figure 1 a-c). 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr. : N. Iran. 
Described from Nor-bayazet, vicinity of the village of Subbotan. Type in 
Leningrad. 

Note. Some plants from E. Transcaucasia and Talysh have rose-tinged 
perianth. 

102. A. pulchellum Don. Mon. (1826)46 (excl. syn. A. paniculatum 
et A. S e guie r i anum). — A. flavum var. pulchellum Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV (1853) 175 (p. p. ).— A. carinatum var. capsuliferum Ldb. I.e.— 
A. flavum var. tauricum Bess, ex Rchb. PI. crit. VI (1828) f. 776.— 
A. Paczoskianum Tuzs. in Bot. Kozlem. XII (1913) 190, t. V, f. 1.— 

A. flavum auct. quoad, pi. Ross, europ. etcauc, p.p. — Ic: Rchb. 
1. c. , Tuzs, 1. c. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 (I2) cm thick; outer bulb tunics grayish 
or brownish, papery, nearly nerveless; scape (20)-30-50 cm long, covered 
up to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, semicylindric, 
l/2-l mm broad smooth, sulcate, usually apparently somewhat shorter 
than the scape; spathe 2 -4- (5) times as long as the umbel; umbels without 
bulblets, fasciculate or fasciculate -hemispherical, commonly many- 
flowered; pedicels very unequal, 2-10 times as long as perianth, subtended 



157 



by bracteoles; segments of the ellipsoid-campanulate perianth yellowish, 
more or less intensely rosy-tinged, pruinose, dull, (4)-5 mm long, elliptic- 
oblong, obtuse and round-tipped, the outer scaphoid, slightly shorter and 
broader than the inner; filaments as long half again (or twice as long) as 
perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/5 their length, 
subulate, commonly violet; anthers light violet, with yellow pollen; style 
conspicuously exserted; ovary distinctly stipitate, oblong, smooth; capsule 
valves broadly obcordate to suborbicular, 4-5 mm long. June-July. 

Dry slopes. — European part: M. Dnp., V.-Don, Bl., Crim., L. Don, 
L.V.j Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W. and E. Transc. Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. 
Min. Described from Russia. 

Note. The true A. flavum L. does not occur in the USSR, and all 
reports, except for some Transcaucasian ones, refer to this species. 
A. flavum flowers are yellow, without any trace of anthocyanin shades. 

103. A. carinatum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 297; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 174 exs. 
var. capsulife rum; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 255; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 488.— 
Ic: Rchb. Ic. fl. Germ. X (1848) f. 1057. — Exs.: Kerner. Fl. Hung. 

exs. No. 3483. 

Perennial; bulbs ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics blackish or 
brownish, almost papery, slenderly parallel-nerved; scape 25-45 cm long, 
205 covered up to the middle with scabrous or smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 
3 -(4), narrowly linear, 1-2 mm broad, more or less revolute, sulcate, 
scabrous or smooth, apparently as long as the scape; spathe 3 times as 
long as the umbel; umbel bearing bulblets, fasciculate or often fasciculate- 
spherical, loosely few -flowered; pedicels subequal, rose with a darker 
nerve, pruinose, dull, 5-6 mm long, subequal, elliptic -oblong, obtuse; 
filaments half as long again as perianth segments, connate and adnate to 
perianth to l/5 their length, subulate, purple; anthers light violet, with 
yellow pollen; style conspicuously exserted; ovary oblong, short -stipitate, 
smooth. July -August. 

Reported for many localities in the western part of former European 
Russia which largely do not form part of the USSR, but the plants kept 
under this name in herbaria are mostly A. oleraceum L. I have not 
seen any A. carinatum plants from USSR territory. 

104. A. oleraceum L. Sp. pi. (1753)299; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 174; Shmal'g., 
Fl. II, 488; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 631 —A. scabrum Gilib. Exerc. 
phyt. II (1792) 469. — Ic: Syreishch., 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 238. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics brownish or grayish, 
slenderly parallel-nerved; scape 25-50 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 with 
smooth or rarely scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, narrowly linear, 
1-2 mm broad, more or less revolute, smooth or scabrous, shorter than 
the scape; spathe 2-3 times as long as the umbel; umbel bearing bulblets, 
fasciculate or fasciculate -hemispherical, loosely few -flowered, very rarely 
flowerless, with bulblets alone; pedicels unequal, 2 -4 -(6) times as long 
as perianth, commonly recurved; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth greenish or often rosy, 6-7 mm long, equal, linear-oblong, obtuse, 
round-tipped or minutely mucronulate; filaments as long as perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to 1/5, subulate; anthers yellow; style 
exserted, about half the length of capsule; capsule valves obcordate, 
ca. 6 mm long. June -July. 



1920 , 58 



Meadows, steppes, slopes, scrub, and sometimes as weed.— European 
part: Lad.-Ilm., U. V.; V.-Ka., U. Dnp., M. Dnp., V.-Don, Transv., 
L. Don, L. V. ; Caucasus: Cisc. Gen. distr. : W. Europe. Described 
from Sweden and Germany. 

105. A. paniculatum L. Syst. nat. ed. X. II (1759) 978; Boiss. Fl. Or. 
V, 259 (p. p. ; Shmal'g. , Fl. II 489 (excl. var. rupestri).— 

A. praescissum Rchb. PI. crit. V (1827) 17, f . 618. — 

A. paniculatum var. legitimum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 176.— 

A. fuscum auct. fl. Ross. — Ic. : Rchb., I.e. — Exs. : HFR No. 535. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics grayish, papery, 
206 obscurely and slenderly parallel-nerved; scape (20)-30-50 cm long, 

covered to 2/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 1-2 mm 
broad, more or less revolute, sulcate, smooth or scabrous, at least the 
upper ones apparently exceeding the scape; spathe (l 2 )-2-4-times as long 
as the umbel; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate or rarely fasciculate- 
hemispherical, loose, commonly divaricate, rather many-flowered; 
pedicels very unequal, 2-9 times as long as perianth, subtended by 
bracteoles; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth rose, sometimes 
dark rose, with a darker nerve, lustrous, intensely colored at the tips, 
5-6 mm long, equal, linear-oblong, obtuse, truncate; filaments scarcely 
shorter than perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/4, 
subulate; anthers yellow; style scarcely exserted, two-fifths the length of 
capsule; capsule valves obcordate, ca. 5 mm long. July- August. 

Steppes, sandy places, and slopes . — European part: U. Dnp., M. Dnp., 
V.-Don, Transv., Bl., Crim., L. Don, L.V. ; Caucasus: Cisc; W.Siberia: 
U. Tob., Irt.; Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr.: S. Eur., Asia 
Minor (?). There is no indication of location in the cited publication by 
Linnaeus; in later editions S. Europe is indicated. 

Note. The plants from Kopet Dagh deserve further study. With their 
dingy rose inconspicuous flowers they come close to A. 1 e n c o r a n i c um, 
but differ from it in the coarser bulb tunics and thinner leaves. The plants 
grow, moreover, in completely different habitats. The Kopet Dagh plant 
inhabits dry mountain steppes. 

106. A. lencoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 214. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics grayish-black, thinly 

papery; scape 20-50 cm long, covered to 1/2-2/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 4 or 5, filiform, 1-2 mm broad, revolute, apparently flat, withering 
at flowering; spathe to 6 times as long as the umbel; umbel fasciculate, 
loose, relatively few-flowered; pedicels unequal, 2-6 times the length of 
perianth, subtended by few bracteoles; segments of the narrowly 
campanulate perianth dingy lilac-rose, with a dingy purple nerve, dull, 
5-6 mm long, linear- oblong, obtuse, rounded -truncate, sometimes 
minutely mucronate; filaments scarcely shorter than to equaling the perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/5 their length, subulate; 
anthers yellow; style exserted, half the length of capsule; capsule valves 
broadly obovate, ca. 4 mm long. August 

Slopes in the timber zone. — Caucasus: Tal. Endemic. Described from 
Lenkoran. 



159 



207 107. A. karsianum Fom. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis 14 (1909) 51. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 -1.5 cm thick; outer tunics grayish, papery, 

nearly nerveless; scape 20-40 cm long, covered to 2/3-3/4 with smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, narrowly linear, 1-1.5 mm broad, more or 
less revolute, sulcate, smooth or scabrous, exceeding the scape; spathe 
2-3 times as long as the umbel; umbel fasciculate or often fasciculate - 
hemispherical, mostly dense and many-flowered; pedicels unequal, as long 
as or up to 2-5 times as long as perianth, subtended by few bracteoles; 
segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth nearly white, with a purple 
nerve, lustrous, (6)-7-8 mm long, linear-oblong, obtuse, round-tipped; 
filaments three-quarters the length of perianth segments, connate and 
adnate to perianth to 1/5 their length, subulate; anthers yellow (?); style 
not exserted, half as long as the capsule; capsule valves obcordate, 
ca. 5 mm long. July. 

Stony slopes and rocks . — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Ol'ta: Kyrkh-kilis — Khas-kei. Type in Tiflis. 

Note. A species closely related to A. Kunthianum Vved. , in need 
of verification with fresh material. It is mostly deposited in herbaria 
under the name A. paniculatum which does not occur in Transcaucasia. 
It is distinguishable much more readily from the latter species than from 
A. Kunthianum. 

108. A. Kunthianum Vved. nom. nov.— A. lepidum Kunth Enum. IV 
(1843) 408 (p.p., quoad pi. Hohenack. ), non Ldb. (1833); Boiss. Fl. Or. 
V (1884) 263. — A. paniculatum var. macilentum Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV (1853) 176 (p.p. ). 

Perennial; bulb (often paired) ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; outer tunics 
blackish, papery, without discernible nerves; scape (5)-10-30 cm long, 
covered to 1/2-2/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2-(4), apparently 
semicylindric, ca. 1 mm broad, sulcate, smooth or scabrous -margined, 
exceeding the scape; spathe half as long again to twice as long as the umbel; 
umbel without bulblets, fasciculate -hemispherical, rather few-flowered; 
pedicels subequal, slightly shorter than to 2 -(3) times as long as the 
perianth, subtended by few bracteoles; segments of the narrowly 
campanulate perianth rose, mostly dark rose, with a purple nerve, 
lustrous, (6)-7 — 8 mm long, equal, linear-oblong, obtusish with more or 
less reflexed tips; filaments three-quarters as long as to slightly shorter 
than perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 1/5 their length, 
subulate; anthers yellow; style not exserted, half the length of the capsule; 
capsule valves obcordate, ca. 5 mm long. August-September. (Plate XII, 
Figure 2 a, b). 

Meadows and rocks in high mountains. — Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W. , 
E., and S. Transc. Endemic. Described from vicinity of Shusha. 

208 Note. The plant presented by Albov (Tr. Tifl. Bot. Sada I (1895) 240) 
as A. s ub quinque f lo r um Boiss. should apparently be referred to this 
species. The author has not seen either Albov's specimens or any other 
samples of A. subquinqueflorum, a species that, according to Albov, 
deserves additional study. As described by Boissier, 

A^. subquinqueflorum has smaller white flowers 5 mm long. 



160 



109. A. rupestre Stev. in Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. Ill (1812) 260. — 
A. paniculatum var. macilentum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 176 
(p.p.).— A. paniculatum var. pallens Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 260 
(p.p.). — A. paniculatum var. rupestre Rgl. in A. H. P. 111(1875) 
192; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 489. — A. charaulicum Fom. inMonit. Bot. 
Tiflis. 14 (1909) 54 (?). — Ic. : Rchb. PL crit. V (1827) f. 616, 617.— 
Exs. : PL orient, exs. No. 57. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics papery with very 
slender parallel nerves; bulblets whitish, slenderly parallel-nerved, small, 
mostly absent; scape 25-40 cm long, covered up to the middle with 
scabrous or very rarely smooth leaf sheaths; leaves (2)-3, filiform -linear, 
0.5-1 mm broad, more or less revolute, commonly scabrous, much shorter 
than the scape; spathe 3-5 times the length of the umbel; umbel without 
bulblets, fasciculate or fasciculate-hemispherical, rarely subspherical, 
commonly few -flowered; pedicels subequal, slightly shorter than to 
12-2 times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of 
the narrowly campanulate perianth pale rose to nearly white, with a purple 
nerve, not lustrous, 5-6 mm long, subequal, oblong-elliptic, obtuse, 
round-tipped or often minutely mucronulate; filaments equaling or barely 
exceeding the perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 1/5 
their length, subulate; anther violet; style exserted, two-fifths the length 
of capsule; capsule valves broadly obcordate to suborbicular, 5 mm long. 
August -October. 

Stony and sandy slopes and rocks. — European part: Crim.; Caucasus: 
Dag., W. andE. Transc. Gen. distr. : Asia Minor. Described from Mtskheta. 

Note. A charaulicum (classical location Artvin: Kharaul) is 
described as having filaments half as long as perianth segments and pedicels 
4 times the length of perianth. The authentic specimen, preserved in 
Leningrad, shows stamens as long as perianth Segments and pedicels as 
long or at most half as long again. More investigation is needed to solve 
the problem of this plant. 

110. A. convallarioides Grossh. in Grossh. et Schischk. PL orient, 
exs.. (1924) No. 107. — A. pallens Vved. in Fl. Turkm. 1(1932)263.— 
Exs.: PL orient. I.e. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics grayish, papery, 
nearly without perceptible nerves; bulblets yellowish, very slenderly 
209 parallel-nerve, mostly absent; scape 40-60 cm long, covered to about the 
middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, narrowly linear, 1-1.5 mm 
broad, canaliculate, sulcate, smooth, apparently shorter than the scape; 
spathe I2-2 (?) times as long as the umbel; umbel without bulblets, 
fasciculate-ovoid to fasciculate -spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
unequal, 2-5 times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; perianth 
segments white, 4-5 mm long, broadly linear-oblong, obtuse, truncate, 
the inner slightly longer; filaments barely exceeding the perianth segments, 
connate and adnate to perianth to l/5, subulate; anthers yellow; style 
exserted, one -fourth the length of capsule; capsule slightly longer than the 
perianth; capsule valves suborbicular, scarcely emarginate. June -July. 

Slightly saline places. — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc; Centr. Asia: 
Turkm. Endemic (?). Described from Erivan, Dzhervish. Type in Baku. 



161 



111. A. kirindicum Bornm. in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. XXXIII, 2 (1915) 
209. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics papery, grayish, 
with slender distant parallel nerves; bulblets none; scape 15-25 cm long, 
covered with ( 1 ) — 2 — (5) sheaths; lower sheaths scabrous, the upper often 
smooth, the uppermost often surpassing the umbel base and spathiform or 
rarely not reaching beyoond the middle of scape; leaves filiform, 
canaliculate, scabrous, not exceeding the umbel, the uppermost abbreviated; 
spathe persistent, much shorter than the umbel, very short -acuminate; 
umbel fasciculate or fasciculate-hemispherical, loosely few-flowered; 
pedicels very slender, subequal, 3-5 times as long as the perianth, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the tubular -campanulate perianth 
white to very pale rose, with a prominent dingy purple nerve, 4-5 mm 
long, subequal, oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, the inner somewhat broader; 
filaments two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than perianth segments, 
connate and adnate to perianth to l/3 their length, entire, triangular- 
subulate, subequal; style not exserted; capsule (immature) two-thirds as 
long as the perianth. August. 

Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Found on a single occasion on consolidated 
screes of Mt. Dushak. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Nehavend 

112.* A. fibrosum Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 322, t. VII, f. 2.— 
A. Korolkovii var. albidum. O.Kt. in A.H.P. X (1887) 243.— 
210 a. leu c o s ph ae r um Aitch. et Baker in Trans . Linn. Soc. 111(1888) 
117. — Ic: Rgl., I.e.— Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 177. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; outer tunics brown, 
subcoriaceous, splitting, reticulately nerved; bulblets numerous, large, 
reticulately nerved, yellowish; scape (often 2 scapes from one bulb) 
(l5)-25-60 cm long, covered at base with smooth approximate leaf sheahs; 
leaves 4-6, semicylindric, 0.5-2 mm broad, canaliculate, fistulous, 
smooth or rarely scabrous, shorter than the scape; spathe with beak 
usually longer than the blade, early deciduous by circumscission; umbel 
without bulblets, hemispherical to subspherical; rarely fasciculate, densely 
many -flowered; pedicels subequal, (l2)-3-5 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanute umbilicate perianth white, 
rose or dark rose, with a prominent green or purple nerve, 4- 5- (6) mm 
long, equal, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, obtuse or mucronulate, the inner 
broader than the outer; filaments one-half to two-thirds as long as perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth for 1/4 to l/2 their length, entire, 
the inner triangular, twice as broad as the outer, narrowly triangular; 
style not exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the perianth. April-May. 

Sand deserts and motted strated in foothills.— Centr. Asia: Kara K. , 
Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr. : N. Afghanistan. Described from Chikishlyar. 
Type in Leningrad. 



The A.rubellum s.l. group ( 112-120) constitutes a highly composite, polymorphic complex of East 
Mediterranean xerophilous plants, and is still far from being adequately understood. An attempt is here 
made to distinguish elementary constituents of this group, most of which had been described at one time 
or other as distinct species but were later considered as synonyms of A.rubellum MB. The constituent 
entities are not firmly delineated and they displayed transitions in respect of all the characters that could 
be studied in the herbarium . 



162 



1211 




Plate XIII 



1. Allium scabrellum Boiss. et Buhse, la) portion of perianth; lb) bulblet; lc) bulb scale. - 

2. A. anisopetalum Vved.; 2a) portion of perianth; 2b) bulb lets; 2c) bulb scale.- 3. A.kujukense 
Vved.; 3a) portion of perianth; 3b) bulblets; 3c) leaf sheath.- 4. A. elegans Drob. 4a) portion of 
perianth; 4b) bulblets. 



163 



113. A. syntamanthum C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII (1849) 238.— 

A. rubellum var. parviflorum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 171 (p.p.); 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 253 (p.p. ). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 mm thick; outer tunics brown, coriaceous, 
splitting, prominently subreticulately nerved; bulblets few, large, winged, 
elongated, yellowish, slenderly nerved; scape 15-30 cm long, covered to 
1/4-1/3 with smooth approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, apparently fistulous, smooth, ca. 1 mm broad, apparently 
shorter than the scape; spathe early deciduous by circumscission, more or 
less rose-tinged; umbel without bulblets, semispherical to subspherical, 
dense, rather many-flowered; pedicels subequal, slightly exceeding or 
often 2-(3) times as long as the perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
213 broadly campanulate umbilicate perianth dark rose with a purple nerve, 
3-4 mm long, linear-oblong, obtuse, the outer half as broad again and 
barely shorter than the inner; filaments slightly shorter than perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/4 their length, entire, the 
! outer narrowly triangular, the inner triangular, half as broad again as the 

outer and as broad at base as the perianth segments; style not exserted; 
capsule scarcely shorter than the perianth. May- June. 

Stony slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from Erivan 
area. Type in Berlin. 

114. A. rubellum MB. Fl. taur.-cauc. I (1808) 264; III, 260.— 

A. rubellum var. parviflorum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 171 (p.p.); 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 253 (p. p. ). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics brown, coriaceous, 
splitting, prominently subreticulately nerved; bulblets few, large, winged, 
yellowish, slenderly nerved; scape (sometimes 2 from one bulb) 15-40 cm 
long, covered at base or up to l/4 with approximate smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 3 or 4, semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, smooth or rarely 
scabrous-margined, 1-2 mm broad, commonly shorter than the scape; 
spathe slightly shorter than the umbel, with beak somewhat shorter than 
the blade, early deciduous by circumscission; umbel without bulblets, 
hemispherical to subspherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 
2-3 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the broadly 
campanulate umbilicate perianth rose, with a purple nerve, 3-4-(5) long, 
oblong or often oblong-lanceolate, tapering, acute to obtusish, the outer 
slightly broader and shorter than the inner; filaments two -thirds to three- 
quarters the length of perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth, 
to 1/4, entire, the outer narrowly triangular, the inner triangular, half 
as broad again as the outer and as broad at base as perianth segments; 
style not exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the perianth. May. 

Dry slopes.— Caucasus: E. Transc, Tal. (?). Gen. distr. : N. Iran(?). 
Described from Georgia. 

Note. The typical A. rubellum s.s. occurs in the western part of 
E. Transcaucasia and does not reach Gandzha. Here as well as to the 
southeast along the right bank of Kury A. rubellum is not always 
distinguishable from A. albanum. The author therefore refers the Talysh 
plants and some of the north Persian material to this species with a query. 

115. A. albanum Grossh. in Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 211. — A. rubellum 
var. grandiflorum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 171; Boiss. Fl. Or. V 



164 



(1884) 253 (p.p. ).— A. rubellum Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 490. — Ic. : Rgl. 
PI. turk. (1876) t.X, f. 7-9. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics coriaceous, brown, 

214 splitting, prominently subreticulately nerved; bulblets few, usually small, 
yellowish, very rarely brownish, sometimes winged, slenderly nerved; 
scape (often 2 from one bulb) 10-30 cm long, covered at base with smooth 
approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 4-5 (6), semicylindric, canaliculate, 
fistulous, smooth or rarely scabrous -nerved, 1-2 -(3) mm broad, mostly 
shorter than the scape; spathe slightly shorter than the umbel, with beak 
as long as blade, early deciduous by circumscission, sometimes rose- 
tinged; umbel without bulblets, hemispherical or rarely spherical, densely 
many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 2 -3 -(4) times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate umbilicate perianth rose, with 
a purple nerve, (4)-5-6 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, tapering, acute or 
subacute, the outer slightly broader and shorter than the inner; filaments 
one-half to two-thirds the length of perianth segments, connate and adnate 
to perianth to l/4 their length, entire, the outer narrowly triangular, the 
inner triangular, half as broad again as the outer and as broad at base as 
the perianth segments; style not exserted; capsule (one-half or) two-thirds 
as long as the perianth. May-June. 

Dry slopes in semideserts and in dry mountain steppes. — European part: 
L. V. (Bogdo); Caucasus: Dag., E. Transc. (to the east of Gandzha); 
Centr Asia: Ar.-Casp. (Mangyshlak, Karabugaz), Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr.: 
N. Persia. Described from various locations in E. Transc. 

Note. Plants from Apsheron deserve more study, as they are usually 
low-growing, with leaves exceeding the scape, and in some characters 
(e.g., bulblet nervature, flower color) they approach A. scab re Hum. 
The inclusion of high-mountain Kopet Dagh plants in this species is also 
in need of confirmation. 

The position of Kopet Dagh plants of A. rubellum s.l. groups, with 
small white flowers, supplied by various collectors from Gaudan, has not 
so far been clarified. 

116. A. scabrellum Boiss. et Buhse in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
XII (1860) 215; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1834) 251 . — A. rubellum ssp. 
scabrellum Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1926) No. 180. — Exs. : HFR 
No. 1190 (sub A. Tschulpias); Herb. Fl. As. Med., I.e. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, (l)-2 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 
brown, reticulately nervose, sometimes fibrous; bulblets commonly 
numerous, small, yellowish, wingless, often distinctly alveolate; scape 
25-50 cm long, covered to 1/3 with smooth or rarely scabrous subdistant 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, 
scabrous-nerved, rarely smooth, 2-3 mm broad, shorter than the scape; 
spathe slightly shorter than the umbel, with beak about the length of blade, 
rarely deciduous by circumscission, often rose-tinged; umbel without 

215 bulblets, fasciculate -hemispherical or rarely subspherical, densely 
many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 2-3 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate umbilicate perianth 
commonly pale rose, obscurely purple-nerved, lustrous in drying, 
(5)-6-7 mm long, subequal, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, commonly 
strongly tapering, acute or subacute, the outer slightly broader than the 



165 



inner; filaments one-third to one-half the length of perianth segments, 
connate and adnate to perianth to 1/4-1/3 their length, entire, the outer 
narrowly triangular, the inner commonly broadly triangular, twice as 
broad as the outer and usually somewhat broader than the perianth segments; 
style not exserted; capsule half as long as the perianth. May- June. 
(Plate XIII, Figure 1 a-c). 

Usually a weed in oases. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., Syr D., Fam.-Al. 
Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Yezd. Type in Leningrad. 

117. A. Jacquemontii Kunth, Enum. IV (1843) 39 9. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.5-1 cm thick; outer tunics grayish, nearly 
papery, with subparallel nerves; bulblets few, whitish, wingless, slenderly 
nerved; scape 15-35 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 with smooth subdistant 
leaf sheaths; leaves 2 -(3), semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, smooth 
or rarely scabrous, 1-2 mm broad, shorter than the scape; spathe early 
deciduous by circumscission; umbel without bulblets, hemispherical, dense, 
rather few -flowered; pedicels subequal, l2-(2) times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate, segments of the campanulate umbilicate perianth rose, with 
a prominent dingy purple nerve, 5 -(6) mm long, subequal, slightly tapering, 
oblong-lanceolate, acute, the outer slightly broader than the inner; 
filaments about two -thirds the length of perianth, connate and adnate to 
perianth to 1/3, entire, the outer narrowly triangular, the inner broadly 
triangular, twice as broad as the outer and slightly broader at base than 
the perianth segments. May. 

Stony slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
(Shugnan). Gen. distr.: NW India. Described from India. Type in Paris. 

Note. The author refers the Shugnan material to this species with some 
reservation, as he did not have any Indian plants for comparison. 

118. A. anisopetalum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 123. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid 0.5-0.75-(l) cm thick; outer tunics grayish-brown 

or brown, coriaceous, splitting, obscurely subreticulately nerved; bulblets 
few, wingless, small, whitish, slenderly nerved; scape 10-25-(40) cm long, 
covered to l/3 with smooth subdistant leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3 (4), 
filiform, apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth or rarely 
scabrous -margined, 0.5-1.5 mm broad, commonly shorter than the scape; 
216 spathe commonly two-thirds as long as the umbel, with beak one -third to 
one-half the length of blade, sometimes rose-tinged, usually persistent, 
split down to base; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate-hemispherical or 
subspherical, dense, rather many-flowered; pedicels subequal, as long 
as or often I2-2 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of 
the campanulate umbilicate perianth rose, with a dingy purple nerve, 
unequal, the outer (4)-5-(6) mm long, strongly tapering, acute, oblong to 
oblong-lanceolate, rarely lanceolate, one-fourth to often one -half as long 
again and half as broad again as the oblong to oblong-elliptic acute inner 
segments; filaments one-third to two-fifths the length of outer perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 1/3-1/2 their length, the outer 
narrowly triangular, the inner broadly triangular, 2 -(3) times as broad 
as the outer and about as broad at base as the perianth segments; style 
not exserted; capsule half as long as the perianth. (Plate XIII, 
Figure 2 a-c). 



166 



Gravelly and small-grained slopes in the mountain steppe zone.— 
Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Alai Range), T. Sh. (Fergana Range). Endemic. 
Described from Fergana Range: Arslanbob. Type in Leningrad. 

119. A. minutum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1924) 124. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.5-0.75 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 

blackish-brown, more or less splitting, subreticulate -nerved; bulblets 
few, wingless, small, whitish, with slender nerves; scape 10-20 cm long, 
slender, covered to 1/4 with subdistant leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, filiform, 
ca. 0.5 mm broad, apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, 
shorter than the scape; spathe two-thirds as long as the umbel, very short - 
acuminate, persistent, split down to base; umbel without bulblets, 
fasciculate-hemispherical or hemispherical, dense, rather few-flowered; 
pedicels subequal, as long to l2-(2) times as long as the perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate umbilicate perianth 
white, with a dingy green nerve, 3-4-(5) mm long, oblong or very rarely 
oblong-lanceolate, commonly short-acuminate, acute, the outer usually 
slightly longer and broader than the inner; filaments half the length of 
perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/3, entire, the outer 
triangular, the inner broadly triangular, about twice as broad as the outer 
and as broad at base as the perianth segments; style not exserted; 
capsule two-thirds as long as the perianth. May- July. 

Gravelly and mottled (always?) mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam. 
Al. (Fergana Range). Endemic. Described from Kok-su Valley. Type in 
Leningrad. 

120. A. parvulum Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 124. 
217 Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.5-0.75 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 

blackish-brown, more or less splitting, subreticulately nerved; bulblets 
few, wingless, small, whitish, slenderly nerved; scape (sometimes 2 from 
one bulb), 10-20 cm long, slender, covered to l/4 with subdistant smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm broad, apparently 
semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, shorter than the scape; spathe 
one-half (or two-thirds) as long as the umbel, with beak one-fourth to 
one-third the length of blade, commonly persistent, split down to base; 
umbel without bulblets, fasciculately-hemispherical or hemispherical, 
dense, rather many-flowered; pedicels subequal, (ll)-2-3 times as long 
as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate umbilicate perianth 
white, with a dingy green nerve, 4-(5) mm long, equal, oblong-lanceolate 
to lanceolate, strongly tapering, acute, often with reflexed tips; filaments 
half the length of perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/3 
their length, entire, the outer narrowly triangular, the inner broadly 
triangular, twice as broad as the outer and somewhat broader at base than 
the perianth segments; style not exserted; capsule half as long as the 
perianth. May. 

Gravelly (apparently mottled) slopes in the lower mountain slopes. — 
Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Aleksandrovskii Range, Trans -Hi Ala Tau). Endemic. 
Described from Aulie-ata: Tek-Turmas. Type in Leningrad. 



167 



121. A. Griffithianum Boiss. Diagn. pi. as. nov. II, 4 (1859) 1 17. — 
A. Tschulpias Rgl. in A. H. P. Ill (1875) 107. — A. Kuschakewiczi 
Rgl., I.e. (1875) 117.— A. tenue Rgl., I.e. (1875)206, nonDon.— 

A. Bahri Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 326, t. 1, f. 2. — Ic . : Rgl. Fl. Turk. 
(1876) t.X, f. 10-12; ibid., t.XI, f. 12-13. — Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. 
No. 66 (sub A. Tschulpias). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 
splitting, reticulately nerved; bulblets few, large, yellowish, reticulately 
nerved; scape 10-30- (50) cm long, covered at base or up to l/3 with smooth 
or rarely scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, semicylindric, canaliculate, 
fistulous, 1-2 mm broad, commonly scabrous -margined, usually shorter 
than the scape; spathe slightly shorter than the umbel, short -beaked, early 
deciduous by circumscission; umbel without or very rarely with bulblets, 
hemispherical, dense, rather many-flowered; pedicels mostly unequal, 
shorter than or mostly as long to twice as long as perianth, ebracteolate; 
segments of the campanulate perianth light carneous-red, with a darker 
nerve, oblong- lanceolate to lanceolate, obtusish to obtuse, unequal, the 
outer 7-8 mm long, 1/4-1/3 as long again as and slightly broader than the 
gibbous inner segments; filaments one-third the length of outer perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 1/2-2/3 their length, entire, 
218 the inner triangular, twice as broad as the narrowly triangular outer 

filaments; style not exserted; capsule half as long as the perianth. April - 
May. 

Soft soils of foothills deserts and of the lower mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: Syr D., Pam.-Al. (not occurring in Fergana Valley). Gen. distr. : 
Afghanistan. Described from Kabul area. Type in Geneva. 

122. A. ophiophyllum Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1928) No. 336. — 
Exs. : 1. c. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics tawny-brown, 
subcoriaceous, obscurely reticulately nerved, laciniate at the top and at 
base; bulblets few, stramineous, parallel-nerved; scape 15-40 cm long, 
I covered at base with smooth approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, 

cylindric, fistulous, 1 -1 .5 mm broad, glaucous, spirally to circinately 
coiled, smooth or slightly scabrous; spathe persistent, two-thirds as long 
as the umbel, very short-beaked; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate or 
hemispherical, commonly few -flowered, rather dense; pedicels subequal, 
(l)-l2'-2 times as long as perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the 
campanulate perianth pale violet with a darker nerve, lustrous azure after 
anthesis, (6)-7 mm long, obtuse, the inner linear -oblong, slightly longer 
than the lanceolate outer segments; filaments as long as or barely shorter 
than the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, 
violet, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner narrowly triangular, slightly 
broader than the outer; style scarcely exserted; capsule half as long as 
the perianth. April-May. 

Mottled outcrops.— Centr. Asia: Amu D., Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described 
from Khaudak-tau. Type in Tashkent. 

123. A. inops Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. V (1924) 91. 
Perennial; bulb ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics tawny ot grayish, nearly 

papery, nerveless; scape 8-17 cm long, covered to l/3 with smooth leaf 



168 



sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, apparently semicylindric, filiform, ca. 0.5-mm 
broad, smooth, slightly shorter than to equaling the scape; spathe early 
deciduous, scarious; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate becoming 
subspherical, loosely few -flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times as long as 
perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth rose, with a purple nerve, 6-7 mm long, equal, lanceolate, acute 
or acutish; filaments connate and adnate to perianth to 1/4 their length, the 
inner subulate from triangular base, one -third as long as perianth segments, 
half as long again and 2-3 times as broad as the subulate outer filaments; 
219 anthers yellow; style not exserted, one-third the length of the capsule; 
capsule half as long as the perianth, the suborbicular valves scarcely 
emarginate. May. 

Outcrops of saline layers . — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. Endemic. Described 
from Aulie-ata area: Dair-mulla. Type in Leningrad. 

124. A. lasiophyllum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 125. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 5-8 mm thick; outer tunics gray, papery, 

nerveless, enveloping the scape base; bulblets none; scape (very rarely 2 
from one bulb) 10-20 cm long, covered up to the middle with densely 
short -hairy leaf sheaths; leaves 2-4, filiform, 0.5-1 mm broad, apparently 
flat, canaliculate, glabrous or more or less densely pubescent, shorter than 
the scape; spathe about one -third as long as the umbel, with beak less than 
half the length of blade, persistent; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate, 
rather few -flowered; pedicels subequal, as long to half as long again as the 
perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth rose, with a darker nerve, 6-7 mm long, equal, linear-lanceolate, 
acute, the outer scarcely broader; filaments three-quarters the length of 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, the inner 
triangular-subulate, half as broad again at base as the nearly subulate outer 
filaments; anthers yellow; style not exserted; capsule (nearly mature) 
about half as long as the perianth. June. 

Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Tekes). Endemic. Type in Leningrad. 

125. A. delicatum Siev. ex Roem, et Schult. Syst. VII (1830) 1133; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 171; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 490; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill 
(1929) 610.— A. Willdenowii Kunth. Enum. IV (1843) 453; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 190. — A. viridulum auct. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. DC, 
f. 7-9. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics gray to nearly 
black, papery, nerveless; bulblets solitary, nearly smooth, mostly absent; 
scape 15-45 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 
2 or 3, filiform, 0.5-1.5 mm broad, apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, 
smooth or very rarely scabrous, shorter than the scape; spathe one-half 
to two-thirds as long as the umbel, with beak as long to 3 times as long as 
the blade, persistent; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate or often 
fasciculate -hemispherical, rarely subspherical, densely many- flowered; 
pedicels subequal, slightly exceeding or mostly 2 -3 -(4) times as long as 
the perianth, subtended by numerous fairly large bracteoles; segments 
of the campanulate perianth whitish or rose, with a prominent violet-purple 
nerve, (3)-4-6 mm long, equal, obtusish to acutish, lanceolate to oblong, 
the inner somewhat broader; filaments three-quarters as long as to equaling 



169 



220 the perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/5 their length, 
entire, triangular-subulate, the inner half as broad at base as the outer 
filaments; style scarcely exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the 
perianth. June-July. 

Solonetz soils, wormwood deserts, rarely on chalk.— European part: 
Transv. (S. ), L. V. ; W. Siberia: U. Tob., Irt.'; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., 
Balkh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from "Kirghizian deserts" . 

126. A. glomeratum Prokh. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. URSS, XXIX 
(1930) 560, tab. II. 

Perennial; bulbs ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics gray, papery, 
slenderly parallel-nerved, enveloping the scape base; bulblets none; scape 
often more or less curved, 10-20 cm long, covered up to the middle with 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, 0.5-1.5 mm broad, 
apparently flat, canaliculate, smooth or scabrous -margined, slightly 
shorter to slightly longer than the scape; spathe persistent, about equaling 
the umbel, with beak half as long as to slightly shorter than the base; 
umbel without bulblets, hemispherical, dense, few -flowered; pedicels 
subequal, slightly shorter than to equaling the perianth, subtended by 
narrow bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth rosy-violet, 
with a darker nerve, (4)-5 mm long, lanceolate, acute, the outer scarcely 
broader; filaments slightly shorter than to as long as the perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, subulate, subequal; anthers 
violet; style scarcely exserted; capsule two-thirds as long as the perianth. 
July -August. 

Argillaceous and stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Centr. Tien Shan). 
Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from Kashgaria: Kok-Muinak Pass. 
Type in Leningrad. 

127. A. Pallasii Murr. Comment. Goetting, VI (1775) 32, t. 3; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 170; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 612.— A. tenue Don. Mon. 
(1826) 34. — A. lepidum Ldb. lc. pi. Fl. Ross. IV (1833) 17.— 

A. caricifolium Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIV (1841) 
854. — A. s emiret s che nskianum Rgl. inA.H.P. V (1878) 630.— 
A. Albertii Rgl. inA.H.P. V (1878) 632. — lc. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. 
IV (1833), t. 355.— Exs.: H.F.A.M. No. 337. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics gray, papery and 
nerveless or subcoriaceous brownish and parallel-nerved; bulblets none; 
scape (sometimes 2 from one bulb), (l0)-20-65 cm long, covered to l/3 or 
nearly to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves (2)-3 or 4, filiform 
to narrowly linear, 0.5-1 .5-(2. 5) mm broad, smooth or scabrous -margined, 
shorter than the scape; spathe persistent, one -third to one -half as long as 
to slightly shorter than the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel without bulblets, 
hemispherical to subspherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 

221 (l2)-2-3(4) times as long as perianth, subtended by few bracteoles or 
ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate or sometimes substellate 
perianth rose, with a purple nerve, lustrous, 3-4 mm long, equal, 
lanceolate to oblong- lanceolate, obtuse to acutish; filaments equaling to 
half as long again as the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, subulate from a triangular base, the inner to half as broad again 
at the base as the outer, sometimes obtusely 2 -toothed at base; scape 
slightly exserted; capsule as long to half as long again as the perianth. 
May- June. 

170 



Solonetz soils, calcareous slopes, mottled outcrops, and stony or 
gravelly slopes in the alpine and subalpine zones. — W. Siberia: Irt., Alt.; 
Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (Mai-tyube), Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., Pam.-Al., 
T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from Siberia. 

Note, The outer tunics of mountainous plants are papery and nerveless; 
in the case of lowland plants they are usually coriaceous and distinctly 
parallel-nerved. A thorough investigation of this phenomenon is needed. 

128. A. macrostemumBge in Mem. Acad. Petersb. II (1835) 139; Kom. 
andAlis., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 365. — A. uratense 
Franch. in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. VII (1884) 114. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics blackish, papery, 
nerveless; bulblets none; scape (40)-60-90 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 
with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 2-4 mm broad, not 
fistulous, canaliculate, smooth, much shorter than the scape; spathe 
persistent, half as long as the umbel, with beak half as long to nearly as 
long as the blade; umbel bearing bulblets (sometimes nearly flowerless), 
rarely without bulblets (var. uratense Airy-Shaw in Notes Bot. Gard. 
Edinb. XVI (193 1 ) 136), hemispherical to spherical, rather many-flowered, 
dense; pedicels subequal, (2)-3-4 times as long as perianth, subtended by 
numerous bracteoles; segments of the broadly campanulate to 
subhemispherical perianth dark rose, with a darker nerve, (4)-5 mm long, 
subequal, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, acutish; filaments one -fourth as 
long again as the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, gradually subulate from a dilated base, the inner half as broad as 
the outer; style exserted. June -July. 

Meadows and arable land. — Far East: Uss. Gen. distr.: Jap.-Ch. 
Described from Peking. 

129. A. coeruleum Pall. Reise. . . II (1773) 727, t.R.; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, 170; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 6 11 . — A. coerulescens Don. 
Mon. (1826) 34. -A. azureum Ldb. Fl. Alt. 11(1830)13.— 

A. viviparum Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIV (1841) 852; 
222 Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill (1929) 611. — Ic. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. II (1830) 
t. 136. — Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 335. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics papery, gray, 
nerveless; bulblets grayish-violet to violet, nerveless, commonly absent; 
scape (rarely 2 from one bulb) 25-85 cm long, covered to 1/3 with smooth 
or scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves (2) 3 or 4, triquetrous, canaliculate, 
(l)-2— 4 mm broad, smooth or rarely scabrous, shorter than the scape; 
spathe one -half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, acuminate, persistent; 
umbel without or (invar, bu lb i 1 1 i f e r um Ldb., Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 170) 
with bulblets, hemispherical to spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
equal, 2-5 times as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments 
of the broadly campanulate, perianth azure, with a darker nerve, 4-5 mm 
long, equal, obtusish, the outer oblong-lanceolate, the inner lanceolate; 
filaments equaling to slightly exceeding the perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, subulate from a triangular base, the inner 
twice as broad at base as the outer, sometimes 2 -toothed below the middle; 
style exserted; capsule slightly shorter than the perianth. June-July. 



171 



Solonetz soils, solonetz meadows, steppe mountain zone. — European 
part: L. V. ; W. Siberia: U. Tob. (Naurzum), Irt. (S.), Alt.; Centr. Asia: 
Ar.-Casp., Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., T.Sh. (except Tashkent Ala Tau), Pam.-Al. 
(Alai Range, Mogian). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from the 
vicinity of Semipalatinsk: Berezovka. 

Note. Where A. coeruleum and A. caesium grow together, 
they hybridize; such hybrids are known, for instance, from the Kulan-utmes 
River (Irt.). 

130. A. caesium Schrenk in Bull, phys.-math. Acad. Petersb. 11(1844) 
113; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 166.— A. urceolatum Rgl. inA.H.P. 11(1873) 
406. — A. Renardi Rgl. inA.H.P. VI (1880) 521 . — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. turk. 
(1876) t. IX, f. 10-12.— Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 56; HFRNo.2789. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, gray, 
nerveless; bulblets grayish-brown or violet, obscurely parallel-nerved; 
scape 15-65 cm long, covered to l/4 or sometimes to the middle with 
scabrous or rarely smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, 1-3 mm broad, fistulous (always?), scabrous, rarely nearly 
smooth, slightly shorter to slightly longer than the scape; spathe half as 
long as the umbel, acuminate, persistent; umbel commonly without or 
rarely with bulblets, very rarely flowerless with bulblets alone, usually 
hemispherical to spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
2-3-(5) times as long as perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of 
the campanulate perianth azure -blue, with a darker nerve, rarely white, 
223 4-6 mm long, equal, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, the inner 
slightly broader; filaments three-quarters as long to nearly as long as 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, the outer 
triangular from a subulate base, the inner twice as broad at base, dilated 
to 2/3, obtusely toothed; style slightly exserted; capsule two-thirds as long 
as the perianth. May-June. 

Solonetz soils in the steppe belt, semideserts, and in the southern part 
in foothills and mountains up to 2000 m. — W. Siberia: Irt. (S. ); Centr. 
Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh., Dzu.-Tarb., Syr D., Pam.-Al. (Alai and 
Turkestan ranges), T. Sh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from 
Karaganda. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. As far as can be deduced from herbarium material, plants from 
the Alai Range and partly from the Fergana Range usually have darker 
flowers with distinct violet tinge, commonly narrower and longer, mostly 
6 mm long. Such plants were designated by Drobov (in herb. Akad. et 
Univ. As. Med.), as A. Litvinovii and were evidently scheduled for 
publication in Herb. Fl. Ross, under this appellation. These Fergana 
plants and also white -flowered plants which sometimes occur in considerable 
numbers in certain locations (e.g., in Chu-Ili Mountains, Chimgan) should 
be subjected to further investigation. A. Renardi was described by 
Regel as having white flowers. 

131. A. elegans Drob. in Sched. ad HFR (1917) No. 2790. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; outer tunics coriaceous, 

grayish or brownish, splitting, nerveless; bulblets few, brownish or violet, 
smooth; scape 10-20 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 2, filiform, 0.5-1 mm broad, canaliculate, smooth, slightly shorter 



172 



than to as long as the scape; spathe very small, much shorter than the 
umbel, acuminate, persistent; umbel without bulblets, fasciculate or often 
hemispherical to subspherical, rather few-flowered, loose; pedicels 
subequal, (3)-4 — 6 times as long as perianth, the outer ascending, subtended 
by bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth white drying pale 
violet, with a darker nerve, 5-6 mm long, subequal, lanceolate, obtusish; 
filaments two-thirds as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to 
perianth to 1/4 their length, entire, triangular-subulate, the inner twice as 
broad at base as the outer; style not exserted; capsule half as long as the 
perianth. May- June. (Plate XIII, Figure 4a, b). 

Gravelly argillaceous slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Alai Range, 
Sary-tau). Endemic. Described from Alai Range: Shakhimardan River, 
village of Pul'gan. Type in Leningrad. 

132. A. kopetdagense Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 125. 
224 Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.5-0.75 mm broad; outer tunics papery, gray, 

obscurely parallel-nerved; bulblets none; scape 5-12 cm long, covered to 
1/2-3/4 woth smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3, filiform, semicylindric, 
canaliculate, smooth, greatly exceeding the umbel; spathe persistent, 
one -third as long as the umbel, beakless; umbel without bulblets, 
hemispherical or rarely subspherical, loosely few -flowered; pedicels 
subequal, as long to half as long again as the perianth, ebracteolate; 
segments of the campanulate perianth rose, with a purple nerve, 6-7 mm 
long, narrowly lanceolate, acute, equal; filaments two-thirds as long as 
perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/3 their length, entire, 
the outer triangular-subulate, the inner triangular 3 times as broad as the 
outer and half as broad again at base as the perianth; style not exserted; 
capsule about half as long as the perianth, with broadly obcordate valves. 
June. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Endemic. Described 
from Prokhladnyi. Type in Leningrad. 

133. A. oreophiloides Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 114. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. 
turk. (1876) t.XI, f. 4-6. 

Perennial; bulb spherical, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics grayish, papery, 
nerveless; bulblets none; scape 3-10 cm long, smooth or more or less 
scabrous, sometimes very strongly so, covered to 1/4 or up to the middle 
with smooth or more or less scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 2, filiform, 
ca. 0.75 mm broad, apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, scabrous to 
nearly smooth, exceeding the scape; spathe persistent, acuminate, one-third 
to one -half as long as the umbel; umbel without bulblets, hemispherical to 
subspherical, rather few -flowered, commonly dense; pedicels subequal, 
2-3 times as long as perianth, subtended by few bracts; segments of the 
broadly campanulate perianth pale rose, with a prominent purple nerve, 
4-5 mm long, equal, acute, the inner oblong-ovate, slightly broader than 
the oblong outer segments; filaments two-thirds the length of perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/4 their length, the outer 
triangular-subulate, the inner twice as broad at base, dilated nearly to apex, 
2 -toothed; style not exserted; capsule about half as long as the perianth. 
July -August. 



173 



Moraines and rocks in the alpine zone.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-AL, T.Sh. 
(Susamyr, Western Karakol and Talas river valleys). Endemic. Described 
from Shurovskii Glacier. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The Tien Shan plants are more elongated and usually very hairy, 
but the available material is insufficient for any attempt to determine their 
taxonomic position. 

134. A. schoenoprasoides Rgl. inA.H.P. V (1878) 630.— 

A. sairamense Rgl. in A. H. P. VI (1880) 520. A. Kesselringii Rgl. 
225 in A. H.P. VIII (1883) 272. — Ic. : Rgl. in A. H. P. X (1887) t. 1, f. 3. — Exs. : 
Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 340. 

Perennial; bulb broadly ovoid to subspherical 1-1.5 mm thick; outer 
tunics papery, blackish, very thin, nerveless; bulblets none; scape 
(10)-15— 40 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 or to slightly above the middle with 
smooth leaf sheaths; uppermost sheath inflated in upper part; leaves 2 (3), 
narrowly linear, (1 ) — 2 — 3 mm broad, flat, canaliculate, smooth or rarely 
scabrous ^margined, commonly somewhat shorter than the scape; spathe 
slightly shorter than to equaling the umbel, short -acuminate, early 
deciduous; umbel without bulblets, hemispherical or often spherical, rather 
many-flowered, dense, sometimes subcapitate; pedicels subequal, half 
as long as to equaling and finally to half as long again as the perianth, 
ebracteolate or with few bracteoles; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth rose, with a faint darker nerve, lustrous, (4)-6-7-(8) mm long, 
subequal, oblong-lanceolate, acutish to obtusish, entire, the outer slightly 
broader than the inner; filaments one-half to two-thirds as long as perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 1/3 their length, the outer 
subulate from a narrowly triangular base, the inner twice as broad as the 
outer, dilated to 2/3 its length, more or less 2 -toothed; style not exserted; 
capsule half as long as the perianth. July-August. 

Stony slopes in the alpine and subalpine zones. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.- 
Tarb., T.Sh. (chiefly Centr. ), Pam.-Al. (Alai Range, Valkhan). Gen. distr.: 
Dzu.-Kash. Described from Alma Ata area. 

135. A. kujukense Vved. in Trans. Sc. Soc. Turk. I (1923) 124. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; outer tunics papery, gray, 

somewhat produced at the top; bulblets few, whitish, pitted, sometimes 
absent; scape 7-20 cm long, sometimes covered (and buried in soil) with 
very scabrous leaf sheaths; leaf solitary, cylindric, 1-2 mm broad, 
fistulous, very scabrous, usually greatly surpassing the umbel; spathe 
persistent, half as long as the umbel, beakless; umbel without bulblets, 
fasciculate -hemispherical or rarely subspherical, loose, rather few- 
flowered; pedicels subequal, as long to twice as long as the perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth purple, with 
a darker nerve, 8-10 mm long, equal, acute, the outer lanceolate, the 
inner oblong-lanceolate, crenate at apex; filaments half as long as perianth 
segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/3, entire, the outer triangular- 
subulate, the inner triangular and 3 times as broad as the outer; style not 
exserted; capsule about one-third as long as the perianth. May-June. 
(Plate XIII, Figure 3 a-c). 



174 



226 Gravelly argillaceous slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
T. Sh. ; Kara-tau. Described from Kuyukskie mountains. Type in Tashkent. 

136. A. eremoprasum Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. HortiBot. Petrop. 
V (1924) 92.— Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 176. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics papery, grayish, 
more or less pitted and rugose; bulblets pitted; scape (l0)-15-25 cm long, 
covered to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 2, filiform, 
apparently semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, withering before flowering; 
spathe persistent, one -fifth to one-tenth as long as the umbel, acuminate; 
umbel without bulblets, fasciculate, loosely few-flowered; pedicels unequal, 
3-7 times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the 
campanulate perianth dingy rose, with a dingy purple nerve, (5)-6 — 7 mm 
long, acute, the outer lanceolate, entire, the inner oblong-lanceolate, 
crenate, slightly gibbous at base, half as broad again at base as the outer; 
filaments two-thirds as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to 
perianth up to the middle, entire, the outer narrowly triangular, the inner 
broadly triangular and 3 times as broad as the outer; style not exserted; 
capsule about half as long as the perianth. May- June. 

Stony slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al.; 
known from a single location: the Zerabulakskie heights. Endemic. 
Described from the Zerabulakskie heights. Type in Tashkent. 

137. A. Popovii Vved. in Trans. Sc. Soc. Turk. I (1923) 124. — Exs.: 
Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 63. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics commonly light 
brown, coriaceous, with prominent longitudinal crests, splitting at the top 
and at base; bulblets light brownish, crested and pitted; scape 
(l5)-20 — 40 cm long, slender, covered up to or slightly above the middle 
with smooth leaf sheaths; spathe one-fourth to one-third as long as the 
umbel, acuminate, commonly persistent; umbel without bulblets, spherical 
or nearly so, rather many-flowered, loose; pedicels equal, 3-6 times as 
long as perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the 
subspherical perianth whitish, with a dingy purple nerve, smooth, ca. 3 mm 
long, subequal, oblong, acute, the outer scaphoid, slightly narrower than 
the inner; filaments slightly exceeding the perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, entire, equal, subulate; style exserted; 
capsule slightly shorter than the perianth. June. 

Mottled outcrops, gravelly slopes, and takyrs. — Centr. Asia: Syr D. 

227 (Dzhety-sai, Kurkat, SW foothills of Mogol-tau), Pam.-Al. (between 
Kabadian and Dzhelikul). Endemic. Described from Dzhety-sai. Type in 
Tashkent. 

Note. Apart from those listed, there are records of the following 
localities: Syr D. (Mansur-ata between station of Chanak and Montaitash) 
and Pam.-Al. (Zeravshan heights). New material is needed from these 
locations, as the available material is incomplete and the identifications 
cannot be fully verified. 

138. A. confragosum Vved. in Sched. ad Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) 
No. 619. — Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 341 (sub A. s c r ob i c u 1 at o). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 -1 .5 cm thick; outer tunics coriaceous, grayish- 
brown or blackish, pitted, splitting at base; bulblets blackish-brown, 



175 



tubercular-pitted; scape 15-30 cm long, slender, covered to l/3 or up to 
the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, ca. 0.5 mm 
broad, semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth or scabrous -margined, slightly 
shorter than to equaling the scape; spathe one -third to one -half as long as 
the umbel, long- acuminate, commonly persistent; umbel without bulblets, 
hemispherical or often spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
subequal, 2-4 times as long as perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; 
segments of the subspherical perianth tawny, in herbarium violet -tinged 
especially at the tips, ca. 3 mm long, equal, oblong-ovate, acute, the outer 
scaphoid, scabrous; filaments half as long again as perianth segments, at 
base connate and adnate to perianth, entire, equal, subulate; style exserted; 
capsule (nearly mature) slightly shorter than the perianth. May- June. 

Rocks and gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. Known from several 
localities in Mogol-tau mountains. Endemic. Described from Spa. Type in 
Tashkent. 

169. A. scrobiculatum Vved. inTransc. Sc. Soc. Turk. I (1923) 123. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics blackish or 
brownish, coriaceous, pitted, splitting at base; bulblets apparently few, 
brown, pitted; scape 10-20 cm long, commonly stoutish, covered to l/3 
or nearly up to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, filiform, 
ca. 0.5 mm broad, semicylindric, canaliculate, smooth, apparently equaling 
the scape; spathe one-fourth as long as the umbel, long-acuminate, 
commonly persistent; umbel without bulblets, hemispherical to spherical, 
rather many-flowered, fairly loose; pedicels equal, 4-6 times as long as 
perianth, the outer often ascending, subtended by numerous bracteoles; 
segments of the spherical perianth rosy-violet with a dingy purple nerve, 
3-3.5 mm long, subequal, smooth, acutish, the outer scaphoid, oblong, 
slightly narrower than the oblong-ovate inner segments; filaments half as 
228 long again as the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
entire, equal, subulate; style exserted; capsule about two-thirds as long 
as the perianth. May. 

Mottled outcrops, gravelly slopes, and solonchaks. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. 
(Zakaratauskaya Plain, Chu-Ili Mountains). Endemic. Described from 
Ak-kul. Type in Tashkent. 

140. A. transvestiens Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 619. 

Bulb oblong-ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics light brown, coriaceous, 
slightly pitted -rugose, sometimes smooth, in young (sterile) bulbs with 
longitudinal crests; bulblets numerous, light brown, tuberculate -pitted; 
scape 30-60 cm long, slender, covered to 1/5-1/4 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 3, semicylindric, canaliculate, fistulous, 1.5-2 mm broad, smooth, 
apparently much shorter than the scape, withering before flowering; spathe 
two-thirds as long as the umbel, acuminate, persistent; umbel without 
bulblets, spherical, densely many -flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times as 
long as perianth, subtended by numerous bracteoles; segments of the 
subspherical perianth pale lilac with a darker nerve, ca. 3 mm long, 
smooth, obtuse, the outer scaphoid, elliptic -oblong, the inner oblong-ovate; 
filaments half as long again as the perianth segments, at base connate and 
adnate to perianth, entire, equal, subulate; style exserted. June. (Plate 
XII, Figure 3 a-d). 



176 



Mottled outcrops.— Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Known from two places 
in the vicinity of town of Kara-kala. Endemic. Type in Tashkent. 

141. A. sabulosum Stev. ex Bge in Goebel. Reise. . .II (1838) 311; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 170; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 251 (p.p. exclus. spec. Bge); 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 489. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. IX, f. 1-3. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, I2-2 cm thick; outer tunics coriaceous, 
light brown, apparently crimped by distant concave parallel nerves, often 
torn along the nerves; bulblets light brown, irregularly tuberculate -pitted; 
scape 20-60 cm long, stout, apparently obliquely inflated, covered to l/4 
with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, semicylindric, canaliculate, 
fistulous, 1-2 mm broad, smooth or rarely scabrous, shorter than the 
scape; spathe about as long as the umbel, acuminate, deciduous; umbel 
without bulblets, hemispherical or often spherical, rather densely many- 
flowered; pedicels 3-5 times as long as perianth, subtended by numerous 
bracteoles; segments of the hemispherical perianth greenish or brownish, 
green-nerved in fruit, cross -wrinkled, ca. 3 mm long, equal, elliptic, 
the outer scabrous, scaphoid, obtuse, the inner emarginate; filaments 
229 slightly exceeding the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 

perianth, entire, equal, linear-subulate; style exserted; capsule ca. 3 mm 
long, with rounded scarcely emarginate valves. May-June. 

Sand deserts. — European part: L. V. ; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh., 
Kyz. K., Kara K., Mtn. Turkm. (Kushkinskii River). Gen. distr. : Dzu.- 
Kash. Described from the northern shore of the Caspian Sea. 

Note. The bulb tunics of A. sabulosum are somewhat variable: 
they are sometimes strongly fibrous, but by far the greater part of 
herbarium material is devoid of tunics and it is impossible to state anything 
definite concerning such specimens. 

142. A. turkestanicum Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 197. — A. not hum 
Vved. in Opred. rast. okr. Tashkenta I (1923) 66 . — Exs. Herb. Fl. As. 
Med. No.343.-Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. XV, f. 6-8. 

Perennial; bulb subspherical, 1.5-3 cm thick; outer tunics papery, 
gray, nerveless; bulblets none; scape (40)-70-100 cm long, covered to 1/4 
with smooth or very rarely scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 4-6, linear, 
gradually attenuate from base, 2-10 mm broad, flat, scabrous-margined, 
much shorter than the scape, soon withering; spathe persistent, equaling 
the umbel, the beak as long as the blade; umbel without bulblets, spherical, 
densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, (2) — 3-4 times as long as 
perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the broadly campanulate 
perianth rose, with a faint darker nerve, ca. 3 mm long, subequal, obtuse, 
the outer ovate scaphoid, the inner elliptic, narrowed toward base; 
filaments slightly exceeding to half as long again as the perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate from a triangular 
base, the inner subulate from a broadly oval obtusely 2 -toothed base, twice 
as broad at base as the outer filaments and slightly broader than the 
perianth segments; style conspicuously exserted. June-July. 

Chiefly mottled outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (lower course of 
Sary-su River), Balkh. (Balkhash), T.Sh. (sporadically in the foothills 
from Alma Ata to Mogol-tau), Mtn. Turkm. (Sulyuklyu). Endemic. 
Described from Mogol-tau. Type in Leningrad. 



177 



Section 7. PORRUM Don. Mon. (1826) 4.— Bulb solitary, globose or 
ovoid, without rhizome; aerial part of scape covered to rather high up with 
leaf sheaths; perianth segments 1 -nerved; inner filaments 3 -parted, the 
filiform lateral cusps commonly exceeding the central antheriferous cusp; 
seeds angular. 

143. A. ferganicum Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Petrop. V (1924) 
90.— A. Lehmannianum var. kokanicum Rgl. in A. H. P X (1887) 

304. 
230 Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.5- 1 cm thick; outer tunics papery, grayish; 
tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets few, large, dull, yellow, 
dorsally carinate; scape 10-20 cm long, covered at base with smooth 
approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 2-4, filiform, smooth, ca. 1 mm broad, 
apparently exceeding the scape; spathe one-half to two-thirds as long as 
the umbel, short -beaked, early deciduous; umbel without bulblets, 
hemispherical or often spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
subequal, half as long again to three times as long as perianth, subtended 
by bracteoles; segments of the campanulate perianth rosy with a purple 
nerve, subequal, 4-6 mm long, acute, oblong-lanceolate; filaments slightly 
shorter than perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
not ciliate, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner as broad at base as 
perianth segments, 3-parted, the central segment two-thirds as long to 
equaling the oblong-triangular undivided part, equaling to half as long again 
as the lateral cusps; style not exserted; capsule valves orbicular, ca. 
4 mm long. May. 

Desert foothills. — Cent r. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from 
the foothills of Alai and Turkestan ranges. Type in Leningrad. 

144. A. Lehmannianum Me rckl. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. VII (1851) 509; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 234 (excl. var. Bungei Boiss. ). — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. 
turk. t. VI, f. 8-10. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 0.75 cm broad; outer tunics papery, grayish- 
tawny or reddish-tawny; tunics of replacement bulb yellow; bulblets none; 
scape 5-7 cm long, covered at base with smooth approximate leaf sheaths; 
leaves 2 or 3, filiform, smooth, ca. 1 mm broad, exceeding the umbel; 
spathe early deciduous, half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel 
without bulblets, hemispherical or rarely spherical, relatively few- 
flowered; pedicels subtended by few bracteoles, subequal, l2-2-(3) times 
as long as perianth; segments of the campanulate perianth rosy, with a 
prominent purple nerve, smooth, equal, 6-7 mm long, lanceolate to oblong, 
acute, the inner slightly broader; filaments two-thirds as long to slightly 
shorter than perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to l/4 their 
length, not ciliate, the outer triangular-lanceolate, the inner scarcely 
broader at base than perianth segments, 3-parted, the central cusp 
one -third as long as the oblong -triangular undivided part and one -half to 
two-thirds as long as the lateral cusps; style included; capsule valves 
orbicular, ca. 4 mm long, emarginate. May-June. 
233 Clay deserts. Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Kyz. K. Endemic. Described 
from deserts adjacent to Sea of Azov. Type in Leningrad. 



178 



1231' 




Plate XIV 



1. Allium d ictyoprasum C.A.M., la) portion of perianth.- 2. A.brevidens Vved.; 2a) portion 
of perianth; 2b) bulb scale; 2c)and2d) bulblets.-3. A.Aucheri Boiss.; 3a) portion of perianth; 
3b) bulb scale. 



179 



145. A. Borszczowii Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 74. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. turk. 
(1876) t. VI, f. 11-14. 

Perennial; bulb oblong -ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics reticulate - 
fibrous, brown; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets few, large, 
elongated, yellow, reticulate -furrowed; scapes 10-30 cm long, commonly 
2 or 3 from one bulb, rarely solitary or up to 5, at issue from sheaths 
recurved-ascending or rarely suberect, covered to 1/4-1/2 with glabrous 
approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, apparently fistulous, narrowly 
linear, glabrous, 1-2 mm broad, commonly exceeding the scape; spathe 
acuminate, much shorter than the umbel; umbel without bulblets, spherical 
or rarely fasciculate, commonly few -flowered, loose; pedicels subtended 
by bracteoles, unequal, 2-5 times as long as perianth; segments of the 
campanulate-hemispherical perianth rose with a darker nerve, subequal, 
5-6 mm long, smooth, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, acute or obtuse; 
filaments three-quarters as long to slightly shorter than perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, not ciliate, the outer triangular- 
subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segmnts, 3 -parted, the 
central cusp one -third to one -fourth as long as the triangular undivided 
part and one -third as long to slightly longer than the lateral cusps; style 
included; capsule valves subglobose, ca. 4 mm long, commonly with 
2 cartilaginous apical teeth, forming in ovary a crest around the style. 
April- June. 

Sands or rarely mottled outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Kyz. K. , 
Kara K. , Mtn. Turkm., Amu D., Syr D. Endemic. Described from the 
Syr Darya Valley. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Plants from the southern part of Soviet Central Asia need further 
study on account of the short lateral cusps of the inner stamens and the 
frequent lack of crests in capsule, characteristics which bring them close 
to (if not actually identifiable with) the North Persian A. Boissieri Rgl. 

146. A. brevidens Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Petrop. V (1924)89. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics reticulate, brown; 

tunics of replacement bulb yellow, reticulately nerved; bulblets few, 
elongated, yellow, reticulately nerved; scape 20-30 cm long, covered to 
the middle with leaf sheaths, these scabrous or the upper ones smooth; 
leaves 2 or 3, fistulous semiterete, canaliculate, scabrous, 1-3 mm broad, 
slightly exceeding the umbel; spathe early deciduous, slightly shorter than 
the umbel, beaked, the beak half as long again as the blade; umbel without 
bulblets, spherical or rarely hemispherical, commonly many-flowered, 
234 dense; pedicels subtended by bracteoles, 3-8 times the length of perianth, 
unequal, the inner up to twice as long as the outer; segments of the ovoid 
perianth whitish with a prominent dingy purple nerve, 3-4 mm long, acute, 
smooth, the outer carinate, oblong, the inner elliptic; filaments slightly 
exceeding the perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, not ciliate, 
the outer subulate from a triangular base, the inner as broad at base as 
perianth segments, 3-cleft, the central segment half as long again as the 
lateral segments and as the oblong-triangular undivided part; style 
conspicuously exserted; capsule valves orbicular, ca. 3.5 mm long. 
May-July. (Plate XIV, Figure 2, a-d). 

Mottled outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from 
Karatag and Rink. Type in Leningrad. 



180 



147. A. turcomanicum Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 305, tab. I, f. 4.— 
Ic. : I.e. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or often in clusters of 2 or 3, ovoid, 1-1.5 cm 
thick; outer tunics reticulate, rufous -brown or brown; tunics of the 
replacement bulbs yellowish, reticulately nerved; bulblets few, large, 
elongated, yellow, smooth, lustrous; scape 30-100 cm long, covered to 
1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, fistulous, semiterete ( ? ), 
smooth, 2-6 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe early 
deciduous; umbel without bulblets, spherical, rather densely many-flowered; 
pedicels subtended by bracteoles, 3-5 times the length of perianth, unequal, 
the inner half as long again as the outer; segments of the ovoid perianth 
rosy-violet, 5-6 mm long, subequal, acute, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 
smooth, the outer carinate; filaments barely exceeding the perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer 
subulate from a broadly triangular base, at base scarcely broader than 
perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment approximately equaling 
the lateral segments and the oblong-triangular undivided part; style scarcely 
exserted; capsule valves suborbicular, cross -wrinked, ca. 3.5 mm long. 
April -May. 

Argillaceous and sandy soils. — Centr. Asia: Kara K., Mtn. Turkm. , 
Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from the area between Kalaburun and 
Abdullakhan near Murgab south of Merv. Type in Leningrad. 

148. A. crystallinum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 126. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 2 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 

reticulate, grayish-brown; tunics of the replacement bulb yellow, reticulate; 
bulblets few, large, yellow, reticulately nerved, densely crystalline - 
tuberculed; scape 60cm long, covered to 1/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 2, fistulous, terete, smooth, 3-5 mm broad, shorter than the scape; 
235 spathe early deciduous; slightly longer than the umbel, the beak about as 
long as the blade; umbel without bulblets, many-flowered; pedicels 
2-3 times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the 
ovoid-campanulate perianth whitish with a reddish nerve, smooth, acute, 
5 mm long, the outer carinate, oblong-lanceolate, slightly shorter than the 
linear-lanceolate inner segments; filaments slightly shorter than perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, slightly ciliate at base, 
the outer triangular-subulate, the inner slightly broader at base than 
perianth segments, 3-cleft, the central segment half as long as the lateral 
segments and the oblong-triangular undivided part; style included. May. 

Juniper woods. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Collected on a single 
occasion by Lepeshkin in a juniperetum in Ketmenchapta Range near Aulata. 
Type in Tashkent. 

149. A. filidens Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 174. — A. karakense Rgl. 
in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 76.— A. Ugami Vved. in Trans. Sc. Soc. Turk. I 
(1923) 123. — A. margarit aceum auct. Fl. As. Med. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. 
turk. t. XV, 11-13. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics brown, reticulate- 
fibrous, clasping the scape base; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; 
bulblets few, yellowish to dark brown, large, elongated, smooth, lustrous; 
scape 20-60 cm long, covered at base with smooth approximate leaf sheaths; 



181 



leaves 3 or 4, fistulous, semiterete, canaliculate, smooth or slightly 
scabrous, 1-3 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe deciduous, 
as long to half as long again as the umbel, the beak about as long as the 
blade; umbel without bulblets, spherical or hemispherical, densely many- 
flowered; pedicels subtended by bracteoles, subequal, 2-5 times the length 
of perianth; segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth greenish-azure, 
often drying rosy, with a prominent green nerve, subequal, 4-5 mm long, 
smooth, the outer carinate oblong obtusish, the inner oboblong-ovate to 
oboblong, obtuse and mucronulate; filaments equaling or slightly shorter 
than perianth segmetns, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at 
base, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner half as broad again at base 
as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment half as long as the ovate - 
triangular undivided part and 2/7 to 2/3 as long as the lateral segments; 
style included; capsule valves orbicular, ca. 4 mm long, emarginate. 
May- June. 

Gravelly slopes in the lower mountain zone, chiefly on mottled 
outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (Sary-su), Kyz. K., Amu D., Syr D., 
Pam.-AL, T.Sh. Described from Mogol-tau. Type in Leningrad. 

236 150. A. dictyoscordum Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. 

V (1924) 90. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-2.5 cm thick; outer tunics reticulate, brown, 
clasping the scape to high up; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets 
none; scape (sometimes 2 from one bulb) 50-70 cm long, covered at base 
with smooth approximate leaf sheaths; leaves 4-6, not toothed, linear, 
canaliculate, conspicuously scabrous -margined, 3 mm broad, much shorter 
than the scape; spathe slightly exceeding the umbel, the beak as long as 
the blade; umbel without bulblets, spherical, rarely hemispherical, dense, 
commonly many-flowered; pedicels subtended by bracteoles, half as long 
again to 3 times as long as flowers, subequal; segments of the ovoid- 
campanulate perianth whitish, with a green nerve, subequal, 5-6 mm long, 
linear-oblong, obtuse or obtusish, the outer cuneate scabrous; filaments 
about equaling the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
not ciliate, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner about twice as broad 
at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment half as long as 
the ovate -triangular undivided part and half the length of the lateral 
segments; style included; capsule valves nearly rounded, ca. 5 mm long, 
scarcely emarginate. May- June. 

Saline clays in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. 
Endemic. Described from Germab. Type in Leningrad. 

151. A. viride Grossh. in Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 201. 

Perennial; bulb tunics reticulate -fibrous, produced into a collar 
2-3 times the length of the bulb; scape 70-150 cm long, cinereous -pruinose; 
leaves hollow, semiterete, abruptly attenuate toward apex, 6-11 mm broad, 
up to 40 cm long; spathe early deciduous; umbel without bulblets, ovaloid- 
spherical, dense, 3.5-4 cm in diameter; pedicels very unequal, 3-5 times 
the length of perianth; segments of the oblong-ovaloid perianth dull green, 
narrowly white -margined, very obtuse, smooth, 3-5 mm long; filaments 
exceeding the perianth segments, glabrous or rarely sparsely ciliate, the 
peripheral shorter than the central, either not cuspidate or with 1 or 2 short 
lateral cusps, the inner with 3 equal cusps. 



182 



Caucasus: Tal. Endemic. 

Note. The author has not seen a single specimen of this species 

152. A. dictyoprasum C.A.M. exKunthEnum. IV (1843) 390; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 166; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 243. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-2.5 cm thick; outer tunics brown, reticulate, 
clasping the stem base to high up; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; 
bulblets few, large, yellow, elongated, reticulate -nerved, mostly absent; 
237 scape 60-100 cm long, covered to l/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 
or 4, fistulous, terete, attenuate toward apex, smooth, 3-5 mm broad, 
much shorter than the scape; spathe about as long as the umbel, short - 
beaked; umbel without bulblets, spherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels subtended by bracteoles, 2-3 times the length of perianth, unequal, 
the central twice as long as the peripheral; segments of the oblong-ovoid 
perianth dark purple or brownish-green, with a darker nerve, smooth, 
ca. 3 mm long, unequal, the outer scaphoid, broadly elliptic, very obtuse, 
much shorter than ovate emarginate inner segments; filaments half as long 
again as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, slightly 
ciliate at base, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner narrower at base 
than perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment slightly shorter than 
the linear-triangular base and half as long as to slightly longer than the 
lateral segments; style conspicuously exserted; capsule valves nearly 
rounded, 3.5 mm long, scarcely emarginate. June-July. (Plate XIV, 
Figure 1, a). 

Dry stony places . — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Armenia. Cotype in Leningrad. 

153. A. vineale L. Sp. pi. (1753) 299; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 163; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V (1884) 235; Shmal'g. Fl. II, 486. — Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ X 
(1848) f. 1075.— Exs.: PI. Finl. exs . No. 573. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm thick; outer tunics grayish-brown, 
papery, more or less lacerate; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; 
bulblets yellowish, lustrous, smooth; scape 40-80 cm long, covered to 
l/3 or up to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, fistulous, 
semiterete, canaliculate, smooth, 2-4 mm broad, much shorter than the 
scape; spathe about as long as the umbel, long-beaked, early deciduous; 
umbel with or rarely without bulblets, few- or many-flowered, sometimes 
flowerless; pedicels several times the length of perianth, subequal, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the ovoid perianth rose or purple, 
with a darker nerve, 3-4.5 mm long, obtuse, smooth, the outer oblong, 
carinate, slightly broader than the oblanceolate inner segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, slightly ciliate at base, the outer subulate, 
the inner slightly broader at base than the perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the 
central segment two -thirds as long as or just slightly shorter than the 
lateral segments and slightly shorter than to as long as the linear-triangular 
undivided part; style conspicuously exserted; capsule valves elliptic, 
ca. 4 mm long, narrowly and shallow ly emarginate. July- August. 

Mountain meadows; in European part as a weed. — European part: 
M. Dnp., Crim. ; Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : W. Eur., 
Asia Minor, N. America (naturalized). Described from Germany. 



183 



238 154. A. Aucheri Boiss. Diagn. pi. or. 1.7 (1846) 116; Boiss. Fl. Or. 

V (1884) 237. — A. brevipes Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 165.— 
A. ledschanense Conrath et Freyn in Bull. Herb. Boiss. VI (1896) 190. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics dark gray, 
subcoriaceous, splitting; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets 
none; scape 40-70 cm long, covered up to or somewhat above the middle 
with smooth or slightly scabrous leaf sheaths; leaves 2-(4), fistulous, 
apparently semiterete, canaliculate, smooth or slightly scabrous, ca. 3 mm 
broad, short, far from reaching the umbel; spathe often purple -tinged, 
one-half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, beakless, acuminate; umbel 
without bulblets, spherical or rarely hemispherical, mostly many-flowered, 
dense to subcapitate; pedicels ebracteolate, the peripheral half the length 
of to rarely equaling or to half as long again as perianth, the central as 
long to twice as long as perianth; segments of the tubular-campanulate 
perianth equal, 7-9 mm long, purplish-rose, turning bluish in drying, with 
a dingy purple nerve, oblong-lanceolate, very acute, smooth or sometimes 
crenate at apex; filaments half as long as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer triangular- 
subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the 
central segment one -fourth the length of ovate -triangular undivided part 
and one -third to one -half as long as the lateral segments; style included; 
capsule valves elliptic, ca. 6 mm long, slightly emarginate. June-July. 
(Plate XIV, Figure 3a, b). 

Subalpine meadows. — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Asia 
Minor, N. Persia. Described from Armenia and Gilan. 

Note. As far as can be deduced from the very detailed description of 
A. ledschanense, this species differs from A. Aucheri solely in 
its leaves not being fistulous. Taking into account how difficult it is 
sometimes to establish this character on dry material, I am of the opinion 
that an error occurred in this case and that that these species cannot be 
distinguished. 

155. A. guttatum Stev. in Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 18 (1809) 173, tab. II, 
f. 1; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 165. — A. m ar g a r i t ac e um var. 
guttatum Gay in Ann. Sc. Nat. 3. VIII (1847) 223; Boiss. Fl. Or., V 
(1884)240; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 487. — Ic. : Stev. I.e. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics gray or brownish, 
papery, slenderly parallel-nerved, sometimes separated into fibers at the 
top; tunics of replacement bulb whitish; bulblets solitary (?), large, 
smooth, grayish; scape 30-60 cm long, slender, covered to 1/3-1/2 with 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, fistulous, semiterete, canaliculate, 
scabrous, 1.5-3 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe about as 
239 long as the umbel, early deciduous, with beak twice the length of blade; 
umbel without bulblets, densely many-flowered, spherical or rarely 
hemispherical; pedicels several times the length of perianth, unequal, the 
central up to twice as long as the outer, very slender, thickened below 
the flower, the long scarious bracteoles subtending the peripheral pedicels 
nearly the length of pedicel and surrounding the base of the umbel; segments 
of the narrowly campanulate perianth ca. 2.5 mm long, whitish, with a faint 
din gy green nerve and dark violet (brownish green in drying) spot at center, 
smooth, obtuse, the outer subcarinate, oboblong, the inner oboblong-linear, 



184 



slightly narrower and slightly longer than the outer; filaments one -fourth as 
long again as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
glabrous, the outer subulate, the inner broader at base than perianth 
segments, 3-cleft, the central segment one -half to two-thirds as long as 
filiform lateral segments and two-thirds as long to as long as the linear- 
triangular undivided part: style slightly exserted; capsule valves broadly 
elliptic, narrowly emarginate, ca. 3 mm long. June-July. 

Steppes, sands and hills. — European part: BL, Crim. ; Caucasus: 
E. Transc. (?). Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. , described from the lower 
Dniester. Cotype in Leningrad. 

Note. Recorded for E. Transcaucasia according to Wilhelms' 
collections. The author has not seen these specimens and considers the 
occurrence of this species anywhere in Transcaucasia as most unlikely. 

156. A. affine Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 166. — A. m a r g ar it ac e um 
var. affinne Rgl. inA.H.P. 111(1875)50; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 240.— 
A. m ar ga r it a c e um var. scabrum Rgl. I.e.— A. Mishtschen- 
koanum Grossh. in Grossh. et Schishk. PI. or. exs. (1924) No. 4.— 
Exs.: PL or. exs. No. 352. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics gray, papery; tunics 
of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets solitary (?), large, smooth; 
yellowish; scape (20) 30-80 cm long, covered to the middle with scabrous 
or rarely smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, fistulous, semiterete, 
canaliculate, scabrous, 2-4 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; 
spathe twice as long as the umbel, early deciduous, the beak 3-4 times 
the length of blade; umbel without bulblets, densely many-flowered, 
spherical, very rarely hemispherical; pedicels 3-4 times the length of 
perianth, usually unequal, the central twice as long as the peripheral, 
very slender, thickened below the flower; bracteoles of the outer pedicels 
long, sometimes equaling the pedicels, often capillary, scarious, 
surrounding the base of the umbel; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth ca. 4 mm long, whitish, with a prominent green nerve, smooth, 
obtuse, the outer carinate, oblong, the inner oblong-linear, slightly 
narrower and longer than the outer; filaments 1/4-1/3 as long again as 
240 perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, 
the outer subulate, the inner broader at base than the perianth segments, 
3-cleft, the central segment half as long as the filiform lateral segments 
and barely shorter than the linear-triangular undivided part; style exserted; 
capsule valves elliptic or obovate, narrowly emarginate, ca. 5 mm long. 
June -August. 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: Dag., E. and S. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr.: 
Iran. Described from Georgia. Type in Leningrad. 

157. A. firmotunicatum Fom. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis 14 (1909) 48. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose; tunics coriaceous, indurated, more or 

less separated at the top into parallel strips; bulblets yellowish-brown, 
finely tuberculate; scape to 60 cm long, covered to the middle with leaf 
sheaths; leaves fistulous, terete, sulcate, scabrous, shorter than the scape; 
spathe long-beaked, early deciduous; umbel hemispherical or sometimes 
subspherical; pedicels vinaceous-red, unequal, the central twice as long, 
4-5 times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the 



185 



trigonous -campanulate perianth vinaceous-red suffused with a raspberry 
tinge, connivent, oval-oblong, obtuse, 3-5 mm long, the outer prominently 
carinate, scabrous on the keel, intensely colored; filaments exceeding the 
perianth segments, dilated at base, the outer entire, the inner 3 -cleft, the 
central segment two-thirds as long as the lateral segments; style exserted. 
June. 

Dry places. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic (?). Described from 
Mil'skaya Steppe. 

Note. The author has not a single specimen of this species. 

158. A. fuscoviolaceum Fomin in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis 14 (1909) 
50.— Exs. : PI. orient. No. 56. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics papery, gray; 
tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets solitary (?), large, 
yellowish, smooth, lustrous; scape 30-70 cm long, covered to l/3 with 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, fistulous, semiterete, canaliculate, 
usually scabrous -margined, 2-3 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; 
spathe half as long as the umbel, short -beaked; umbel without bulblets, 
spherical or often hemispherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal 
or the central ones half as long again, 2-3 times as long as perianth, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the oblong-ovoid perianth ca. 4 mm 
long, dark or rarely light purple, with a darker nerve, oblong, subequal, 
smooth, the outer obtuse and carinate; filaments slightly exceeding the 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate, the 
241 outer subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, 

the central segment about as long as the lateral segments and half the length 
of the narrowly linear-triangular undivided part: style exserted; capsule 
valves broadly elliptic, ca. 4 mm long, shallowly emarginate. July- August. 

Dry slopes .— Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Iran. Described from Sarykamysh. Type in Tiflis. 

159. A. sphaerocephalum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 297; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
165 (excl. spec, transcauc); Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 236; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 
486. — A. descendens auct. Fl. Ross. — Ic . : Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X 
(1848) f. 1080.— Exs.: Fl. Hung. exs. No. 793. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-2 cm thick; outer tunics coriaceous, brown, 
entire, splitting; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets few or 
absent (? ), elongated, yellowish, lustrous, smooth; scape 30-80 cm long, 
covered to l/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, fistulous, semiterete, 
canaliculate, smooth, rarely scabrous -margined, 2-4 mm broad, much 
shorter than the scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, cuspidate; umbel 
without bulblets, spherical or oblong, rarely fasciculate -hemispherical, 
densely many -flowered; pedicels unequal, the central commonly twice as 
long as the peripheral, equaling to many times as long as perianth, the 
peripheral subtended by bracteoles; segments of the oblong-ovoid perianth 
ca. 4 mm long, rose or purple, with a darker nerve, very rarely whitish, 
oblong, the outer carinate, more or less scabrous, acutish, slightly 
shorter and narrower than the obtuse inner segments; filaments slightly 
exceeding to one -fourth as long again as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer subulate, the inner 
as broad at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment as long 



186 



as the lateral segments and (half) two-thirds the length of the undivided part; 
style conspicuously exserted; capsule valves elliptic, ca. 4 mm long, 
scarcely emarginate, with cartilaginous teeth. June-July. 

Steppes, mounds, and slopes .— European part: U. Dnp., M. Dnp. , 
V.-Don, Bl., L. Don, L. V. ( ? ); Caucasus: Cisc. Gen. distr. : S. and 
Centr. Eur., Asia Minor (? ), N. Afr. (?). Described from Italy. 

Note. A. descendens L. is distinguished, apart from other 
characters, by the leaves being carinate beneath. Study of live material 
has finally settled the problem concerning the occurrence of this species 
in the USSR. The A. descendens form cycle also contains the species 
A. artvinense reported by Mishchenko. 

160. A. Regelianum Beck, ex Iljin in Fl. Yugo-Vost. Ill (1929) 355 
et 356, Figure 178. — A. descendens var. tenuifolium Miscz. ex 
Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 252. — Ic. : Fl. Yugo-Vost., I.e. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 
242 grayish-brown, entire, splitting; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish- 
brown; bulblets numerous, small, semiovoid, yellowish-brown or often 
brown, dull due to the prominent nerves; scape 30-60 cm long, covered 
to l/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, fistulous, semiterete, 
canaliculate, smooth, 2 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe 
deciduous, much shorter than the umbel; umbel without bulblets, 
fasciculate -oblong, densely many-flowered; pedicels unequal, the peripheral 
nearly the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles, the central 4 times 
as long, ebracteolate; segments of the ovoid perianth subequal, ca. 4 mm 
long, purple, with a darker nerve, obtuse; smooth, the outer carinate, 
oblong to oblong-lanceolate; filaments equaling to slightly exceeding the 
perianth, at base connate and adnate to perianth, glabrate, the outer 
subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the 
central segment slightly shorter than the lateral segments and one -third 
to one-half the length of the linear-triangular undivided part; style 
conspicuously exserted; capsule valves elliptic, ca. 3 mm long, scarcely 
emarginate, crested. August. 

Solonetz soils. — European part: Bl., L. Don., L. V. ; Caucasus: Dag.* 
Endemic. Described from Krasnoarmeisk. Type in Leningrad. 

161. A. scorodoprasum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 297 excl. var. |3; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 163; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 232; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 486.— 

Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1878) f. 1073. — Exs . : Hayek. Fl. stir, exs.— 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; outer tunics tawny, subcoriaceous, 
friable; tunics of replacement bulb dark violet; bulblets small, numerous, 
smooth, dark violet; scape 40-80 cm long, covered to l/3 with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 3-5, linear, not fistulous, gradually attenuate, scabrous 
on the margin and on midrib, very short, barely exceeding the middle of 
the scape, 4-10 mm broad; spathe longer than the umbel, early deciduous, 
the beak up to twice the length of blade; umbel with violet bulblets, rather 
many-flowered, very rarely flowerless; pedicels twice the length of 
perianth, equal, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the ovoid- 
campanulate perianth ca. 5 mm long, purple with a darker nerve, acute, 
scabrous, the outer oblong, carinate, slightly narrower than the oblong- 

* Derbent, Becker— needs confirmation. 



187 



ovate inner segments; filaments slightly shorter than perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer subulate, 
the inner twice as broad at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central 
segment half as long as the lateral segments and one -third the length of 
the oblong-triangular undivided part; style included. June-July. 

243 Meadows, among shrubs. — European part: U. Drvp., M. Dnp., V.-Don, 
Bl., Crim.; Caucasus: Cisc. (Kislovodsk, Akinfiev). Gen. distr. : W. Eur., 
Asia Minor. Described from Europe. 

162. A. longicuspis Rgl. in A. H. P. Ill (1875) 45. — A. sativum auct. 
fl. As. Med. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. VI, f. 1-3. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; replacement bulbs 2-4; outer 
tunics grayish-brown, papery to subcoriaceous; tunics of replacement bulbs 
grayish-rose; bulblets none; scape 40-100 cm long, covered to the middle 
with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4-7, not fistulous, broadly linear, smooth 
or scabrous at margin and on midrib beneath, 5-10 mm broad, much 
shorter than the scape; spathe 3-4 times as long as the umbel, deciduous, 
the strong beak up to 4 times the length of blade; umbel with large (5-10 mm) 
violet bulblet interspersed with and exceeded by numerous scarious 
bracteoles, many-flowered, ovoid, rather dense; pedicels filiform, several 
times the length of flower, unequal, the central ones to 3 times as long; 
segments of the ovoid perianth rose, sometimes dark rose, lustrous, 
smooth, equal, ca. 3 mm long, acute, the inner ovate, the outer oblong; 
filaments initially shorter than, finally up to half as long again as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, not ciliate, the outer 
triangular-subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segments, 
3-(5)-cleft, the central segments about twice the length of the oblong 
undivided part, one -third to one -half as long as the lateral segments, 
sometimes toothed; style conspicuously exserted. July- August. 

Gullies shaded during the day. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., Pam.-AL, 
T. Sh. Endemic. Described from Tak. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A. longicuspis Rgl. represents a wild race of A. sativum 
L. (garlic) and is distinguished by the exserted anthers. As in many other 
species with bulbiferous umbels, the flowers apparently do not always open 
and, in that case, the anthers are included. Observations, on this species 
under cultivation are desirable. 

In plants from Mountainous Turkmenia the stamens are somewhat less 
exserted, but the author did not have enough material with well developed 
flowers to ascertain whether this is a general characteristic. 

(163). A. sativum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 296; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 486. — Ic: 
Syreishch., 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1806) 237. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, consisting of 6-10 bulbils; scape up to 1 mm 
long, often annularly curved in upper part before flowering; leaves flat, 
linear; spathe long-beaked; umbel bearing numerous bulblets; perianth 

244 whitish; filaments shorter than perianth, the inner with long lateral cusps. 
A cultivated plant. Propagated by cloves, as it hardly produces any seeds. 

Economic importance. Cultivated in the European part of the USSR, 
in the Caucasus and in the Far East, for the sake of the preservable bulbs. 
It has medicinal use in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. In addition to 
garlic oil, the plant also contains the glucoside allin. 



188 



164. A. Fominianum Miscz. ex Grossh. et Schischk. PI. orient, exsicc. 
(1924) No. 80. — A. Fominii Miscz. in herb. — A. ampeloprasoides 
Grossh. in Grossh. et Schischk. 1. c'. (1924) No. 31 . — Exs. : PI. or. exs . 
No. 80. 

Bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, brown, 
obscurely parallel-nerved; splitting; tunics of replacement bulb dark 
purplish-violet; bulblets few, often absent, brown, dull, slenderly nerved; 
scape 20-60 cm long, covered to 1/4 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves (2) 
3 or 4, not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, scabrous- or rarely smooth- 
margined, 2-3 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe soon 
deciduous; umbel without bulblets, spherical or rarely hemispherical, 
many-flowered; pedicels subequal, half as long again to twice as long as 
perianth segments, subtended by bracteoles; segments of the spherical- 
campanulate perianth whitish, sometimes more or less suffused with purple 
on the back, with a green or purple nerve, ca. 4 mm long, obtuse, 
scabrous, the outer oblong, carinate, more or less crenate on the keel, 
two-thirds as broad and barely shorter than the ovate inner segments; 
filaments equaling the perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, ciliate at base, the outer linear-subulate, the inner as broad 
at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment one-fourth 
to one -third the length of the ovate -triangular undivided part and half as 
long as the lateral segments; style scarcely exserted; capsule valves 
suborbicular, ca. 4 mm long. May-July. 

Rocks and stony slopes . — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic. Described 
from Tiflis. Type in Baku. 

Note. Most closely related to A. ponticum, and the labels suggest 
that it is a more easterly ecological race, associated with rocks and stony 
slopes. There is need to distinguish these species in the field, since the 
characters provided by Grossheim (Fl. Kavk., 1. c. ) for identification of 
A. Fomini, A. ampeloprasoides and A. ponticum are quite 
inadequate. 

165. A. ponticum Miscz. ex Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 206. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 — 1.5 cm thick; outer tunics subcoriaceous, 

splitting; tunics of replacement bulb dark purple or reddish-brown; bulblets 
absent (?); scape 10-70 cm long, covered to l/4 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
245 leaves 3 or 4, not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, smooth or rarely 

scabrous -margined, 2-5 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe 
soon deciduous; umbel without bulblets, spherical or rarely hemispherical, 
many-flowered; pedicels unequal, 2-3 times the length of perianth, 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the spherical-campanulate perianth 
dark purple, ca. 4 mm long, obtuse, spherical, the outer oblong, carinate, 
two-thirds as broad as the broadly ovate inner segments; filaments as long 
as or slightly shorter than perianth segments, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer linear-subulate, the inner as broad 
at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segments one -third the 
length of the ovate -triangular undivided part and half as long as the lateral 
segments; style scarcely exserted; capsule valves suborbicular, ca. 4 mm 
long. May -July. 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: E. and W. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Transcaucasia. Type in Leningrad. 



189 



166. A. gracilescens Somm. et Lev. A.H.P. XIII (1893) 51. 
Perennial; bulb ca. 1 cm thick; outer tunics grayish-brown, 

subcoriaceous; splitting; tunics of replacement bulb reddish-brown; 
bulblets. . . ; scape ca. 50 cm long, covered to 1/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 3, not fistulous, linear, apparently canaliculate, smooth or slightly 
scabrous -margined, 3-4 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe 
early deciduous; umbel without bulblets, hemispherical, loose; pedicels 
subequal, 3-3? times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; 
segments of the spherical-campanulate perianth light rose, 4-5 mm long, 
obtuse, scabrous, the outer oblong, carinate, two-thirds as broad as the 
ovate inner segments; filaments barely shorter than perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer linear- 
subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the 
central segment one -third the length of the ovate -triangular undivided part 
and two-fifths to one-half as long as the outer segments; style not exserted. 
June . 

Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. Described from Adzharia: Keda. 
Type in Florence. 

Note. A species most closely related to A. Fominianum and 
A. ponticum, and possibly one of these should yield its place to 
A. gracilescens as the species endowed with priority rights . Beside 
the authentic plant, which the author had the opportunity of seeing, there 
are no other herbarium specimens. 

Sommier and Levier describe their species as having light rose flowers 
and they do not confuse their species with A. ponticum, since the latter 
species of their collections (Chula), which retains it dark purple color up 
to the present time, has been referred by them to A. rotundum. The 
authentic A. gracilescens plant has faded to such an extent that it is 
246 quite impossible to determine the original color of its flowers; the author 
is not therefore in a position to establish its identity with A. ponticum 
which it approaches more closely in its loose umbel and westerly origin. 
Neither can he, in view of these considerations, identify A. gracilescens 
with A. Fominianum. 

All this obliges the author to retain for the time being all the three 
species as distinct, while drawing the attention of Caucasian botanists to 
the foregoing statements. See also the author's note to A. Fominianum. 

167. A. erubescens C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII (1849) 242.— 

A. rudbaricum Boiss. et Buhse in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XII 
(1860)215; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 240. — A. rotundum ssp. 
gramineum Miscz. in herb. — Exs. : PI. or. exs . No. 32. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, (0.5)- 1-1. 5 cm thick; outer tunics brown to 
grayish-brown, coriaceous, splitting; separated into fibers in upper part; 
tunics of replacement bulb purplish-tawny; bulblets few, small, brown, 
nearly smooth; scape 20-40 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 3 or 4, not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, smooth or 
scabrous -margined, 2-5 mm broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe 
early deciduous, as long as the umbel, the beak half as long to nearly as 
long as the blade; umbel without bulblets, spherical or rarely hemispherical, 
dense, commonly many-flowered; pedicels subtended by bracteoles, 
unequal, the peripheral half as long again as or rarely shorter than the 



1920 



190 



perianth, the central to 3 times as long as perianth; segments of the 
campanulate perianth rose, with a purple nerve, 5-7 mm long, acute, 
scabrous, the outer lanceolate, sometimes slightly longer than the oblong 
linear segments, carinate, more or less crenate on the keel, sometimes 
with slightly reflexed tips; filaments two-thirds to three-quarters as long 
as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, slightly 
ciliate at base, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner as broad at base 
as perianth segments, 3-cleft, the central segment one-fourth to one-third 
the length of undivided part and one -third to one -half as long as the lateral 
segments; style included; capsule valves broadly oval, ca. 5 mm long. 
June- July. 

Meadows and among shrubs. — European part: Crim. (rare); Caucasus: 
Cisc; Dag., E. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr. : N. Persia. Described from 
Dag.: Kuba. Type in Berlin. 

168. A. rotundum L. Sp. pi. (1762)423; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 164 (p.p.); 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 233; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 487 (p. p. ). — A. cilicicum 
Boiss. Diagn. pi or. I, 7 (1846) 115; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 242.— 
A. rotundum ssp. s c o r o p r as o i d e s Miscz. in herb. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-2 cm thick; outer tunics brown to blackish- 
brown, coriaceous, splitting, more or less separated into fibers in upper 
247 part: tunics of replacement bulb blackish-brown; bulblets rather numerous, 
small, brown, nearly smooth; scape 20-50 cm long, covered to l/3 with 
smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, 
scabrous- or smooth-margined, 2-5-(7) mm broad, much shorter than 
the scape; spathe early deciduous-, slightly longer than the umbel, the beak 
about as long as the blade; umbel without bulblets, spherical, rarely 
hemispherical, dense, often compact to subcapitate; pedicels subtended 
by bracteoles, as long as to rarely twice the length of perianth, the central 
ones twice as long to rarely 5 times as long as perianth; segments of the 
broadly campanulate perianth ca. 5 mm long, subequal, scabrous, the outer 
dark purple, with a darker nerve, carinate, more or less crenate on the 
keel, oblong, obtuse to subobtuse, the inner paler and often nearly white, 
with a purple nerve, elliptic, very obtuse; filaments three-quarters as long 
as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at 
base, the outer triangular -subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth 
segments, 3-cleft, the central segment one -fourth to one-third the length 
of the oblong-triangular undivided part and two-fifths as long as the lateral 
segments; style included. June -July. 

European part: Bl., Crim; Caucasus: Cisc, E., W. and S. Transc, 
Tal. Gen. distr. : Centr. and S. Eur., Asia Minor, N. Iran. Described 
from S. Europe. 

Note. A somewhat forced attempt is here made to distinguish species 
within A. rotundum s. 1. The author distinguishes these species chiefly 
by the color and shape of perianth segments. Because of the nature of the 
mostly badly collected material, he has been unable to make use of such 
very important characters in the systematics of alliums as bulb tunics and 
bulblets. A most substantial difficulty also consists in the almost complete 
lack of ecological data on the labels of Crimean and Caucasian material. 

It is very likely that A. rotundum s. 1. forms various local races in 
the Crimea and the Caucasus. The study of these forms can be successfully 
attempted only with specially collected material. 



191 



169. A. jajlae Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 126.— 
A. rotundum ssp. melleum Miscz. in herb. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 - 1 .5 cm thick; outer tunics grayish-brown; 
subcoriaceous, separating into fibers in upper part; tunics of replacement 
bulb blackish-brown; bulblets few, small, brown, nearly smooth; scape 
20-40 cm long, covered to 1/3-1/2 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 3-5, 
not fistulous, linear-canaliculate, scabrous-margined, 3-5 mm broad, 
much shorter than the scape; spathe early deciduous, twice as long as the 
umbel, the beak somewhat longer than blade; umbel without bulblets, 
248 spherical, dense, often subcapitate; pedicels subtended by bracteoles, 
unequal, the peripheral about as long as or slightly longer than perianth, 
the central to 3 times as long; segments of the ovate -campanulate perianth 
rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, subequal, ca. 5 mm long, scabrous, 
the outer carinate, crenate on the keel, oblong, acutish or obtusish, the 
inner oblong-ovate, obtuse to subobtuse; filaments about two-thirds to 
three-quarters as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, ciliate at base, the outer triangular-subulate, the inner as broad 
at base as perianth segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment one-fourth to 
one-third the length of the oblong-triangular undivided part and two-fifths 
as long as the lateral segments; style included; capsule valves broadly 
ovate, ca. 3 mm long, scarcely emarginate. June -July. 

Mountains . — European part: Crim. ; Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. 
Gen. distr. : Asia Minor. Described from Crimea, Nikitskaya Yaila. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. I distinguish this species within A. rotundum s.l. chiefly 
by the compact subcapitate rose -flowered umbels. It might possibly be 
more correct to regard all the Crimeo-Caucasian rose-flowered material 
of this cycle as a separate species, irrespective of umbel compactness. 

170. A. Waldsteinii Don. Mon. (1826)17. — A. rotundum Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV (1853), 164 (p.p.); Shmal'g. Fl. II, 487 (p. p. ).— 

A. paterfamilias Boiss. in Diagn. pi. or. nov. II, 4 (1859) 114 (?). 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick, outer tunics brown, coriaceous, 
splitting; tunics of replacement bulb dark purple; bulblets numerous, 
small, blackish-purple; scape (30)-40-70 cm long, covered to l/3 or nearly 
to the middle with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 4 or 5, not fistulous, linear, 
canaliculate, smooth or scabrous -margined, 3-7- (10) mm broad, much 
shorter than the scape; spathe early deciduous, slightly longer than the 
umbel, the beak as long to half as long again as blade; fruiting umbel 
spherical or rarely hemispherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
subtended by bracteoles, unequal, the peripheral half as long again to twice 
as long, the central 3-5 times as long as perianth, rarely in depauperate 
specimens the peripheral as long and the central twice as long as perianth; 
segments of the ovate -pyramidal perianth dark purplish-violet with a darker 
nerve, (4)- 5 mm long, subequal, scabrous, the outer carinate, crenate 
on the keel, oblong, acute, the inner oblong-ovate, acutish to obtusish or 
251 mucronate; filaments two-thirds to three-quarters as long as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate, the outer 
triangular -subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth segments, 
3 -cleft, the central segment one -third to one-fourth the length of the oblong- 
triangular undivided part and half as long as the lateral segments; style 



192 



(249) 




Plate XV 

1. Allium alaicum Vved., la) portion of perianth.- 2. A . C a nd o 1 le a n u m Alb.; 2a) portion of 
perianth.- 3. A . m onophy Hum Vved.; 3a) portion of perianth.- 4. A. vert i c i 11a tu m Rgl.; 
4a) capsule; 4b) lower part of leaves. 



193 



included; capsule valves suborbicular, ca. 4 mm long, scarcely emarginate. 
June- July. 

Meadows and slopes, often as weed. — European part: U. V., V.-Ka., 
U. Dnp., M. Dnp., V.-Don, Transv., Bl., Crim., L. Don; L. V. ; Caucasus: 
Cisc, Dag., E., W. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Centr. and S. (?)Eur. 
Described from Hungary. 

171. A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh. , Fl. Kavk, I (1928) 204. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; outer tunics light brown, 

subcoriaceous, separating into fibers especially at the top; tunics of 
replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets few, small, yellowish, lustrous, 
nearly smooth; scape 15-30 cm long, covered to l/3 with leaf sheaths; 
leaves 3 or 4, not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, scabrous, ca. 3 mm 
broad, much shorter than the scape; spathe deciduous, slightly shorter than 
the umbel, the beak about one -third the length of blade; umbel without 
bulblets, spherical or rarely hemispherical, densely many -flowered; 
pedicels subequal, half as long again to twice as long as perianth, subtended 
by bracteoles; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth nearly white, 
with a prominent dingy purple nerve, subequal, 5 mm long, acute, very 
scabrous, the outer carinate, crenate on the keel, oblong-lanceolate, the 
inner oblong-ovate; filaments slightly shorter than perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, slightly ciliate at base, the outer 
triangular -lanceolate, the inner about as broad at base as perianth 
segments, 3-cleft, the central segment about one-third the length of the 
ovate -triangular undivided part and half as long as the lateral segments; 
style included; capsule valves suborbicular, ca. 4 mm long. June. 
Dry rocky places. — Caucasus: Tal. Endemic. 

172. A. pseudoampeloprasum Miscz. ex Gross., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 
204 et in herb.'. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 2 cm thick; outer tunics. . .; tunics of 
replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets numerous, elongated, yellowish, 
lustrous, smooth; scape 50-60 cm long, covered to l/3 with smooth leaf 
sheaths; leaves 5, not fistulous, linear, canaliculate, smooth, 6-7 mm 
broad; spathe early deciduous; umbel without bulblets, spherical densely 
many-flowered; pedicels unequal, the central about twice as long as the 
peripheral, many times as long as perianth, subtended by numerous 
252 bracteoles; segments of the ovoid perianth rosy with a dingy purple nerve, 
3.5 mm long, acute, scabrous, the outer lanceolate, longer than the 
oblong- lanceolate inner segments; filaments about twice as long as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the outer 
triangular -subulate, the inner 3-cleft, scarcely broader at base than 
perianth segments, the central segment the length of the oblong-triangular 
undivided part and scarcely longer than the lateral segments; style 
conspicuously exserted; capsule valves broadly elliptic, scarcely 
emarginate, ca. 4 mm long. June -July. 

Dry clay slopes. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Shorbulag near Erivan. Type in Leningrad. 

173. A. atroviolaceum Boiss. Diagn. pi. Or. nov. I 7 (1846) 112; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V (1884) 240. — A. ampeloprasum var. atroviolaceum Rgl. 



194 



in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 54; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 488. — A. at r o vi o 1 a c e um var. 
caucasicum Somm. et Lev. in A.H.P. XVI (1900) 427. — 
A. ampeloprasum auct. — Exs.: HFR No. 1191; Herb. Fl. As. Med. 
No. 332. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, I2-22 cm thick; outer tunics grayish- 
brown, fibrous, obscurely reticulate, clasping the scape base to high up; 
tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets numerous, drab or yellowish, 
dull; scape 60-100 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/2 with smooth leaf sheaths; 
leaves 4 or 5, broadly linear, 2-10 mm broad, not fistulous, scabrous 
at margin and on the keel, attenuate toward apex, shorter than the scape; 
spathe soon deciduous, the beak several times the length of blade; umbel 
without bulblets, spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels unequal, 
the central twice as long, 3-6 times the length of perianth, the peripheral 
subtended by bracteoles; segments of the ovoid-campanulate perianth dark 
purplish-violet, rarely dingy greenish, subequal, 3-4 mm long, lustrous, 
obtuse, the outer carinate, more or less scabrous, oblong-ovate, the 
inner ovate; filaments one -fourth to one -half as long again as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, the 
outer entire, triangular-subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth 
segments, 3-cleft, the central segment about one-half to two-thirds the 
length of the undivided part and one-half to two-thirds as long as the lateral 
segments; style included; capsule slightly exceeding the perianth. 
June -August. 

Dry slopes, rocks, and among field crops. — European part: Crim.: 
Caucasus: Cisc, Dag, E., W. and S. Transc; Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., 
Syr D. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from vicinity of Shiraz. Cotype in 
Leningrad. 

174. A. leucanthum C. Koch, in Linnaea 22 (1849) 240.— 
A. ampeloprasum var. leucanthum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 164; 
253 Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 232. — A. f i r m ot un i c at um var. album 

Grossh. in Grossh. et Schischk. PI. or. exs. (1924) No. 5. — Exs: : I.e. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 2-3 cm thick; outer tunics grayish- 
brown, fibrous; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets numerous, 
yellowish, dull; scape 50-120 cm long, covered to 1/4-1/3 with smooth 
leaf sheaths; leaves 4-7, broadly linear, not fistulous, carinate, 3-9 mm 
broad, scabrous, much shorter than the scape; spathe early deciduous; 
umbel without bulblets, subspherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels 
unequal, the central twice as broad, 2-8 times the length of perianth, the 
peripheral subtended by bracteoles, the central ebracteolate; segments of 
the ovoid-campanulate perianth white with a green nerve, 3-3.5 mm long, 
obtuse to acutish, the inner elliptic, the outer carinate, scabrous, oblong- 
ovate; filaments one -fourth as long again as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate, the outer entire triangular subulate, 
the inner somewhat broader at base than perianth segments, 3-cleft, the 
central segment two-thirds as long as the lateral segments and two-thirds 
the length of the undivided part; style exserted; capsule slightly exceeding 
the perianth. June -July. 

Dry places and among field crops. — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. 
Endemic (?). Described from Shirvan Steppe. Type in Berlin. 

Note. Closely related to A. atroviolaceum and needs further study. 



195 



175. A. ampeloprasum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 294; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 
232 (exclus. var. p\).-Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1848) f. 1072.- 
Exs. : Soc. Etude Fl- Fr.-Helv. No. 1546. ; 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 2-4 cm thick; outer tunics almost papery, 
slightly fibrous; tunics of replacement bulb yellowish; bulblets numerous, 
yellowish, finely furrowed underneath the coat, rather dull; scape 50-80 cm 
long, covered to l/3 with smooth leaf sheaths; leaves 6-9, broadly linear, 
not fistulous, 5-10 mm broad, carinate, smooth or scabrous-margined, 
much shorter than the scape; spathe early deciduous; umbel without bulblets, 
spherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels unequal, the central twice as 
long, 4-8 times the length of perianth, subtended by bracteoles; segments 
of the broadly ovoid -campanulate perianth rose, ca. 5 mm long, oblong, 
acutish, scabrous, the outer carinate; filaments barely exceeding the 
perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, ciliate at base, 
the outer entire, triangular-subulate, the inner as broad at base as perianth 
segments, 3 -cleft, the central segment half as long as the lateral segments 
and the oblong -triangular undivided part; style exserted; capsule scarcely 
exceeding the perianth. June. 
254 A weed. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (southern piedmonts of Kugitang). 
Gen. distr.: Atl. Eur., Centr. Eur., W. Med., Bal.-As. Min., Iran. 
Described from the East and from England. 

(176) A. porrum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 294. — A. ampeloprasum var. 
porrum Rgl. inA.H.P. 111(1875)54; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 488.- Ic; 
Syreishch., 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 237. 

Annual; bulb without or with few bulblets; scape arising from the center 
of the bulb; leaves linear-lanceolate; spathe long-beaked; umbel large, 
spherical; perianth whitish or rarely rosy, with slightly scabrous segments; 
filaments barely exceeding the perianth segments, the inner 3 -cleft, the 
central segment half the length of the undivided part. A cultivated plant. 

Economic importance. Cultivated chiefly in the European part for the 
edible scape bases, mostly as a truck crop in the vicinity of large towns. 



Section MOLIUM Don. Mon. (1826) 72.— Bulb solitary, without rhizome, 
globose or ovoid; leaf sheaths usually buried; leaves always flat; pedicels 
ebracteolate; perianth segments 1 -nerved; filaments entire or cuspidate, 
the cusps short or long, but never exceeding the anthers; seeds angular. 

177. A. monanthum Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Petersb. XXXI (1887) 109.— 
Ic: Kom., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kraya I (1931) 365, t. 112, f. 3. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 0.5-1 cm thick; tunics grayish-brown, almost 
papery; scape 5-15 cm long, one -half to two-thirds as long as the leaves, 
slender, weak, enveloped at base together with leaves by a hyaline sheath; 
leaves 1 or 2, linear, 2-4-8 mm broad, gradually narrowed toward both 
ends, subacute; spathe scarious, sometimes colored, acuminate, slightly 
shorter than the umbel; umbel l-2-(3)-flowered; pedicels shorter than 
to equaling the perianth, slightly thickened and enlarged under the flower; 
segments of the broadly campanulate perianth rose, 4-5 mm long, oblong, 
obtusish; filaments three-quarters as long as perianth segments, connate 
and adnate to perianth l/3, triangular -subulate; style included; stigma 
3-lobed; ovules 6. April-May. 



196 



Grassy mountain slopes and woods. — Far East: Uss. — Gen. distr. : 
Jap.-Ch. Described from the Sidemi River. Type in Leningrad. 

178. A. paradoxum (MB.) Don. Mon. (1826) 72; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV 
(1853) 186; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 257; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 491. — Scilla 
paradoxa MB. Fl. taur. cauc. Ill (1819) 267. — Exs. : Herb. Fl. cauc. 
No. 163. 

Perennial; bulb globose, ca. 1 cm thick; tunics grayish-black, papery; 
255 scape sharply triquetrous, 20-30 cm long, enveloped at base together with 
leaves by a leafless sheath; leaf solitary, linear, 0.5-1-2.5 cm broad, 
carinate, gradually narrowed from the middle to base, subacute; spathe 
acuminate, about two-thirds the length of blade; umbel 2-5-10-flowered, 
often bearing bulblets; pedicels half as long again as perianth; flowers 
nodding; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth ca. 10 mm long, 
subequal, oblong, acute; filaments one -third as long as perianth, connate 
and adnate to perianth to 1/4 their length, triangular -subulate, subequal; 
style included; stigma 3-lobed; ovules 6; capsule half as long as perianth. 
May. 

Shady woods. — Caucasus: Dag., E. Transc, Tal. ; Centr. Asia: 
Mtn. Turkm. (W. Kopet Dagh). Gen. distr.: N. Persia. Described from 
Georgia. Type in Leningrad. 

179. A. Candolleanum Alb. in Tr. Tifl. Bot. Sada I (1895)240. 
Perennial; bulb subglobose, 0.75-1.5 cm broad; tunics gray, papery; 

scape terete, slender, 20-30 cm long; leaves 2 or 3, narrowly linear, 
3-7 mm broad, gradually narrowed toward both ends, nearly smooth- 
margined, acute, slightly shorter than the scape; spathe about one -half 
to two-thirds as long as the umbel, acuminate; umbel with or without 
bulblets, fasciculate, few -flowered; pedicels unequal, two-thirds as long 
to slightly shorter than perianth, ebracteolate; flowers subnutant; segments 
of the broadly campanulate perianth to subspherical perianth white suffused 
with rose, 10-12 mm long, obtuse, the outer elliptic, the inner oblanceolate- 
elliptic; filaments about half as long as perianth, at base connate and adnate 
to perianth, triangular -subulate, the inner half as broad again; style 
included; ovules 6. June. (Plate XV, Figure 2 a). 

Subalpine and alpine meadows. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Kutysh. 

180. A. oreophilum C.A.M. in Verz. Cauc. (1831)37.; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV (1853) 188. — A. platystemon Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
XV (1842) 514. — A. O s t r o vs ki anu m Rgl. inA.H.P. VII (1881) 545. — 
A. oreophilum var. O s t r o vs ki anum Rgl. inA.H.P. X (1887) 356.— 
Ic: Rgl. in Gartenfl. (1873) t. 775, f. 1-3.— Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. 
No. 62. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid -globose, 1-1. 5 -(2) cm thick; tunics gray, papery; 
scape 5-20 cm long, covered to 1/2-3/4 with a buried sheath; leaves 2, 
linear, 2-8 mm broad, scabrous -margined, greatly exceeding the umbel; 
spathe one-half to two-thirds as long as the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel 
fasciculate or often hemispherical to spherical, relatively few-flowered, 
loose; pedicels subequal, half as long as to often somewhat longer than 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate perianth 



197 



256 rosy-purple with a darker nerve, 8-11 mm long, oval, obtuse or often 
acute; filaments one-third to one-half as long as perianth segments, connate 
and adnate to perianth for half their length, the outer triangular -lanceolate, 
the inner broadly triangular; style included; stigma nearly 3-lobed; ovules 
6; capsule ca. 4 mm in diameter. July-August. 

Gravelly slopes in the upper mountain zone. — Caucasus: Dag.; Centr. 
Asia: Dzu.-Tarb., Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Endemic. Described from Dagestan, 
Tufandag. Type in Leningrad. 

181. A. gypsaceum M. Pop. et Vved. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Petrop. 
V (1924) 92. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid- globose, 1-1 .5 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; 
scape 7-20 cm long, covered to the middle with buried leaf sheaths; leaves 
2 or 3, linear, 2-5 mm broad, scabrous -margined, greatly exceeding the 
scape; spathe about half as long to nearly as long as the umbel; umbel 
fasciculate -hemispherical, hemispherical or rarely spherical, relatively 
many-flowered, dense; pedicels equal, as long to I2 -2 times as long as 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the campanulate perianth dingy purple, 
purple -nerved, more intensely colored toward apex, 10-11 mm long, the 
outer segments oblong-linear, acute, slightly longer and broader than the 
oblanceolate crenate obtusish inner segments; filaments half as long as 
perianth, connate and adnate to perianth for half their length, scarcely 
united above, the outer lance -subulate, the linear broader, triangular; 
ovary sessile, smooth, 6-ovuled. May-June. (Plate XVI, Figure la). 

Chiefly mottled outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (sporadically in 
S. part). Endemic. Described from Kugitang mountains. Type in Tashkent. 

182. A. helicophyllum Vved in Bull. Univ. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 127. 
Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics papery, blackish; 

scape stumpy, stout, 5-8 mm thick, 10-20 cm long; leaves 5 or 6, linear, 
ca. 3 mm broad, glaucous, glabrous, scabrous -margined, shorter than 
the umbel, the upper third spirally twisted; spathe one -fourth as long as 
the umbel, acuminate; umbel fasciculate -hemispherical or hemispherical, 
loosely many-flowered; pedicels unequal, the central ones up to twice as long, 
many times the length of perianth (to 9 cm long), stout, thickened below the 
flower; segments of the stellate perianth pale rosy-violet, with a prominent 
green or dingy green nerve, linear-oblong, obtusish, 5 mm long, recurved 
after anthesis, more or less twisted; filaments slightly shorter than perianth 
segments, at base connate and united to perianth, slightly united above, 
subulate from triangular base, the base of inner filaments half as broad 

257 again; ovary sessile, scabrous, 6-7-ovuled; capsule globose, ca. 5 mm 
in diameter. May- June. 

Gravelly slopes and mottled outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. 
(Kara-Kala, Prokhladnoe, Sulyuklyu). Endemic. Described from vicinity 
of Kara-Kala. Type in Tashkent. 

183. A. Sergii Vved. in Bull. Univ. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 127. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 cm thick; tunics gray, papery, enclosing 

1 or 2 large yellowish-tawny smooth dull bulblets; scape 10-12 cm long, 
slender, covered to 1/3-1/2 with a buried leaf sheath; leaves commonly 



198 



solitary, very rarely 2, narrowly linear, (l) 2-3 (4) mm broad, 
canaliculate, glaucous, helicoid, smooth or scabrous -margined, glabrous, 
equaling the umbel; spathe short -acuminate, one-third to one-half as long 
as the umbel; umbel commonly hemispherical, rarely fasciculate, loosely 
few -flowered; pedicels 3-4 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate, the 
outer slightly ascending; segments of the stellate perianth pale rose with a 
purple nerve, 4 mm long, lanceolate, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; 
filaments barely shorter than perianth, at base connate and adnate to 
perianth, equal, subulate from triangular base; ovary sessile, scabrous, 
7-9-ovuled. May. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Kara-tau). Endemic. Described 
from Uch-uzen. Type in Moscow. 

184. A. Eugenii Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 127. 

Perennial; bulbs ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 
covered to about the middle with 2 sheaths, of these one leafless; leaf 
solitary, linear, 2-7 mm broad, greatly exceeding the umbel, the lower 
part beneath and the aerial part of sheath covered with retrorse, the upper 
and distal part of the blade glabrous; spathe apparently beakless, much 
shorter than the umbel; umbel hemispherical to subspherical, relatively 
few -flowered, loose; pedicels many times the length of perianth, ascending, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth rose, with a prominent 
purple nerve, 4 mm long, linear-oblong, obtuse, at length recurved and 
twisted; filaments three-quarters as long as perianth segments, at base 
adnate to perianth, slightly united above, subulate from broadly triangular 
base, the base of inner filaments somewhat broader; capsule subglobose, 
ca. 3 mm in diameter. 

Gravelly slopes, at altitudes of 1500-1700 m. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. 
Turkm. (Bol'shoi Balkhan). Endemic. Described from mountains of Bol'shoi 
Balkhan Range: Kosha-kudzhuk. Type in Leningrad. 

258 185. A. verticillatum Rgl. inA.H.P. VI (1880) 518. — A. Pallasii 

var. verticillatum Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 102. — Exs. : Herb. Fl. 
As. Med. No. 315. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1 .5 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 
10-2 cm long, covered to l/4 with 1 or 2 approximate sheaths; leaf shorter 
than the scape, dissected down to sheath into 3-9 filiform furrowed scabrous 
pseudoverticillate segments; spathe short-beaked, slightly shorter than to 
as long as the umbel; umbel subspherical or hemispherical, relatively 
many -flowered, loose; pedicels unequal, the central sometimes up to twice 
as long, 3-7 times the length of perianth, the peripheral ascending, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth rose, with a purple nerve, 
ca. 4 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; 
filaments slightly exceeding the perianth, at base adnate to perianth, united 
above into a ring, subulate from triangular base; ovary subsessile, 
scabrous, 8-10-ovuled; capsule globose, ca. 3 mm in diameter. May-June. 
(Plate XV, Figure 4 a-b). 

Small-grained and gravelly slopes in foothills and lower mountain zone. — 
Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (W.); T. Sh. (W. and SW). Endemic. Described 
from Kara-tau mountains. Type in Leningrad. 



199 



186. A. aroides M. Pop. et Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 
(1934) 128. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics grayish, coriaceous, 
splitting, enclosing a solitary large lustrous yellowish bulblet; scape 
ca. 20 cm long, shorter than leaves; leaves 2, linear, 0.5-1 cm broad, 
scabrous at margin and on veins, withered at anthesis; spathe slightly 
shorter than to as long as the umbel, the beak long and herbaceous 
(especially when young); umbel hemispherical or spherical, relatively 
few-flowered, loose; pedicels subequal, 3-5 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth greenish (rose -tinged in 
the herbarium), with a dingy purple or dingy green nerve, ca. 4 mm long, 
linear-oblong, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; filaments barely 
shorter than perianth segments, at base adnate to perianth, united above 
into a ring, subulate from triangular base, the base of inner filaments up 
to twice as broad; ovary subsessile, 6- or 7-ovuled. May. 

Stony and small-grained slopes in the lower mountain zone.— Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. (sporadically in the W. part). Endemic. Described from 
Zeravshan Range: Maidan-ata. Type in Tashkent. 

Note. Readily distinguishable from other species related to 
A. verticillatum by the coriaceous bulb tunics and the long herbaceous 
beak of the spathe, reminiscent when young of the unopened spathe of aroids. 

187. A. monophyllum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 128. 
Perennial; bulb globose, 1-1 .5 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 

buried in the soil nearly up to the umbel, 5-10 cm long, much shorter than 
the leaf; leaf solitary, linear-lanceolate, 3-11 mm broad, acute, scabrous- 
margined; spathe two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than the umbel, 
short -acuminate; umbel hemispherical, rather few -flowered; pedicels 
equal, slightly exceeding to half as long again (or even twice as long) as 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the substellate perianth dingy violet 
or rose-violet, with a darker nerve, 5-6 mm long, linear, obtusish, erect 
after anthesis; filaments two-thirds as long as perianth segments, at base 
connate and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate; capsule (immature) 
two-thirds as long as perianth. July. (Plate XV, Figure 3, a). 

Stony places on the summits of central Kopet Dagh. — Centr. Asia: 
Mtn. Turkm. Gen. -distr. : N. Iran — Khurasan. Described from Iondar. 
Type in Leningrad. 

188. A. Derderianum Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1975) 242.— 

A. h aem ant hoide s var. lanceolatum Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 276. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; 
scape rather stout, 5-10 cm long, shorter than the leaves, buried in the 
soil up to the middle; leaves 2, linear-lanceolate, 5-10 mm broad, 
scabrous -margined; spathe half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate; 
umbel hemispherical or spherical, many-flowered; pedicels about half 
as long to half as long again (in fruit to 2 2 times as long) as perianth; 
segments of the substellate perianth white, with a violet nerve, 8-13 mm 
long, linear, acute, erect after anthesis, rigid; filaments one -third to one -half 
as long as perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, 
triangular -subulate; capsule half as long as the perianth. May. 



200 



Dry slopes —Caucasus: S. Transc. (?). Gen. distr. : Iran. Described 
from N. Iran. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Reported for S. Transcaucasia, from which the author has not 
seen any specimens. 

189. A. Alexejanum Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 244. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. 
(1975) t.XVI, f. 4-6. 

Perennial; bulbs subglobose, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 
scape rather stout, 10-20 cm long, shorter than the leaves, buried in the 
soil up to the middle; leaves (l) 2 or 3, lanceolate, oblong to elliptic, 
2-5 cm broad; spathe one-third to one-half as long as the umbel, short- 
acuminate; umbel hemispherical or rarely spherical, many-flowered; 
260 pedicels (2)-3 — 5 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate ; segments of 
the substellate perianth rose, with a purple nerve, 7-8 mm long, linear- 
lanceolate, acute, erect after anthesis, rigid; filaments about two-thirds 
as long to slightly shorter than perianth segments, at base connate and 
adnate to perianth, the outer subulate, the inner half as broad again, 
triangular -subulate; capsule about half as long as the perianth. May- July. 

Gravelly and stony slopes in the middle and upper mountain zone. — 
Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from Zeravshan Valley. 
Type in Leningrad. 

190. A. akaka Gmel. ex Roem. et Schult. Syst. VIII (1830) 1132; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 187; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 275. - A. latifolium Jaub. 
et Sp. 111. Or. II (1844-46) tab. 103. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1.5-2.5 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 
scape rather stout, 5-15 cm long, shorter than the leaves, buried in the 
soil up to the middle; leaves (l) 2, oblong to elliptic, scabrous -margined, 
2-6 cm broad; spathe one-third to one-half as long as the umbel, short- 
acuminate; umbel fasciculate-hemispherical or hemispherical, many- 
flowered; pedicels equal, slightly exceeding to half as long again (in fruit 
2-3 times as long) as the perianth; segments of the substellate perianth 
linear, 7-8 mm long, acutish, rosy with a darker nerve, erect after 
anthesis, rigid; filaments half as long as perianth segments, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, triangular-subulate; capsule half as long as the 
perianth. May- June. 

Dry stony places. — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr.: Arm. 
Kurd., Iran. Described from Gilan. 

191. A. materculae Bordz. in Zap. Kiev. O-va Est. XXV, 1 (1915)73. 
Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics gray to blackish, 

papery; scape stout, 10-30 cm long, shorter or longer (?) than the leaves, 
buried at base in the soil; leaves 2-4, glaucous, linear-lorate, 1-2 cm 
broad, scabrous -margined; spathe half as long as the umbel, short - 
acuminate; umbel fasciculate, many-flowered; pedicels unequal, 2-8 times 
the length of perianth, lilac, with a reddish nerve, 5-9 mm long, linear, 
acutish, erect after anthesis, rigid; filaments slightly shorter than perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, triangular -subulate; 
capsule about half as long as the perianth April-May. 

Dry places. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Nakhichevan. Type in Kiev. 



201 



261 192. A. Christophii Trautv. A.H.P. IX (1884) 268. - A. albopilosum 
Wright, in Gard. Chron. XXXIV (1903) 34. - Ic . : Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 

t. VII, f. 1. 

Perennial; bulb globose, ca. 2 cm thick; tunics gray, papery; scape 
rather stout, 5-15 cm thick, 15-40 cm long, buried at base in the soil, 
about as long as the leaves; leaves 3-7, lorate, 5-25 mm broad, 
glaucescent, erect, covered beneath especially at margin with stiff spreading 
hairs, very rarely glabrate; spathe (one -fourth) one -third to one -half as 
long as the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel fasciculate -hemispherical, 
rarely spherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, slightly 
exceeding to 3-5-several times the length of perianth segments, 
ebracteolate; segments of the substellate perianth purplish-violet or rosy- 
violet, 10-15-(18) mm long, linear-triangular, very acute, erect after 
anthesis, rigid; filaments half as long as perianth, at base connate and 
adnate to perianth, equal, linear-subulate from enlarged base; capsule 
ca. 5 mm in diameter. May-June. 

Soft mountain slopes, chiefly in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Mtn. Turkm. Endemic. Described from vicinity of Ashkhabad. Type in 
Leningrad. 

193. A. Bodeanum Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 238. - A. Walteri Rgl. 
in A.H.P. X (1887) 357, t. VII, f. 3. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; scape 
relatively slender (not more than 5 mm thick), 10-20 cm long, buried at 
base in the soil, shorter than the leaves; leaves l-2-(4), linear-lanceolate, 
1-2 cm broad, spreading, glabrous, sometimes scabrous at margin and 
beneath; spathe half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel 
fasciculate or hemispherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
2-3 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the substellate 
perianth rosy-violet, 10-14 mm long, linear-triangular, acute, erect after 
anthesis; filaments two-thirds as long as perianth segments, at base connate 
and adnate to perianth, equal, rather abruptly linear -subulate from enlarged 
base. May. 

Gravelly and stony slopes in the steppe belt. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. 
Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Persia. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Very closely related to A. Christophii and in need of further 
study. The position of an allium collected by Chernyakovskaya in Seamasur, 
closely related to both species and mentioned in the Flora of Turkmenistan 
(II (1932) 290), has not so far been clarified. 

194. A. brachyscapum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 
129. — Ic: Fl. Turkmen. II, Figure 104. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics gray, papery; scape 

262 ca. 10 cm long, stumpy, buried in the soil to the middle or nearly up to 
the umbel; leaves (l) 2, linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 1-2 cm 
broad, scabrous-margined, greatly exceeding the umbel; spathe about half 
as long as the umbel, beakless; umbel hemispherical, densely many- 
flowered; pedicels subequal, (2)-3-5 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth rosy-violet, with a dark 
or greenish nerve, 5-6 mm long, lanceolate, the outer acutish, the inner 
obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; filaments slightly exceeding to 



202 



about twice as long as perianth segments, connate, distinct above, linear- 
subulate, the inner slightly broader; ovary short-stipitate, scabrous. May. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Sulyuklyu). Endemic. 
Described from Sulyuklyu. Type in Tashkent. 

195. A. karataviense Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 243. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. 
turk. (1876) t. XVI, f. 1-3.— Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 59. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 2-6 cm thick; tunics blackish or grayish, 
papery; scape stumpy, 10-25 cm long, sometimes buried in the soil up to 
the middle, shorter than the leaves; leaves commonly 2, rarely 1 or 3, 
lanceolate or often oblong or subelliptic, 3-15 cm broad, smooth-margined; 
spathe two-thirds as long to slightly shorter than the umbel, short- 
acuminate; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
3-4 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate 
perianth light rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 5-7 mm long, linear, 
obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; filaments slightly exceeding the 
perianth segments; at base connate and adnate to perianth, united higher up, 
subulate from triangular base, the base of inner filaments half as broad 
again; ovary stipitate, scabrous; capsule obcordiform, ca. 8 mm in 
diameter. April-May. 

Loose calcareous screes in the lower mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (Alai Range), T. Sh. (W. Tien Shan). Endemic. Described from 
Kara-tau mountains: Bugun. Type in Leningrad. 

196. A. Mariae E. Bordz. in Zap. Kiev. O-va Est. XXV, I (1915)71. 

i 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, I2-2 cm long; scape terete, smooth, 15-35 cm 

long, covered at base or up to l/3 with leaf sheaths; leaves 2 or 3, narrowly 

linear, 2.5-8 mm broad, canaliculate, glaucous, scabrous at margin and 

often on the veins, about as long as the scape; spathe acuminate, as long 

as or slightly exceeding the umbel; umbel fasciculate or subhemispherical; 

pedicels 2-5 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; perianth segments 

vineous-red, with a brownish nerve, 3-4 mm long, linear-oblong, obtusish 

263 to acutish, at length recurved; filaments slightly exceeding the perianth 

segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, gradually attenuate from 

base; anthers blackish-vineous; ovary sessile, smooth; style slightly longer 

than stamens; capsule globose -ovoid to ovoid. May. 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from 

Nakhichevan, Chinabad. Type in Kiev. 

197. A. cardiostemon Fisch, et Mey. in Ind. Sem. Horti Petrop. VI 
(1840) 43; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV 188; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 282. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.5-1 -2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 
scape 20-40-(60) cm long, smooth, covered at base with leaf sheaths; 
leaves 2 or 3, linear-lanceolate to linear, 2-8 mm broad, more or less 
scabrous -margined, shorter than the stem, usually very much so; spathe 
short-acuminate, two-thirds as long to slightly shorter than the umbel; 
umbel fasciculate -hemispherical or subspherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels equal, 3-4 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments 
of the stellate perianth dark red, ca. 3 mm long, linear, obtuse, at length 
recurved and twisted; filaments barely shorter than perianth segments, 
at base connate and adnate to perianth, the outer subulate, the inner much 



203 



broader, 2 -toothed above the middle; ovary sessile, smooth; capsule ovoid 
to subglobose, 3-4 mm long. June-July. 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: E. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described 
frpm Nakhichevan: Koshadar. Type in Leningrad. 

198. A. Fetissovii Rgl. inA.H.P. V (1878) 631 . — A. simile Rgl. in 
A.H.P. (1887) 359. — A. t s c h i m g an i c u m B. Fedtsch., Rast. Turk. 
(1915) 237 p. p.- Ic. : Rgl. Gartenfl. (1879) t. 971, t. a-f. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics black, papery; scape 
40-65 cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 1 or 2, lorate, 2-15 mm 
broad, smooth- or obscurely scabrous-margined, much shorter than the 
scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel spherical 
or hemispherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 2-3 times 
the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth 
delicate, obscurely nerved, 5-7 mm long, linear, obtuse to subobtuse, 
at length recurved and twisted; filaments three-quarters as long as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, distinct above, the outer 
subulate from base, the inner subulate from a nearly square 2- to 4 -toothed 
or rarely triangular toothless base; ovary short-stipitate, scabrous; 
capsule ovoid to globose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. 
264 Loose-textured soils. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Alai Range), T. Sh. 

Endemic. Described from Alma Ata. 

Note. The author was in a position to compare live specimens of 
A. Fetissovii from Ugam (A. simile) and from Alma Ata. 
(A. Fetissovii s.s.). The Alma Ata plant is distinguished by smaller 
flowers, much narrower than the perianth segments of a somewhat different 
hue (they are rose and distinctly purple at base as against the rosy-violet 
perianth of the Ugam plants), the globose ovary and darker filaments. 
The Ugam specimens are altogether coarser and larger in all parts. I did 
not, however, have enough material to ascertain the consistency of these 
characters. 

199. A. dasyphyllum Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1925) No. 57. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid to globose -ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; tunics 

blackish, papery; scape 15-25- (35) cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves, 
scabrous due to short hairs; leaf solitary, linear, 2-3-(5) mm broad, 
scabrous due to short hairs, much shorter than the scape; spathe two-thirds 
as long as to slightly shorter than the umbel, short -acuminate, umbel 
fasciculate-hemispherical or hemispherical, relatively many-flowered, 
dense; pedicels equal, half as long again to twice as long as perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth white, with a prominent 
green nerve, 4 mm long, linear -lanceolate, acute, at length recurved and 
twisted; filaments barely exceeding the perianth segments, at base connate, 
united above into a ring, the outer subulate, the inner about 3 times as 
broad at base, subulate from an almost square and almost toothed base; 
ovary short-stipitate; scabrous; capsule subglobose, 4-5 mm long. July. 

Stony slopes in the upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (known 
only from the classical location: Aleksandrovskii Range: Uch-bulak). Type 
in Tashkent. 



204 



200. A. insufficiens Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 129. 
Perennial; bulb subglobose, 0.75-1.25 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 

scape slender, smooth, 20-30 cm long; leaves 3-6, narrowly linear, 
1-2 mm broad, ciliate -scabrous at margin, much shorter than the scape 
(apparently half as long); spathe short-acuminate, slightly shorter than the 
umbel; umbel fasciculate -spherical or hemispherical, relatively many- 
flowered, dense; pedicels equal, 2-3 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth apparently rosy-violet, with 
a darker nerve, 4-5 mm long, linear, obtuse, at length recurved and 
twisted; filaments about as long as perianth segments, at base adnate to 
265 perianth, distinct above, abruptly subulate from broadly triangular base, 
subequal; ovary sessile, smooth; capsule subglobose, ca. 3.5 mm in 
diameter. April-May. 

Mildly saline clay soils. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Kurgan-tyube, 
Tashbulak, Sarsaryak). Endemic. Described from vicinity of Kurgan-tyube. 
Type in Leningrad. 

201. A. robustum Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XIV (1841) 
853. — A. robustum var. alpestre Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. XV (1842) 513. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 
scape 40-60 cm long, inconspicuously nerved; leaves 2-4, linear, 2-10mm 
broad, smooth-margined, much shorter than the scape; spathe short - 
acuminate, two-thirds as long as to slightly shorter than the umbel; umbel 
hemispherical or subsphericaL densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
l2-2-(3) times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate 
perianth dark purple, with a darker nerve, ca. 5 mm long, linear- 
lanceolate, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; filaments as long as 
perianth segments, adnate at base to perianth, united above into a ring, 
subulate from triangular base, the base of inner filaments twice as broad; 
ovary subsessile, scabrous; capsule ovoid-globose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. 
May- June. 

Dry slopes .— Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. Endemic. Described from 
Tarbagatai: Chegarak-asu. Type in Leningrad. 

202. A. decipiens Fisch. ex Roem. et Schult. Syst. VII (1830) 1117; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 282; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 491; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 
632. — A. tulipifolium Ldb. Ic . pi. fl. Ross. II (1830) 13, t. 137; 

Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 187. — A. viridulum Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 20 (pro 
max. parte, quoad specimina autentica). —A. R o b o r o v s k i a nu m Rgl. 
inA.H.P. X (1887) 359, t. VIII, f. 4. — A. at r o pu r pu r e u m auct. 

Perennial; bulb globose-ovoid to globose, 0.75-1.5-2 cm thick; tunics 
blackish, papery; scape 20-50-(70) cm long, smooth; leaves 2-4-(6), 
linear to linear-lanceolate, (2)-5-20-(3) mm broad, smooth- or scabrous- 
margined, much shorter than the scape; spathe short -acuminate, 
hemispherical or subspherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 
2-6 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate 
perianth, pale rosy-violet or violet ( ? ), with a violet nerve, ca. 5 mm 
long, narrowly elliptic, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; filaments 
as long as perianth segments, adnate at base to perianth, slightly united 
above, subulate from triangular base, the base of inner filaments twice 



205 



as broad; ovary subsessile, scabrous; capsule ovoid, ca. 5 mm in 
diameter. May-June. 

266 Stony slopes, outcrops, solonetz soils, and sands. — European part: 
V.-Don, Transv., Bl., Crim., L. Don, L. V. ; Caucasus: Cisc; W. Siberia: 
U. Tob., Irt., Alt.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. Gen. distr. : Dzu.- 
Kash. Described from the area between the Dnieper and the Crimea. 

203. A. Severtzovii Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI 1 (1867) 453.- 
A. tschimganicum B. Fedtsch., Rast. Turk. (1915) 237 (p. p. ).— Exs. : 
Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 342. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 
35-85 cm long, furrowed by prominent nerves; leaves (l)-2-3, linear to 
linear-lanceolate, 5-20 mm broad, scabrous-margined, much shorter than 
the scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, short -acuminate; umbel 
hemispherical or rarely spherical, rather densely many-flowered; pedicels 
subequal, half as long again as the perianth, ebracteolate segments of the 
stellate perianth rose, with a violet nerve, ca. 4 mm long, linear, obtusish, 
at length recurved and twisted; filaments slightly shorter than to equaling 
the perianth, adnate to perianth at base, distinct above, subulate from 
triangular base, the base of inner filaments 2-3 times as broad; ovary 
short -stipitate; scabrous; capsule subglobose to ovoid, ca. 4 mm in 
diameter. June. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (W. Tien Shan). Endemic. 
Described from Kara-tau mountains. Type in Leningrad. 

204. A. Suvorovi Rgl. Gartenfl. (1881) 356, t. 1062, f. 4-5. — Ic: Rgl. 
Fl. turk. (1876) t. XVII, f. 5-7. Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 181 (sub 
A. Severtzovii). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm in diameter; tunics subcoriaceous, 
grayish, splitting, clasping the scape base; scape 30-100 cm long, 
inconspicuously nerved; leaves 2-6, lorate, 5-20 mm broad, scabrous- 
margined, glaucescent, much shorter than the scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, two-thirds as long as the umbel; umbel hemispherical or 
spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 2-5 times the length 
of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth rosy-violet, 
with a darker nerve, ca. 4 mm long, linear, obtuse, at length recurved 
and twisted; filaments slightly shorter and slightly longer than perianth 
segments adnate to perianth at base, distinct above, subulate from enlarged 
base, subequal; ovary subsessile, smooth; capsule broadly ovoid, ca. 
5 mm in diameter. May. 

Loosely textured soils in foothills, chiefly as weed in oases. — Centr. 
Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kushkinskii River), Syr D., Pam.-AL, T. Sh. 
Gen. distr.: Iran(?). Described from Dal'verzinskaya Steppe. 

267 205. A. grande Lipsky in A. H. P. XIII (1894) 343. — A. decipiens 
var. latissimum Lipsky in Zap. Kiev. O-va Est. XII, 2(1892)363; 
Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 491. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 2.5 cm broad; scape 70cm long (and 
longer), inconspicuously nerved; leaves 2-4, lorate, 3-5 cm broad, 
smooth-margined, much shorter than the scape; spathe half as long as to 
slightly shorter than the umbel, short-acuminate, umbel subspherical, 



206 



densely many -flowered; pedicels equal, 3-4 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth whitish-rose, obscurely 
nerved, lanceolate, acute, 6-7 mm long, recurved after anthesis; filaments 
barely shorter than perianth segments, adnate at base to perianth, distinct 
above, subulate from triangular base, the base of inner filaments half as 
broad again; ovary short -stipitate, smooth. May. 

Damp places among shrubs. — Caucasus: Dag. Endemic. Described 
from Makhach-Kala. Type in Leningrad. 

206. A. alaicum Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 19 (1934) 130. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-gray, 

papery, slightly splitting; scape 30-70 cm long, ribbed by prominent 
nerves, glabrous or covered with long retrorse hairs; leaves 1 or 2, linear- 
lanceolate to linear, 5-17 mm broad, acute, one-third to one-half as long 
as the scape, covered on both sides with long retrorse hairs, sometimes 
subvillous, rarely glabrate; spathe short -acuminate, two-fifths to one-half 
as long as the umbel; umbel fasciculate-hemispherical, rarely spherical, 
rather loosely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times the length of 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth apparently light 
violet, with a darker nerve, 6 mm long, linear, obtusish, at length recurved 
and twisted; filaments about as long as perianth segments, adnate at base 
to perianth, distinct, abruptly subulate from a short enlarged base, the base 
of inner filaments half as broad again; ovary short-stipitate; capsule ovoid- 
giobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. May- June. (Plate XV, Figure 1, a). 

Gravelly soils .— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Gul'cha, Aravan, Lyangar). 
Endemic. Described from Gul'cha. Type in Leningrad. 

207. A. stipitatum Rgl. in Gartenfl. (1881)355, t. 1062, f. 1-3. 
Perennial; bulb applanate -globose, 3-6 cm thick; tunics blackish, 

almost papery, enclosing a solitary large smooth bulblet; scape 60-150 cm 
long smooth; leaves 4-6, lorate, 2-4 cm broad, smooth-margined, hairy 
268 beneath, rarely glabrate; pedicels subequal, 3-6 times the length of 

perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth lilac, distinctly 
nerved, 9 mm long, gradually attenuate from base, acute, at length 
recurved and twisted; filaments as long as perianth segments, adnate at 
base to perianth, united above into a ring, rather gradually subulate from 
triangular base, the base of inner filaments twice as broad; ovary short- 
stipitate, scabrous; capsule applanate -globose, ca. 5 mm in diameter. 
May- June. 

Loosely-textured slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from Zeravshan Valley. Type in Leningrad. 

208. A. gultschense B. Fedtsch. inA.H.P. XXVIII (1908) 68. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 3-5 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 

scape robust, 90-150 cm long, smooth; leaves 5 or 6, lorate, 4-8 cm 
broad, smooth-margined, much shorter than the scape; spathe short - 
acuminate, two-thirds as long as the umbel; umbel spherical, densely 
many-flowered; pedicels unequal, the inner half as long again, 2-3 times 
the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth 
white, with a green nerve, 11 mm long, filiform -linear, gradually attenuate 
from base, at length recurved and twisted; filaments slightly shorter than 



207 



perianth segments, adnate at base to perianth, not connate, the outer 
subulate, the inner half as broad again, subulate from a nearly square 
2-toothed base; ovary sessile, scabrous; capsule globose, ca. 6 mm in 
diameter. May -June. 

Dry slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Alai 
Range), T. Sh. (Fergana Range). Endemic. Described from Alai Range, 
Gul'cha. Type in Leningrad. 

209. A. aflatunense B. Fedtsch. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. IV (1904) 917, 
cum tabula. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-6 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 
robust, 80-150 cm long, inconspicuously nerved, surrounded at base below 
and above ground level with leaf sheaths; leaves 6-8, lorate, the outer 
2-10 cm broad, glaucous, smooth-margined, much shorter than the scape; 
spathe slightly shorter than the umbel, short-acuminate; umbel subspherical, 
densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 2-4 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth light violet, with a darker 
nerve, 7-8 mm long, linear-lanceolate, acute, at length recurved and 
twisted; filaments slightly exceeding the perianth segments, adnate at base 
to perianth, distinct above, the outer subulate, the inner subulate from 
a nearly square base, the base of inner filaments half as broad again to 
269 nearly twice as broad; anthers violet; ovary stipitate, scabrous; capsule 
broadly ovoid, scabrous, ca. 5 mm in diameter. May. 

Upper and middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Central Tien 
Shan). Endemic. Described from Aflatun. Type in Leningrad. 

210. A. altissimum Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII (1884) 666, t. XXI, f. k.-m.- 
A. esjdianum Vved. in Fl. Turkm. 11(1932)282. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 3 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 
80-150 cm long, inconspicuously nerved; leaves 4-6, linear-lanceolate, 
sublorate, 2-4 cm broad, more or less green, nearly smooth-margined, 
much shorter than the scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, short- 
acuminate; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels unequal, 
the central up to half as long again, 4-6 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth violet, with a darker nerve, 
6-7 (8) mm long, linear-lanceolate, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; 
filaments as long as or slightly shorter than perianth segments, adnate at 
base to perianth, more or less united above, subulate from triangular base, 
the base of inner filaments twice as broad; ovary short-stipitate, scabrous; 
capsule obovoid, ca. 5 mm in diameter. April. 

Gullies. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described 
from Bal'dzhuan. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The author has not been able to find in herbaria any real 
differences between the Kopet Dagh and Pamir -Alai plants; but, on the 
other hand, all the material that he have examined differs from the authentic 
plant in having narrower and somewhat shorter perianth segments. A 
comparison of live plants from Fergana and Kopet Dagh is needed. 

Our species differs from A. jesdianum Boiss. et Buhse in parallel- 
margined perianth segments and the inconspicuous ribs of the scape. 



208 



211. A. taeniopetalum M. Pop. et Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 
19 (1934) 130. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-2 cm thick; scape 20-40 cm long, ribbed 
by prominent nerves; leaves 2 or 3, lorate, 1-2 cm broad, smooth- 
margined, much shorter than the scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, 
short -acuminate; umbel fasciculate-hemispherical or spherical, relatively 
many-flowered, loose; pedicels unequal, the central half as long again, 
2-4 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate 
perianth dark rosy-violet, with a green nerve, 8-12 mm long, linear, with 
nearly parallel margins, obtuse, at length recurved and twisted; filaments 
two-thirds as long as perianth segments, adnate at base to perianth, united 
above into a ring, subulate from triangular base, the inner slightly broader; 
J270 anthers violet; ovary subsessile, scabrous; capsule ovoid to subglobose, 
ca. 5 mm in diameter. May. 

In the shade of rocks. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Turkestan Range. 
Described from Zerabulakskie heights. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Closely related to A. R o s e nb a c h i a nu m Rgl., from which 
it is distinguishable by the parallel margins of perianth segments and 
shorter filaments. 

212. A. Rosenbachianum Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII (1884) 664, t. XXI, f. c-i. 
Perennial; bulb globose, 1.5-2.5 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 

scape 50-70 cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 2 or 3, linear- 
lanceolate to broadly linear, (0.5)-1.5 cm broad, nearly smooth-margined, 
much shorter than the scape; spathe short -acuminate, one-half to two-thirds 
as long as the umbel; umbel spherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels 
unequal, the central to half as long again, 3-9 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth dark violet, with a darker 
nerve, narrowly linear, gradually attenuate from base, acute, 7-10 mm 
long, at length recurved and twisted; filaments as long as perianth 
segments, adnate at base to perianth, united above into a ring, subulate 
from triangular base, the inner half as broad again; anthers violet; ovary 
short-stipitate, scabrous; capsule applanate-globose, ca. 5 mm in 
diameter. May. 

Loose-textured terraces in the middle mountain zone, in the shade of 
rocks and trees. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (SW). Endemic. Described from 
Bal'dzhuan, Kyzyl-su. Type in Leningrad. 

213. A. Komarovi Lipsky in A. H. P. VIII (1900) 129. — 

Perennial; bulb globose, 2-4 cm thick; scape 30-50 cm long, practically 
without prominent nerves; leaves 1 or 2, broadly lanceolate to oblong, 
4-8 cm broad, smooth-margined, subacute, much shorter than the scape; 
spathe short -acuminate; two-thirds as long as the umbel; umbel 
hemispherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels equal, 2-3 times the 
length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth dark lilac 
with a darker nerve, linear-lanceolate, ca. 6 mm long, obtusish, at length 
recurved and twisted; filaments slightly shorter than perianth, adnate at 
base to perianth, united above into a ring, gradually subulate from 
273 triangular base, the base of inner filaments twice as broad; ovary short- 
stipitate, scabrous; capsule subglobose, ca. 6 mm in diameter. May-June. 

Taluses in upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. 
Described from Iskander-kul' . Type in Leningrad. 



209 



(27i: 




Plate XVI 

1. Allium gypsaceum M. Pop. et Wed. ; la) portion of perianth.- 2. A.Schubertii Zucc. 
2a) portion of perianth.- 3. A . W ink ler ia nu m Rgl. ; 3a) portion of perianth. 



210 



214. A. seravschanicum Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1875) 244. — Ic. : Rgl. Fl. 
turk. (1876) t. XVII, f. 1-4. 

Perennial; bulb globose, (l) — 1 .5 — 2 cm in diameter; tunics gray, papery, 
sometimes enclosing a solitary large bulblet; scape 25-50 cm long, ribbed 
by prominent nerves; leaves 1 or 2, linear-lanceolate, 1-4 cm broad, 
scabrous- or smooth-margined, shorter than the scape; spathe short- 
acuminate, one-third to one -half as long as the umbel; umbel spherical or 
subspherical, loosely many-flowered; pedicels unequal, the central slightly 
exceeding the perianth; ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth dark 
rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 6-7 mm long, linear, gradually attenuate 
from base, acute, at length recurved and twisted; filaments slightly shorter 
than perianth, subulate, adnate at base to perianth, united above into a ring, 
this toothed between the filaments; ovary short -stipitate, smooth, with 
6 crests; capsule subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. May. 

Shady places in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
Endemic. Described from Zeravshan. Type in Leningrad. 

215. A. pseudoseravschanicum M. Pop. et Vved. in Sched. ad Herb. 
Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 621. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; scape 
(20)-30-50-(70) cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 1 or 2, 
linear-lanceolate, 1 -4 mm broad, scabrous -margined, much shorter than 
the scape; spathe half as long as to slightly shorter than the umbel, short - 
acuminate; umbel spherical or subspherical, densely many-flowered; 
pedicels unequal, the central slightly longer, 2-3 times the length of 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth light rosy-violet, 
with a darker nerve, 6-8 mm long, linear, gradually attenuate from the 
middle, acute., at length recurved and twisted; filaments slightly shorter 
than perianth segments, subulate, adnate at base to perianth, united above 
into an entire -margined ring; ovary short-stipitate, smooth, with 6 crests; 
capsule subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. May-June. 

Shady places. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Endemic. Described from 
Syunt. Type in Leningrad. 
274 Note. Closely related to A. seravschanicum Rgl., but 

distinguishable by the lighter-colored flowers and the more compact umbel. 
Deserves more study. 

216. A. elatum Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 665, t. XX, f.g.k.- 
A. isphairamicum B. Fedtsch. inA.H.P. XXVIII (1908 )67. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 2-6 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; 
scape 60-100 cm long, ribbed by the rather prominent nerves; leaves 2-14, 
oblanceolate, 2-7 cm broad, smooth-margined; spathe two-thirds as long 
as the umbel; umbel spherical, densely many -flowered; pedicels equal, 
3-8 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate 
perianth reddish- violet with a rather inconspicuous dark nerve, 6-8 mm 
long, linear-lanceolate, acutish to obtuse, not changing after anthesis; 
filaments slightly exceeding the perianth segments, at base connate and 
adnate to perianth, subulate from triangular base, the base of inner 
segments half as broad again; ovary sessile, scabrous. June- July. 

Stony slopes in the upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
Endemic. Described from Bal'dzhuan. 



211 



217. A. giganteum Rgl. in Gartenfl. (1883)97, t. 1113.— A. procerum 
Trautv. in A. H. P. IX (1884) 274. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 4-6 cm thick; tunics rather numerous, grayish- 
brown, splitting; scape robust, 80-150 cm long, rather inconspicuously 
nerved; leaves lorate, glaucous, 5-10 cm broad, smooth, one-third to 
one-half as long as the scape; spathe half as long as the umbel, short- 
beaked; umbel spherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels subequal, 
5 times the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate 
perianth, light violet, obscurely nerved, 5 mm long, elliptic, obtuse, not 
changing after anthesis; filaments about half as long again as perianth 
segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, subulate from triangular 
base, the base of inner filaments half as broad again; ovary subsessile, 
scabrous; capsule subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diameter. April-May. 

Loose-textured slopes in the lower mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: 
Mtn. Turkm., Pam.-Al. (S. ). Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from vicinity 
of Merv (?). Type in Leningrad. 

218. A. Trautvetterianum Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII (1884) 661, t. XXI, f. a-b. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid-globose, 2-3 cm thick; tunics grayish, almost 

275 papery; scape 50-60 cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 2, 

lanceolate, 2-3 cm broad, smooth-margined, much shorter than the scape; 
spathe one -half to two -thirds as long as the umbel; umbel spherical, densely 
many-flowered; pedicels equal, 3-5 times the length of perianth, immersed 
at base in the thickened spongy top of the scape, ebracteolate; segments of 
the stellate perianth light violet ( ? ), obscurely nerved, 7-10 mm long, 
elliptic, obtuse, subcoriaceous after anthesis; filaments slightly shorter 
than perianth segments, at base connate and adnate to perianth, subulate 
from triangular base, the base of inner filaments half as broad again; ovary 
short-stipitate, scabrous. May. 

Mottled outcrops (?). — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Ak-su, Tut-kaul). 
Endemic. Described from Bal'dzhuan. Type in Leningrad. 

219. A. Schubertii Zucc. in Abh. Munch. Acad. Ill (1843) 234, t. Ill, 
f. 1; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 278.— A. buncharicum Rgl. in A.H. P. 
VIII (1884) 660, t. XX, f. a-c. — Exs. : HFAM No. 64 . 

Perennial; bulb globose, 2-3 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; scape 
stumpy, 10-30 cm long; leaves linear-lanceolate, 6-30 mm broad, crisp, 
glaucous, scabrous -margined, slightly exceeding the scape; spathe much 
shorter than the umbel, the beak very short; umbel spherical, rarely 
hemispherical, very closely many-flowered; pedicels commonly very 
unequal, fruiting 1-10 cm long, sterile 2-20 cm long, clavately thickened 
at the end especially in fruit, ebracteolate; segments of the stellate perianth 
whitish or rosy, with a green or dingy purple nerve, 4-8 mm long, linear- 
lanceolate to lanceolate, obtuse or obtusish, rigid after anthesis, obliquely 
ascending; filaments of sterile flowers two-thirds as long as perianth 
segments, those of fertile flowers two-thirds as long as to equaling 
the perianth segments, in sterile flowers connate and adnate to perianth 
to 1/3-1/2, in fertile to 1/6, subulate from dilated subequal bases; ovary 
subsessile; capsule ca. 4 mm long. May-June. (Plate XVI, Figure 2, a). 

Gravelly slopes in the lower mountain zone and sands. — Centr. Asia: 
Ar.-Casp., Balkh., Kyz. K., Pam.-Al., T. Sh. Gen. distr.: E. Med. 
Described from Palestine. 



212 



220. A. caspium (Pall.)M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. I (1808)265; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 186; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 491. — Crinum caspium Pall. Reise. . . 
11(1773)736, t.Q.— Amaryllis caspia Willd. Sp. pi. II (1799) 62.— 

A. baissunense Lipsky in A. H. P. XVIII (1900) 140. — Ic. : Fl. Yugo- 
Vost. Ill (1929) Figure 183.— Exs.: HF AM No. 333. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 2-4.5 mm in diameter; tunics papery, nearly 
276 black; scape stumpy, 10-30 cm long; leaves 1-3, ranging from linear or 
linear-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, 5-25 mm broad, not exceeding the 
scape, the cartilaginous margin scabrous or smooth; spathe one-third as 
long as the umbel; umbel fasciculate, often hemispherical or spherical, 
rather loosely many-flowered; pedicels 2-4 or more times the length of 
perianth segments, up to 15 cm long, ebracteolate; segments of the 
campanulate perianth dingy greenish-violet or rarely whitish, 5-11 mm 
oblong to oblong-oval, rarely lanceolate, obtuse, the inner sometimes 
crenate, up to half as broad again as the outer, not changing after anthesis; 
filaments violet or rarely white, half as broad again as perianth segments, 
toothless, at base connate and adnate to perianth, subequal, linear-subulate 
from enlarged base: ovary smooth, short-stipitate; capsule obovoid, 
ca. 4 mm in diameter. 

Sandy deserts and sands in areas of mottled outcrops. — European part: 
L. V. ; Caucasus: Cisc, Dag.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Kyz. K., Kara K., 
Mtn. Turkm. (Kushkinskii River), Syr D., Amu D., Pam.-Al. (SW). 
Endemic. Described from deserts adjacent to the Caspian. 

Note. It is very likely that A. baissunensis Lipsky could be 
separated as a white-flowered local race with very restricted distribution, 
but for this more observations under natural conditions are needed. 

221. A. darvasicum Rgl. in A. H. P. VIII (1884) 659, tab. VII, f. a-e. 
Perennial; bulb globose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics grayish, papery; scape 

(l0)-20-30-(50) cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 1 or 2, 
linear to narrowly linear, 4-20 mm broad, more or less scabrous - 
margined, slightly shorter to slightly longer than the scape; spathe 
acuminate, two-thirds as long to slightly shorter than the umbel; umbel 
fasciculate -hemispherical or hemispherical, relatively many-flowered, 
dense; pedicels equal, slightly shorter than to half as long again as perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth white, with 
a green nerve, 8-11 mm long, linear-oblong, commonly acute, the outer 
half as broad again, withering after anthesis; filaments half as long as 
perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 3/5-2/3, nearly distinct 
above, triangular, the inner 3 times as broad as and slightly longer 
than the outer; ovary-short -stipitate; capsule subglobose, ca. 5 mm in 
diameter. June-July. 

Loose-textured slopes in the middle and upper mountain zones. — Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. (SE). Endemic. Described from Darvaz: Kuh-i-frush. 
Type in Leningrad. 

222. A. Winklerianum Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 661; Rgl. inA.H.P. 
X (1887) 354. 

217,7 Perennial; bulb globose, 0.75-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, commonly 
papery; scape 15-40-(l00) cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 
l-2~(4), linear to narrowly linear, 5-25 mm broad, smooth or at margin 



213 



and on the veins beneath scabrous, shorter than the scape; spathe acuminate, 
half as long as to slightly shorter than the umbel; umbel fasciculate - 
hemispherical or hemispherical, densely many-flowered; pedicels commonly 
equal, slightly shorter than to half as long again (or twice as long) as 
perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth 
rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 7 — 10 — (13) mm long, linear -oblong, 
commonly obtuse, the outer half as broad again, withering after anthesis; 
filaments half as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth 
to 1/2-2/3, nearly distinct above, triangular, twice as broad as and slightly 
longer than the outer; ovary short -stipitate; capsule subglobose, ca. 5 mm 
in diameter. May-July. (Plate XVI, Figure 3, a). 

Loose-textured slopes in the middle and upper mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al., T. Sh. (Fergana Range). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. 
Described from "West Turkestan". Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A polymorphic species which, like A. darvasicum, needs 
more study. Particularly distinctive are samples collected by Lipskii at 
Sary-socho Pass. They have very unequal pedicels (up to 5 cm long) and 
filaments adnate to perianth to somewhat higher up. 

223. A. cupuliferum Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 234. — Ic: Rl. Fgl. turk. 
(1876) t. XV, f. 4-5. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery, 
enclosing (always?) a large yellowish lustrous slenderly nerved bulblet; 
scape 30 — 50 cm long, ribbed by prominent nerves; leaves 1-3, 
linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5-30 mm broad, scabrous or smooth- 
margined, much shorter than the scape (down to half its length); 
spathe short -acuminate, much shorter than the umbel; umbel fasciculate 
or hemispherical, very loosely few-flowered; pedicels unequal, 2-6 times 
the length of perianth, ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth rosy-violet, with a darker nerve, 10-15 mm long, linear-oblong, 
obtuse, the outer half as broad again, withering after anthesis; filaments 
half as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 2/3 
their length, united to l/3 above, triangular, the inner half as broad again 
and twice as long as the outer; ovary stipitate; capsule subglobose, 7 mm 
in diameter. May. 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam. Al. (Nura-tau, Dzhizmanskoe Ravine, 
Andak, Tamerlanovy Vorota), Turkestan Range (Kuduk-sai), T. Sh. 
(Kaplanbek). Endemic. Described from Dzhizmanskoe Ravine. Type in 
Leningrad. 

278 224. A. Regelii Trautv. in A.H.P. IX (1884) 275. - A. cupuliferum 

var. Regelii O. Kntze in A. H. P. X (1887) 292. — A. Latei Aitch. et 
Bak. in Trans. Linn. Soc . Ill (1888) 1 17. — Exs. : HFAMNo.179. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1-2 cm in diameter; tunics papery to 
subcoriaceous, blackish, splitting; scape 30-70 cm long; leaves 2 or 3, 
linear-lanceolate, 0.5-1.5 cm broad, more or less scabrous -margined; 
spathe one-third to one-half as long as the umbel, short-acuminate; umbels 
(l) 2 or 3 (4), one above the other, fasciculate, rarely hemispherical, 
loosely few -flowered; pedicels 2-3 times the length of perianth, 
ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate perianth rose, delicate, 
withering after anthesis and becoming somewhat twisted, acutish, the outer 
about twice as broad; filaments half as long as perianth segments, connate 



214 



and adnate to perianth to 3/5 their length, united for half the length of the 
free part, the inner triangular, broader and much longer than the outer; 
ovary sessile; capsule broadly ovoid, 7-8 mm in diameter. May-June. 

Sand deserts and gravelly slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: Mtn. Turkm., Kara K. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Ashkhabad. 

Note. Trautvetter doubted whether A. Regelii had been collected 
in Akhal-teke or in Karabakh. It is now certain that this species does not 
occur in the flora of the Caucasus. 

225. A. iliense Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI, 1 (1868) 452. — Ic. : 
Fl. turk. (1876) t. XV, f. 9-10. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1-2 cm in diameter; tunics blackish-brown, 
papery; scape 15-35 cm in diameter, fairly slender; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, more or less crisp-margined, 7-20 mm broad, about equaling 
the scape; spathe much shorter than the umbel, short-acuminate; umbel 
6-30-flowered, fasciculate or rarely hemispherical, very loose; pedicels 
unequal, 2-10 cm long, ebracteolate; segments of the narrowly campanulate 
perianth violet-rose, with dingy green nerve, 10-15 mm long, acutish, 
linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, the outer slightly broader than to half as 
broad again as the inner, erect after anthesis; filaments two-fifths to 
one-half as long as perianth segments, connate and adnate to perianth to 
3/5-2/3, united for half the length of the free part, the inner triangular 
broader and much longer than the outer; ovary short -stipitate; capsule 
subglobose, 6 mm in diameter. May. 

Gravelly slopes in the lower mountain zone, sands, mottled outcrops.— 
Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (SE part), Balkh., Mt. Turkm., Pam.-Al. (Alai 
Range), T.Sh. (Mogol-tau). Endemic. Described from the Hi River. 
Type in Leningrad. 



279 Section 8. CALLOSCORDUM (Herbert) Baker in Journ. Bot. Ill (1874) 
2 90. — C alios cordum Herbert in Bot. Reg. XXX (1844) 66.— Bulb 
solitary, without rhizome, globose; leaf sheaths buried in the soil; pedicels 
bracteolate; perianth segments 1 -nerved; filaments entire, adnate to 
perianth for half their length. 

226. A. nerinifolium Baker in Journ. Bot. Ill (1874) 290.— 
Calloscordum nerinifolium Herbert in Bot. Reg. XXX (1844) 67. — 
A. Thunbergii Rgl. inA.H.P. 111(1875)234. nonDon.-Ic: Bot. Reg. 
XXXIII (1847) t. 5. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1-2 cm thick; tunics blackish, papery; scape 
10-25 cm long, slender, often flexuous, prominently nerved, sometimes 
2 from one bulb; leaves 2-6, narrowly linear, ca. 1mm broad, canaliculate, 
smooth, shorter than the umbel; spathe much shorter than the umbel, 
acuminate; umbel fasciculate or fasciculate -spherical, relatively few- 
flowered, very loose; pedicels unequal, many times the length of perianth 
(up to 10 cm long), subtended by bracteolate; segments of the campanulate 
perianth rosy-violet, with a prominent darker nerve, 6-8 mm long, linear- 
oblanceolate, acute, united to l/3 their length; filaments half as long as the 
perianth segments, united to the middle, subulate; ovary sessile. July- 
August . 



215 



Dry slopes. — E. Siberia: Dau. (rare). Gen. distr. : Mong., Jap.-Ch. 
Described from Chusan. 



Section 9. NECTAROSCORDUM (Lindl.) Gren. et Godr. Fl. Fran. Ill 
(1855-56) 212.— Ne ct ar os c o rdum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. IX (1836) 
t. 1913.— Bulb solitary, without rhizome; leaves destitute of aerial sheath, 
except the long-sheathing uppermost leaf; spathe deciduous; pedicels 
discoidally enlarged below the flower; perianth segments 3-7-nerved. 

227. A. tripedale Trautv. in Tr. SPB. Bot. Sada (A. H. P. ) II (1873) 485; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 284. 

Perennial; bulb globose, ca. 1.5 cm thick; scape 50-90 cm long, 
enveloped to 1/4-1/3 by the sheath of the uppermost leaf; leaves slender, 
delicate, 1 -1 .5 cm broad; spathe deciduous; umbel fasciculate, relatively 
many-flowered, rather dense; pedicels unequal, 2-4 times the length of 
perianth, with a slightly developed disk below the flower; segments of the 
campanulate perianth white, reddish on the back, 12-15 mm long, deciduous, 
acute, the inner ovate, abruptly clawed, much broader than the oblong 
outer segments; filaments about one-third as long as perianth segments; 
style included. June. 

Rock crevices .— Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Isti-su in Daralagez. Type in Leningrad. 

280 228. A. Dioscoridis Sibth. et Sm. Prodr. Fl. Graec. I (1806) 222.— 
Ne c t ar o s c o r dum siculum var. Dioscoridis Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
(1884) 286. — N. siculum Shmal'g., Fl. II (1897) 495. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, 1 .5-2 .5 cm thick; tunics blackish, 
subcoriaceous; scape 70-125 cm long, smooth, covered to 1/3-1/2 with the 
sheath of the nearly bladeless uppermost leaf; leaves 3 or 4, linear, 
1-1.5 cm broad, carinate, glabrous, smooth, about half as long as the 
scape; spathe deciduous; umbel fasciculate, relatively few -flowered, rather 
loose; pedicels unequal, 2-4 times the length of perianth, enlarged into 
a disk below the flower, ebracteolate; segments of the broadly campanulate 
perianth white suffused with greenish-red, red-nerved, 12-15 mm long, 
acute, the inner broadly ovate, abruptly -clawed, much broader than the 
oblong outer segments; filaments half as long as perianth, subulate; style 
included. May. 

Shady woods. — European part: Gen. distr.: Bal.-As. Min. Described 
from Asia Minor. 



Subfamily L. Lilioideae ENGL. 

Bulbose plants; flowers in a terminal raceme (sometimes solitary); 

perianth with distinct or united segments; anthers commonly introrse; 

capsule loculicidal. 

1. Flowers relatively large; perianth segments distinct; capsule cells 
many-seeded; flowers solitary or in a terminal raceme; cauline leaves 
1 to many, sometimes in whorls, but mostly spirally arranged (Group 
Tulipeae) 2. 



216 



281 



*" Flowers relatively small; perianth segments mostly united, rarely 
distinct; capsule cells 2- or rarely many-seeded; flowers in racemes 
or solitary, always borne on leafless scapes 8. 

2. Anthers attached to filaments near the middle; perianth funnelform, 
in many species the segments strongly recurved .... 268. Lilium L. 

•■ Anthers basifixed 3. 

3. Flowers campanulate with erect segments or rarely infundibular- 
campanulate 4. 

*■ Perianth segments strongly recurved or infundibular to stellate .... 7. 

4. Flower erect; perianth segments destitute of nectaries, often with a 
dark blotch at base 272. Tulipa L. 

•" Flowers more or less nodding 5. 

5. Bulb of a single scale; nectaries prolonged into a furrow 

26 9. Korolkowia Rgl. 

*- Bulb of 2 or several scales; nectaries pit-shaped or spur-shaped. ... 6. 

6. Nectary spur-shaped 270. Rhinopetalum Fisch. 

"•" Nectary oval or triangular 271. Fritillaria L. 

7. Perianth segments narrow, united at base into a short tube, recurved 
from the middle or from base; stem bearing 2 petiolate ovate or broadly 
lanceolate leaves 273. Erythronium L. 

"•■ Perianth segments erect, lanceolate; small plants with grasslike 

leaves 274. Lloydia Salisb. 

8. Perianth segments distinct or united merely at base 9. 

"*■ Perianth segments united 10. 

9. Filaments filiform or dilated at base; perianth segments 1 -nerved. 
275. Scilla L. 

+ Filaments flat; perianth segments many-nerved (may be obscurely 

nerved) 276. Ornithogalum L. 

10. Divisions of perianth longer than the campanulate tube; stamens 

petaloid 277. Puschkinia Adams. 

"*■ Divisions of perianth shorter than the tube 11. 

11 Perianth funnelform, the segments distinctly toothed 12. 

"*" Perianth urceolate, with entire or slightly dissected margin 14. 

12. Perianth tubular-campanulate; inflorescence terminating in an erect 
cluster of sterile flowers; leaf margin often cartilaginous ciliate. 
278. Bellevallia Lapeyr. 

"•" Perianth funnelform or campanulate -funnelform; inflorescence 

terminating in a single fertile flower; leaf margin soft 13. 

13. Divisions of perianth about as long as the tube; stamens unseriate. 
279. Hyacinthus Tourn. 

"*" Divisions of perianth one -third the length of tube; stamens biseriate. 
280. Hyacintella Schur. 

14. Sterile flowers conspicuously different from the fertile; perianth 

zygomorphic, the outer segments with hornlike projections 

281. Leopoldia Parlat. 

_ + Flowers uniform, horn-shaped, without projections 15. 

15. Perianth enlarged toward base, with 6 stellately arranged projections 
in upper part, constricted below the projections and segments into a 
very narrow throat 282. Muscarimia Kostel. 

"*" Perianth broadest in middle part, constricted at throat, with 6 reflexed 
segments 283. Muscari Tourn. 



217 



283 



Genus 268. LILIUM* L.** 

Gen. pi. (1731)410; Sp. pi. (1753)302. 

Perianth deciduous, funnelform to subcampanulate, in section 
Martagon very open with reflexed segments; perianth segments rather 
long-clawed, the claws bearing rather long chink-shaped often fringed 
nectaries; stamens 6, shorter than perianth; filaments filiform, often 
slightly flattened; anthers linear, dorsifixed, versatile; ovary sessile, 
narrow, 3-loculed; style elongate, with a thick capitate 3-lobed stigma; 
capsule oblong, membranous or coriaceous, loculicidal; seeds numerous, 
flat, broadly oboval, with often margin testa; bulb often rhizomatous; stems 
erect, leafy, simple or rarely branched near apex. Genus type 
L. candidum L. 



Subgenus I. EULIRION Rchb. Consp. Veget. (1828) 65. — Bulb perennial, 
scaly; leaves sessile or short-petioled, relatively narrow, broadest about 
the middle, with parallel or rarely reticulate venation; perianth segments, 
not saccate at base; style not elongating anthesis. 

1. Flowers erect, funnelform or saucer-shaped; perianth segments 
broadest above the middle, slightly reflexed at tips (Section 
Pseudolirium) 2. 

+ Flowers nodding or pendulous; perianth segments often strongly 

recurved 4. 

2. Raceme many-flowered; flowers white, short -infundibular, fragrant. 
1 . L. candidum L. 

+ Raceme 1 -5-flowered; flowers orange or red, scarcely fragrant. ... 3. 

3. Stems relatively robust, ribbed, at base of flowers white-floccose; 
flowers large 2. L. dahuricum Ker-Gawl. 

"*" Stems slender, smooth; flowers smaller 3. L. pulchellum Fisch. 

4. Leaves on the middle part of the stem distinctly verticillate 5. 

"•* Leaves alternate 7. 

5. Flowers lilac or cherry-rose 4. L. martagon L. 

+ Flowers yellow or red 6. 

6. Flowers light red, forming a subcorymbose or umbellate terminal 
inflorescence 5. L. avenaceum Fisch. 

"+■ Flowers yellowish-red or yellow, spotted, forming a raceme 

6. L. distichum Nakai. 

7. Flowers lilac or red 8. 

"*■ Flowers yellow or yellowish-white 11. 

8. Rhizome creeping, with several bulbs; leaves to 1 cm broad; flowers 

conspicuously spotted, large, up to 12 cm in diameter 

7. L. Maximoviczii Rgl. 

"*■ Bulb solitary, without lateral offshoots; leaves sublinear, crowded about 
the middle of the stem; flowers 4-6 cm in diameter 7. 

9. Bracts paired, callous -tipped; leaves broadly linear; flowers light red. 
8. L. callosum Sieb. et Zucc. 

"*■ Bracts solitary, acuminate, or absent; leaves crowded about the middle 
of the stem, narrowly linear 10. 

* From the Latin name of the genus. 
** Arranged by V.L. Komatov. 



218 



21 



10. Leaves obscurely denticulate -margined, papillose beneath; flowers 
bright red, inodorous, not speckled or with very few speckles. 

, 9. L. tenuifolium Fisch, 

"*" Leaves pale lilac, aromatic, dark violet-speckled; entire 

10. L. cernuum Kom. 

11. Flowers nearly white, with dark red speckles; anthers pale yellow; 

leaves glabrous, narrowly linear, 3 -nerved 

11. L. Ledebourii Boiss. 

"*" Flowers pale or bright yellow; leaves mostly pubescent beneath. . . . 12. 

12. Perianth segment 3.5-4 cm long, 6-7 mm broad, ciliate -margined, 
bright yellow, with numerous black dots; filaments papillose; anthers 
red; stem rather slender, glabrous 12. L. ponticum C. Koch. 

+ Flowers larger. 13. 

13. Flowers stramineous; perianth segments ca. 8.5 cm long; anthers 
reddish-brown; leaves lanceolate .... 13. L. Kesselringianum Miscz. 

+ Flowers bright yellow; perianth segments broader 14. 

14. Perianth segments not narrowed toward base; stamens united into a 
tube or distinct below the middle, flat in lower part; anthers yellow. 
14. L. monadelphum M. B. 

"*■ Perianth segments narrowed toward base; stamens distinct; filaments 

terete to triquetrous; anthers red 

15. L. Szovitsianum Fisch. et Lall. 



Section 1. LEUCOFILIRION Wilson, Lil. East. As. (1925) 17. — White 
lilies. — Flower tubular or saucer-shaped; flowers horizontal or nodding, 
rarely ascending; perianth segments falcately upturned; stamens not 
divergent. 

1. L. candidum L. Sp. pi. (1753)302; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 172. — Ic: 
Elwes. Monogr. Lil. tab.; Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 445. 

Perennial, smooth throughout; bulb large, ovaloid, yellowish; basal 
leaves 6-8, wintering, oblanceolate; stem erect, stout, 0.6-1.2 cm long, 
with evenly distributed leaves; leaves alternate, the lower approximate 
drooping oblanceolate hairy-margined subobtuse, the upper appressed 
lanceolate acute progressively narrower; raceme short, pyramidal, 
bracteate; pedicels erect, nutant at the ends, often bracteolate; perianth 
pure white, broadly funnelform; segments oblanceolate, narrowed into 
petiole, falcate in upper third, obtuse; anthers and pollen pale yellow; 
style as long as perianth; capsule obovoid. June-July. 

Caucasus: E. Transc, Tal.: cultivated in the USSR and, since ancient 
times, throughout the Mediterranean region. Described from cultivated 
specimens, with indication of origin from Palestine and Syria. According 
to Boissier (Fl. Or. V, 173), growing wild in the mountains of Lebanon. 
Type in London. 

Economic importance. Ornamental and aromatic, used medicinally 
against burns, and nectariferous. 



219 



:285' 




Plate XVII 

1. Lilium dahuricum Ker.-Gawl.: la) bulb; lb) bulb scale with reproduction bud.- 2. L. a cen a ceum 
Fisch.: 2a) leaf whorl; 2b) flower.- 3. L. monadelphum M.B., stamens.- 4. L. pulchellum Fisch. - 
5. L. tenuifolium Fisch. ; 5a) bulb.- 6. L. Ledebouri Boiss.- 7. L. callosum Sieb. et Zucc.; 
7a) bulb. 



220 



Section 2. PSEUDOLTRIUM Wilson, Lil. East. As. (1925) 50. — False 
lilies. — Flower erect, vase-shaped or stellate; inner perianth segments 
broadest above the middle, clawed, slightly twisted at tips; stamens 
divergent. 

2. L. dahuricum Ker.-Gawl. in Bot. Mag. XXX (1809), tab. 1210.— 

L. spectabile Link, Enum. II, Berol. I (1821)321; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
151; Turcz. Fl. baic.-dah. II, 213.— L. pseudodahuricum M. et S. 

287 Fedossejev in Delectus H. B. Jur. (1899)45.— L. bulb if e rum et 
bulb os um Pall. Reise III, 231, 320, 253, 255. — Ic. : Elwes, Mon. Lil. 
tab. 21; Rgl. Gartenflora tab. 349.— 

Perennial; bulb white, rounded, 2.5-4 cm long; bulb scales imbricated, 
lanceolate, acute, jointed about the middle; stem 30-120 cm long, erect, 
sparsely floccose, often glabrescent in age, or 5-20 cm long (var. 
alpinum Kusen.); leaves sessile, smooth or white-floccose, narrowly 
oblong-lanceolate, 3-5-nerved, 10-25 mm broad or 3-10 mm broad 
(var. an gu s t if ol ium Litw.), ascending, rather appressed to stem; 
flowers erect, open, solitary (var. alpinum Kus. et al.) or 2-6, forming 
a kind of umbel (L. umbellatum Hort.) or a short raceme, the outer 
side of buds and pedicels often profusely pubescent or occasionally glabrous; 
perianth segments oboval-spatulate to oblanceolate, orange-red to sanguine, 
with yellow claws, 3-6 or up to 8 cm long, more or less spotted; nectaries 
smooth or often densely fringed throughout (var. costatum Rgl.); 
filaments glabrous; pollen red; capsule erect, oblong-obovaloid, 4-5 cm 
long, 2 cm across, obtusely angled, flat-topped. June-July. (Plate XVII, 
Figure 1, a, b). 

Wet lowland meadows, forest glades, coppices, grassy slopes, etc.— 
E. Siberia: Yen., Ang.-Say., Lena-Kol., Dau.; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss., 
Sakh., Okh., Kamch. Gen. distr. : N. Mong., Manch., Korea. Described 
from Dauria. Type in- London. 

Economic importance: Ornamental; bulb and flowers edible. 

3. L. pulchellum Fisch. in Fisch., Mey et Ave Lall. Ind. Sem. H. 
Petrop. VI (1889) 56; Ldb. Ross. IV, 152; Turcz. Fl. baic.-dah. II, 213. — 
L. concolor var. pulchellum Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXV (1876) 354. — 
Ic. : Elwes, Monogr. Lil. tab. 18, f. 1; Kom. andAlis., Opred. rast. 
Dal'nevost. Kr. I, Plate 115 (sub L. concolor Salisb.). — Exs. : HFR 
No. 1938, 2381. 

Perennial; bulb white, ovaloid, ca. 2 cm long; bulb scales few, tightly 
closed, oval to oval -lanceolate; stems slender, erect, smooth, green, 
25-60 cm long; leaves sessile, linear, 2-7 cm long, 3-6 mm broad, acute, 
appressed to stem; flowers erect, stellate, light red or rarely yellow 
(f. okihime Wilson), solitary or rarely several; perianth segments 
slightly pubescent outside or glabrous, lanceolate, 2.5-4 cm long and 
5-10 mm broad, obtuse and callous -tipped; nectaries smooth; stamens 
shorter than perianth, with smooth filaments; anthers the color of perianth, 
6-7 mm long; capsule oblong-ovaloid, 1.5-2 cm long, obtusely angled, 
flat -topped. June -July. (Plate XVII, Figure 4). 

288 Riverside meadows, meadow sloples, and scrub. — E. Siberia: Dau.; 
Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss., Gen. distr. : Manchuria and N. Korea. Described 
from Dauria. 

Economic importance: Ornamental. Bulbs edible. 



221 



Section MART AGON Wilson, Lil. East. As. (1925) 61 . — Crisp or 
martagon lilies.— Flowers nodding; perianth segments recurved, broadest 
about the middle; stamens divergent. 

4. L. martagon L. Sp. pi. (1753) 303; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 149; 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 509; Turcz. Fl. baic.-dah. II, 212.— L. p i lo s i u s c ul u m 
(Freyn) Miscz. in Trav. Museebot. Acad. Petrop. VIII (1910) 192. — 

Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X, tab. 451, f. 989; Hegi 111. Fl. Mitt. Eur. II, 
61.-Exs.: HFRNo.2378, 2379. 

Vernacular names: Russian: tsarskie kudri (Tsar's curls), liliya 
turetskaya (Turkish lily); Georgian: uronali; Armenian: lerna-shushan; 
Tatarian: sarishen; Siberian: saranka. 

Perennial; bulb golden-yellow, ovoid, to 5 cm long; stem erect, 
30-60 cm long, terete, glabrous, or scabrous by short hairs (var. 
pubescens Beck, and var. pilosiusculum Freyn), green or red- 
spotted; leaves in a whorl of 5 or 6 or more at the middle of stem, elliptic - 
lanceolate, alternate and shorter above; inflorescence a raceme; flowers 
5-10 or solitary, nodding; perianth segments oblong, 3-3.5 cm long, 
recurved upward, light purple (vineous red), dark-spotted, sparsely covered 
with arachnoid hairs (var. pilosiusculum Freyn) or glabrous; stamens 
with purplish -violet stigmas; style twice the length of ovary; capsule 
6 -angled, sharply ribbed, obovoid, 2.5-3 cm long. June -July. 

Forest glades, thinned coniferous and mixed forests, birch woods, stony 
mounds, slopes, and subalpine meadows. — European part: U.V., M. V., 
U. and M. Dnp., L. Don, Bl., Urals; Caucasus: W. Transc.*; W. Siberia: 
Ob (to 59° N. lat.), Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., Lena-Kol., Dau. 
Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., Italy, Balkans, N. Mong. Described from 
Hungary, Switzerland, Siberia, and Leipzig. Type in London. 

Economic importance. Bulbs edible in fresh condition and dried; used 
in fodder, in medicine (vesicant, diuretic, wound healing); nectariferous; 
bulbs yield a black dye; ornamental. 

5. L. avenaceum Fisch. in Gartenfl. XIV (1865) 290.— 

L. medeoloides A. Gray in Mem. Am. Acad. VI (1859) 415; Wilson 
Lil. of East. Asia 90. — L. maculatum Baker in Journ. Hort. Soc. 
Lond. IV (1877) 45. — Ic. : Elwes, Monog. Lilium tab. 35; Maxim, in 
Gartenfl. I.e., tab. 485. 

Vernacular names: Russian: sarana ovsyanka; Japanese: kuruma-iuri. 
289 Perennial; bulb white, rounded, 1.5-2.5 cm long and 2-2.5 cm in 

diameter; bulb scales numerous, oblong-lanceolate, fleshy; stems to 
1 m long, smooth, leafless below, with 1 or rarely 2 leaf whorls above and 
then several alternate leaves; verticillate leaves up to 15 in the whorl, 
oblong-linear to broadly lanceolate, up to 17 cm long; raceme 
1 -10-flowered; pedicels nutant; bracts linear to linear-lanceolate; perianth 
segments initially erect, at length reflexed, orange or light red, with 
almost black spots, lanceolate, 3-4.5 cm long; nectaries obscurely fringed 
or not fringed; stamens shorter than perianth, smooth; anthers ca. 1 cm 
long, the color of perianth; capsule obconical, 1.5-2 cm long, 1.5 cm in 
diameter, flat-topped, angled. July-August. (Plate XVII, Figure 2, a, b). 

* The single specimen which we have from Mount Apianga near Sukhumi (Yu.N. Voronov), with very broad 
oboval and slightly cuspidate leaves, may be the type of a distinct species, but it is insufficient for 
description. 

1920 222 



Solitary or in groups in forest glades and in the shade of woods, among 
shrub thickets, and in high mountain meadows. — Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss., 
Uda, Sakh., Okh., Kamch. Gen. distr. : Jap.-Ch. Described from 
Kamchatka. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Bulb edible (cooked); bulb scales characteristically constricted 
at 3/4 their length, the upper ovaloid point part resembling a cereal grain, 
hence the Russian name "ovsyanka" [oves, oats]. 

6. L. distichum Nakai apud Kamibayashi, Chosen Yuri Dzukai (1915) 
t. 7 et in Tokyo Bot. Mag. XXXI (1917) 6; Wilson Lil. of East. Asia 89.— 
L. medeoloides Palibin in A. H. P. XIX (1901) 113, non Gray.— 

L. Hansonii Kom. ib. XX (1901) 457, non Leichtlin. — Ic. : Kom. et 
Alis., Opred. rast. Dal'nevost. kr. I, Plate 113. 

Perennial; bulb white, broadly ovaloid, 2-3 cm long and 2.5-3 cm in 
diameter, not compact; bulb scales cuspidate, usually jointed; stem to 
1 m long, slightly ribbed, obscurely bristly below the leaf whorl, leafless 
or with 1 or 2 minute leaves above; verticillate leaves 5-20, oblong- 
lanceolate to oboval-lanceolate, 5-15 cm long, 1-4 cm broad, slightly 
cartilaginous -margined; flowers inodorous, pale orange, with dark spots, 
nodding, solitary or in a raceme of up to 6 or even 8 flowers; perianth 
segments recurved, divergent, lanceolate, 3-5 cm long; nectaries not 
fringed; stamens smooth; anthers ca. 1 cm long, the color of perianth; 
capsule broad, ca. 2 cm long, with winged ribs and flat top. July- August. 

Broad -leaved forests. — Far East: Uss. (only S. ). Gen. distr.: Korea, 
Manchuria. Described from Korea. Type in Tokyo. 

* L. Hansonii Leichtlin apud Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV (1874) 
245; Wilson Lil. East. Asia 91. — Ic: Elwes Monogr. Lil. tab. 34. 
290 Differing from the preceding species in the large bulbs, 4-6 cm long; 

stems with numerous whorls of leaves 10-18 cm long; flowers orange- 
yellow, fragrant; capsule conspicuously 6 -winged. 

Reported by Maximovich for the coast of Vladivostok Bay. This cultivated 
species actually originates from Island of Dazhelet or Ooringto in Sea of 
Japan. Records of this species for Manchuria, Korea and Ussuri refer 
in fact to L. distichum Nakai. 

7. L. Maximoviczii Rgl. Suppl. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. (1868)26.— 
L. Le i c ht li ni i var. Maximoviczii Baker in Gard. Chron. (l87l) 
1422.— L. tigrinum Kom. inA.H.P. XX (1901) 453, ex parte (non 
Gawl.). — Ic: Elwes Monogr. Lil., tab. 40, f. 1; Rgl. Gartenfl. XVII, 
322, tab. 596. 

Perennial; bulbs solitary or with ropy underground rhizome bearing 
1-5 small distinct bulbs 2-4 cm in diameter; bulbs globose; bulb scales 
few, thick, strongly convex, round or [?] jointless; young bulbs with only 2 
outer scales; stems erect, robust, 1-1.3 cm long, smooth; leaves 
alternate, oblong-lanceolate, short -petioled, acute, 7-14 cm long, 
9-16 mm broad, the upper ones shorter and sessile, all 3-7-nerved, 
smooth, the margin minutely papillose; flowers 1-3, often solitary, 
inodorous, red with dark spots, to 9 cm in diameter; perianth segments 
to 8.5 mm long; the claws strongly twisted in upper part; nectaries fringed; 
anthers large, blackish-purple; style to 3.5 cm long, half as long again as 
ovary; capsule obovaloid, almost smooth, flattened at top. August. 



223 



Riverside meadows, in small groups. — Far East: Uss. (only S. ). 
Gen. distr. : Jap.-Ch. (Manchuria). Described from Manchuria. Type in 
Leningrad. A rarity. 

* L. tigrinum Ker-Gawl. in Bot. Mag. XXXI (1810) tab. 1237; Wilson 
Lil. East. Asia 73; Maxim, in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou (1879) 62. — Ic. : 
Elwes Monogr. Lil. tab. 38. 

Perennial; bulb white, ovaloid, 4-7 cm long; stem 1-2 cm long, rather 
densely covered with white arachnoid hairs; leaves 3-18 cm long and 
0.5-1.5 cm broad, 5-7-nerved, with almost black bulblets in axils; flowers 
inodorous, bright orange -red, spotted; perianth segments 7-10 cm long 
and 1-2.5 cm broad. July-September. 

Most probably the most ancient of cultivated lilies. Originating from the 
Jap.-Ch. region. Described from a specimen from Canton. Type in London. 
Maximovich reported it as growing wild from Pos'et (Ussuri), where it 
also grows nowadays in seminaturalized state. 

291 *L. bulbiferum L. Sp. pi. (1753)302; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 579. — Ic: 

Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X, tab. 454, f. 995. 

Perennial; bulb white, ovoid; stem to 1 m long, hairy at base; leaves 
linear-lanceolate, with bulbils in the axils, to 10 cm long; flowers in a 
1-5-flowered umbellate inflorescence, erect; perianth campanulate- 
funnelform, bright orange -red; nectaries fringed. July- August. 

Grown in gardens, especially in the Ukraine; may become naturalized. 
Growing wild in mountain meadows. Centr. Eur. Described from N. Italy. 
Type in London. 

8. L. callosum Sieb. et Zucc. Fl. Jap. I (1839) 86, tab. 41; Wilson Lil. 
East. Asia 87. — L. mandshuricum Gandoger Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. ser. 
4, XIX (1919) 292. — Ic: Elwes Monogr. Lil. tab. 41. — Exs . : HFR 

No. 2382. 

Japanese: "no-hime-iuri". 

Perennial; bulb white, semiglobose, 1.5-2.5 cm long and broad; scales 
few, oval-lanceolate to lanceolate; stem slender, smooth, 30-80 cm long; 
leaves alternate, sessile, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-13 cm long, 
1-6 mm broad, often terminating in a callous hood; flowers inodorous, 
red, nodding, solitary or in a sparse erect 2-9-flowered raceme; perianth 
segments 1-1.5 cm long, initially erect, at length strongly twisted, 
2.5-4 cm long, 5-8 mm broad, terminating in a rounded callosity; 
nectaries pubescent -margined; pollen orange -red; capsule oblong-ovaloid, 
3-4 cm long, 1.5-2 cm across, bluntly ribbed, truncate. July-August. 
(Plate XVII, Figure 7, a). 

Riverside meadows and meadow slopes.— Far East: Uss. Gen. distr. : 
Jap.-Ch. Described from the vicinity of Nagasaki in Japan. 

9. L. tenuifolium Fisch. in Hort. Gorenk. ed. 2 (1812) 8; Wilson Lil. 
East. Asia 83; Turcz. Fl. baic-dah. II, 212; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 151. — 
L. pumilum DC. in Redoute Lil. VII (1813) 378. — L. linifolium 
Hornemann in Hort. Hafn. I (1813) 326. — Ic. : Elwes Monogr. Lil. tab. 42.- 
Exs.: HFR No. 1939, 2380. 



224 



Perennial; bulb white, narrowly ovaloid, 2.5-4 cm long, 1 .5-4 cm broad; 
stem slender, smooth or rough by short hairs, 18-80 cm long; leaves 
numerous, linear, gather on the upper part of stem, upright, 3-10 cm long, 
1-3 mm broad, slightly revolute, obscurely denticulate, prominently 
1 -nerved and minutely papillose beneath; flowers faintly aromatic, nodding, 
in bud smooth or slightly pubescent, bright red, spotless or nearly so, 
solitary or in a 2-6-flowered raceme; pedicels 2-5 cm long, recurved; 
very close to flower, with 1-3 subulate bracts; perianth segments strongly 
292 reflexed, oblong-lanceolate; anthers 6-8 mm long, bright red; capsule 
erect, oblong -ovaloid, 2-3 cm long, bluntly ribbed, truncate. June-July. 
(Plate XVII, Figure 5, a). 

Exposed mountain slopes, in sparse plant communities. E. Siberia: 
Ang.-Say., Yen., Dau. ; Far East: Ze.-Bu., Uss. Gen. distr. : N. Mong., 
Jap.-Ch. (Manch., Korea, N. China). 

Economic importance. Bulb edible; ornamental. 

10. L. cernuum Kom. in A.H.P. XX (1901) 461; Wilson Lil. of East. 
Asia 86. — L. Palibinianum Yabe in Tokio Bot. Mag. XVII (1903) 134. - 
L. gr aminif olium Lev. et Van. in Fedde Repert . sp. nov. V (1908) 
283. — Ic: Nakaiinlc. PI. Koisikav. Ill (1916) tab. 178. 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid, white, 3-3.5 cm long, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter; 
scales thick, tightly imbricate, lanceolate to oval; stem slender, firm, 
smooth, 30-60 cm long; leaves numerous, gather on the middle part of 
stem, sessile, linear, 4-18 cm long, 1-5 (commonly 2) cm broad, upright, 
often revolute; flowers agreably scented, nodding, lilac with dark purple 
spots, solitary or in a small 2-6-flowered raceme; pedicels 6-10 cm long, 
ascending, curved below the flower; bracts and bracteoles subulate, 
foliaceous; perianth segments reflexed, oblong to oblanceolate, 3-4.5 cm 
long, 0.8-1 cm broad, nectaries densely fringed; anthers relatively broad, 
1.5 cm long, lilac; capsule erect, globose or obovaloid, 1.2-2 cm long, 
1-1.5 cm in diameter, bluntly ribbed, flattened at the top. July-August. 

Sunny grass slopes, in groups. — Far East: Uss. Gen. distr.: Jap.-Ch. 
(Korea, E. Manch.). Described from the upper reaches of the Yalu River. 
Type in Leningrad. 

11. L. Ledebourii Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1881) 175; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 
218.— L. monadelphum var. Ledebourii Baker Journ. Linn. soc. 
XIV (1875) 246.— L. pyrenaicum Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 150 (non Gouan). — 

Perennial; bulb. . . ; stems to 1 m long, densely leafy, smooth; leaves 
narrowly linear, glabrous, sometimes ciliate-margined, 3-nerved, 
lanceolate; pedicels twice the length of bracts, drooping at the ends; 
flowers 1-3, the terminal 5-6 cm long, pale yellowish-green to almost 
white, with dark red dots; perianth segments lanceolate, strongly narrowed 
toward base, strongly reflexed from the middle; anthers pale yellow; 
nectaries not fringed; capsule 5 cm long and 3 cm in diameter, convex at 
the top, with 6 rounded ribs. May- June. (Plate XVII, Figure 6). 

Mountain woods.— Caucasus: Tal. Endemic. Described from the locality 
of Drych, at an altitude of 1450 m, in Talysh. Type in Leningrad. 

293 12. L.. ponticum C. Koch in Linnaea XXII (1849) 234; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. 
I, 218; Miscz. in Trav. Mus. Ac. Sc. Petr. VIII (1911) 191. — 
L. artvinense Miscz., I.e. — Exs. : PI. Cauc. exs. No. 17. 



225 



Perennial; bulb. . . ; stem to 1 m long, rather slender, scabrous, nearly- 
leafless on lower third, densely leafy above; leaves upright, lance -linear, 
to oblong-lanceolate, cuspidate, papillose on the margin and on the veins 
beneath; raceme loosely 1 -7 -flowered; pedicels 2-3 times the length 
of bracts, drooping at the ends; flowers of medium size, bright yellow; 
perianth segments 3.5-4 cm long, 6-7 mm broad, lanceolate, strongly 
reflexed, ciliate -margined, in lower part dark-spotted; filaments papillose; 
anthers vermilion; pollen pale yellow; capsule stipitate, oblong-clavate, 
bluntly ribbed. May -June. 

Wood margins and glades. — Caucasus: W. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Lazistan (Asia Minor). Described from Rize District. Type in Berlin. 

13. L. Kesselringianum Miscz. in Bull f. angew . Bot. VII (1914) 251; 
Tr. Prikl. Bot. I.e.; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 218.— Ic: Miscz. I.e. 

f. 711, I; 712, III, 774. 

Perennial; bulb broadly ovaloid, 5 mm long, 6 cm across, yellow; stem 
ca. 60 cm long, smooth; leaves lanceolate, smooth; flowers 1-3, 
stramineous, smooth; perianth segments lanceolate, ca. 8.5 cm long and 
2 cm broad, the outer narrower than the inner; stigma and anther reddish- 
brown; ovary ovaloid-prismatic; style more than twice the length of ovary 
(3.5 cm long). May. 

Subalpine meadows and scrub. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Bakhmaro in Batumi District. Type in Tiflis. 

14. L. monadelphum M. B. Fl. taur.-cauc. I (1808) 267; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, 150; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 219; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 509. — Ic: M. B. 
Cent. pi. rarior. Ross. I, tab. 4; Bot. Mag. tab. 1405; Miscz. Bull. f. 
angew. Bot. (Trudy Byuro Prikl. Bot.) VII (1914) f. 71 1 III, 712a; 713 1, 775.— 
Exs. : HFRNo.790; PI. Cauc. exs. No. 259; PI. or. exs. No. 329. 

Perennial; bulbs large, ca. 3.5 cm long, ovaloid; scales yellowish, 
narrow, acute, rather loosely imbricate; stem ca. 1 cm long, relatively 
stout, densely leafy nearly throughout; leaves upright, rather broadly 
lanceolate, acute, many-nerved, papillose on the margin and on the veins 
beneath, rarely smooth (var. glaber Miscz.), the upper ones shorter 
than the rest; flowers 1-30, aromatic, in a pyramidal raceme; bracts 
lanceolate; pedicels drooping at the ends; perianth narrowly campanulate, 
pale yellow; perianth segments oblanceolate, falcately recurved at tips, 
the inner surface dotted; stamens united into a tube below the middle or 
294 distinct and then flat in lower part, hyaline -petaloid; anthers yellow; 

ovary cylindric-prismatic; style green; stigma green; capsule 4 cm long, 
2.5 cm in diameter, smooth. May- July. (Plate XVII, Figure 3). 

Forest glades and margins in the subalpine zone. — Caucasus: Cisc, 
Dag., W. Transc. Endemic. Described from Mount Beshtau. Type in 
Leningrad. 

Economic importance . Ornamental; suitable for export . 

15. L. Szovitsianum Fisch. et Ave Lallem. in Ind. H. Petrop. VI (1839] 
16; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 150; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. 219.— L. monadelphum 
var. Szovitsianum Baker ex Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1889) 174.— 

L. colchicum Stev. ex Boiss. I.e. — Ic: Miscz. in Bull, angew. 

Bot. (Tr. Byuro Prikl. Bot.) VII (1914) tab. 117, f. 711, II; 712 b; 713, 2; 

775. Exs.: PI. orient, exs. No. 329. 



226 



Perennial; bulbs 6 cm long and 4 cm across; scales loosely arranged, 
narrow, ca. 1 cm broad; stem to 1 m long; leaves fairly broadly or 
narrowly lanceolate, about 20-nerved, papillate beneath, appearing stiffly 
hairy; inflorescence as in the preceding species; flowers ca. 10 cm in 
diameter, mostly in a 4 -flowered raceme; perianth segments oblong- 
lanceolate, narrowed toward base, ca. 8 cm long (var. carthalinicum 
Miscz.) or 4-4.5 cm long (var. armenum Miscz.), yellow; anthers 
vermilion; filaments distinct, terete-triquetrous, thickened below; ovary 
obturbinate; stigma dark purple; capsule ca. 3 cm long and 2 cm in 
diameter, flat-topped. July. 

Woods, forest glades and forest margins on mountain slopes of the 
timber and subalpine zones. — Caucasus: W. and S. Transc, rarely E. 
Transc. Described from Kolkhida [Colchis] in W. Transc. Type in 
Leningrad. 

Economic importance. Ornamental; recommended for export. 



Subgenus II. CABDIOCRINUM Endl. Gen. pi. (1837) 141. — Leaves large, 
cordate, long-petioled, with reticulate venation; bulb monocarpic, scaly, 
formed by a small number of leaf sheaths; flowers funnelform, somewhat 
saccate at base; style elongating after anthesis. 

*L. cordifolium Thunberg in Trans. Linn. Soc. II (1794) 322; Wilson 
Lil. East. Asia 98. — L. Glehni F. Schmidt Fl. Sachal. Flora Sakhal., 
Russian ed. (1874) 204 et in Mem. Acad. Sc. Petr. ser. VII, XII, No. 2 
(1868) 187. — Cardiocrinum cordatum Makino in Tokyo Bot. Mag. 
XXVII (1913) 124.- C. Glehni Makino ibid. 125. -Ic: Elwes Mon. Lil. 
tab. I et in Gard. Chron. ser. 3, XXXVII (1905) 3. f.I. 

Perennial; bulb white, the part exposed to light greenish-brown, ovaloid, 
5-75 cm long and 4-7 cm across; scales few, acute, bearing the scar of 
shed petiole; stem erect, 0.6-1.2 (and up to 2) m long; leaves of basal 
295 rosette with petioles the length of blade, deeply cordate, prominently 
reticulate -nerved; cauline leaves mostly on the middle third of stem, 
broadly oval, reniform -cordate at base; flowers in a 4-10-flowered raceme, 
white -farinose, green at base, mostly horizontally spreading; anthers 
yellow; capsule 5-5.5 cm long, cuspidate. August. 

Banks of brooks and scrub. — Far East: Sakh. (only S.). Gen. distr. : 
Jap.-Ch. (Tsushima Island, N. Japan, Kurile Islands). Described from 
Japan. (L. Glehni F. Schmidt from Cape Soni on Sakhalin). Type in 
Uppsala. (L. Glehni in Leningrad). 



Genus 269. K0R0LK0WIA RGL.** 

Gartenfl. (1873)161, t.760. 

Flowers funnelform -campanulate; perianth segments subequal, clawed; 
nectaries groove -shaped; stamens with versatile dorsifixed anthers; style 
undivided, truncate; capsule winged; stem leafy; inflorescence a many- 
flowered raceme; bulb yellow, consisting of a single scale, large. 

* A genus named for N.I. Korol'kov, who introduced bulbs for cultivation in the Botanical Garden. 
** Arranged by A ,S . Lozina-Lozinskaya. 



227 



1. K. Sewerzowii Rgl. inA.H.P. II (1873) 320. - F r it i liar i a 
Sewerzowii Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI, 2 (1868) 443. — Ic. : 
Gartenfl. (1873) tab. 760. -Exs.: Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 3. 

Perennial; bulb 3-4 cm in diameter, globose, yellow; stem 20-50 cm 
long, erect, glabrous, pale green, violet below, covered with waxy bloom, 
the leaves evenly distributed except for the leafless lower part; leaves 
alternate, the lower broadly oval, to 15 cm long, to 18 cm broad, obtusish 
to subacuminate, the upper broadly lanceolate, acute, often longer than the 
lower, all subamplexicaul at base, with decurrent margins, glaucous due to 
waxy bloom, obscurely nerved; floral leaves narrowly lanceolate, 3 -nerved; 
inflorescence terminal; pedicels nodding, lilac-brown, much shorter than 
perianth; upper flowers staminate, the others perfect; perianth funnelform- 
campanulate; segments 6, subequal, fleshy, reflexed from the middle, 
in lower part twisted laterally compressed, carinate, in upper part 
oval, recurved, acuminate, terminating in a tuft of hairs, greenish- 
yellow, outside brownish-violet up to or above the middle, inside 
lustrous, with a semicircular brownish- violet stripe at throat; nectary 
groove-shaped, fringed; stamens slightly shorter than perianth, the outer 
296 longer than the inner; filaments dark reddish-violet, minutely ciliolate, 
slightly dilated below; anthers light yellowish-green, dorsifixed; style 
with triquetrous divergent style and sessile triangular stigmas; capsule 
4.5 cm long, 3.5 cm in diameter, the irregular margin gradually passing 
into a wing 0.5 cm broad, the base narrowed, the top obtusish, the wings 
gradually disappearing toward base, rounded at apex. April. (Plate XVIII, 
Figure 3, a-d). 

Foothills, argillaceous and stony slopes, and juniper woods. — Centr. 
Asia: T.Sh. (W.), SyrD., penetrating into N. Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described 
from Kara-tau (W. and Centr. parts) from Boroldai. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Uzbek: agla; the bulbs with a high starch content, used in fodder, 
in spite of their bitter flavor (used for flavoring bread). 



Genus 270. RHINOPETALUM FISCH.** 

Fisch. exAlexand. in Edinb. N. Philos. Joutn. VIII (1830) 19. 

Flowers campanulate; perianth of 6 equal petaloid lobes, the nectaries 
projecting as spurs, more conspicuously in outer segments, the flowers 
sometimes zygomorphic due to the spur of upper segments being much 
larger than the others; stamens with immobile basifixed anthers; terminal 
flowers always staminate; style with undivided truncate stigma; capsule 
globose, winged or wingless, narrowed into a stipe, 6 -angled, 3-loculed; 
stems leafy; racemes terminal, many-flowered; bulb consisting of 2 fleshy 
scales, with a long leafless sheath. 

1. Flowers zygomorphic; anthers subglobose 2. 

"* Flowers actinomorphic; anthers oblong 4. 

2. Perianth segments checkered; plants shaggy throughout 3. 

■+ Perianth segments not checkered; plants glabrous or rarely the leaves 

shaggy-margined 3. Rh. ariamim A. Los. et Vved. 

3. Capsule wingless 1. Rh. Karelini Fisch. 

* From Greek rhinos, nose, alluding to shape of nectaries, and petalon, petal, to suggest nose- shaped 

petals. 
** Arranged by A .S. Lozina-Lozinskaya. 

228 



"* Capsule winged 2. Rh. gibbosum (Boiss.) A. Los. et Vved. 

4. Flowers broadly campanulate 4. Rh. bucharicum Rgl. 

*•" Flowers with nearly flat limb 5. Rh. stenantherum Rgl. 

297 1. Rh. Karelini Fisch. in New. Philos. Journ. Jan. (1830) 19; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 148. — Frit ill aria Karelini Rgl. ex Baker in Journ. of 
Linn. Soc. XIV (1875) 268. — Ic: Sweet Gard. ser. 2, tab. 183; Gartenflora 
(1877) tab. 796. 

Perennial; bulb ca. 1 cm long, white, with yellowish outer scales; plants 
grayish due to short shaggy hairs; stem 10-20 cm long; leaves alternately 
scattered or crowded, amplexicaul, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-oval, 
narrowed at both ends, acuminate; upper leaves more distant and passing 
into bracts, these linear, paired, equaling or longer than flower, slightly 
undulate -margined; lower leaves to 5 cm long, 1.5 cm broad; floral leaves 
shorter, ca. 2 mm broad; flowers in a terminal raceme, nodding or 
declined; pedicels shorter than to as long as flower; perianth segments 
oblong-oval, 3-5-nerved, 10-15 mm long, rosy-violet with a dark spot at 
base or dark-dotted and checkered in middle part, shaggy on the back; 
nectary on one outer perianth segment calcarate and -curved inward, not 
projecting outward, the other nectaries smaller; filaments short, slightly 
dilated, hairy-margined, slender in lower part, much longer than the 
subglobose to broadly o'valoid anthers; pistil slightly shorter than stamens; 
capsule narrowed into a stipe, subglobose, 1.5 cm long, wingless, 
inconspicuously ribbed, obtusish at top, toothed at the ends of ribs. March- 
April. 

Steppes, sandy or argillaceous soils, and mountain slopes. — Centr. 
Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh., Kara K. (W.), Mtn. Turkm. Endemic. Described 
from Uralsk steppe. Type in Leningrad. 

2. Rh. gibbosum (Boiss.) A. Los. et Vved. comb, nov.— R. Boissieri 
Klatt. in Hamb, Gartenzeit. XVI (i860) 439. — F r it il 1 ar i a gibbosa 
Boiss. Diagn. PI. nov. 1, VII (1846) 107. — F. pterocarpa Stocks in 
Hooker's Journ. of Bot. IV (1852) 180. — F. Karelini Fisch. f. gibbosa 
Bornm. PI. Straussianae in Beih. Bot. Centr. XXIV (1908) 99. — Ic. : Bot. 
Mag. t. 6406. 

Perennial; bulb with white, scales, 1.5 cm long; stem 15-20 cm long, 
more or less shaggy with short hairs; lower leaves elliptic -lanceolate, 
3-5 cm long, 6-15 mm broad, the upper linear, acute, shorter than the 
lower; flowers zygomorphic, nodding, campanulate; perianth segments rose, 
with numerous darker nerves, faintly violet -checkered about the middle, 
oval-lanceolate, 12-15 mm long, 7-9 mm broad; nectaries equal, calcarate, 
shaggy on the outside, obtusish; filaments dilated in lower part, hairy 
throughout; anthers globose -ovoid, violet-azure; ovary toothed at top; 
capsule winged, the narrow wing with serrate -undulate margin, the apical 
tooth acute. March-May. 

298 Stony slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc; Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. 
(Gaudan). Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Persepolis. Type in Geneva; 
cotype in Leningrad. 

Note. R. gibbosum (Boiss.) A. Los. et Vved. represents a 
connecting link between two pairs of species of the genus Rhinopetalum 
Fisch., i.e., Rh. Karelini, Rh. arianum and Rh. bucharicum, 



229 



Rh. stenantherum, as it displays characteristics of both pairs. It 
resembles Rh. arianum in the shape of perianth segments and differs 
in having a checkered pattern on perianth segments and glabrous stems. 
The characteristics shared with Rh. bucharicum and Rh. stenan- 
therum are the winged capsule and the somewhat oblong anthers. 

3. Rh. arianum A. Los. et Vved. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 738.— 
Exs.: HFRNo.490, sub F. Karelini Fisch. 

Perennial; bulb yellowish, to 2 cm in diameter; stem up to 40 cm long, 
6 mm in diameter, glabrous, smooth; leaves glaucescent, glabrous, the 
lower short linear-lanceolate acuminate, 10-14 mm broad, the middle 
alternate narrowly linear -lanceolate strongly acuminate 2-5 mm broad; 
floral leaves paired, as long as or shorter than the middle ones, equaling 
the flowers; raceme 1-8-flowered; flowers on pedicels 2-22 cm long, 
elongating after anthesis, curved in upper part, acuminate [compare 
Latin description]. Perianth segments oval-lanceolate, to 22 mm long, 
7-9 mm broad, pale rose, darker at the middle, purple -nerved, with a 
yellow spot at base within, dark-dotted on the outer surface; nectaries 
calcariform, one of the outer large, the others subequal small; stamens 
half the length of perianth; anthers subglobose, purple; filaments pubescent; 
pistil slightly longer than stamens; style pale green with punctate stigma, 
capsule stipitate, wingless, subglobose, obtuse at top, with a cusp at the 
end of ribs, ca. 1.8 mm long and broad. March. (Plate XVIII, Figure 1, a-d). 

Sand dunes, shifting sands, and slopes .— Centr. Asia: Kara K., Mtn. 
Turkm. Endemic. Described from Kushka. Type in Tashkent. 

4. Rh. bucharicum (Rgl.)A. Los. comb. nov. — F r i t i 11 a r i a 
bucharica Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII, 1 (1883) 652. — Ic. : A.H.P. VIII tab. 3; 
Gartenflora (1884) tab. 1171. — Exs. : Editio H. B. P. No. 5. 

Perennial; bulb subglobose, with membranous scales, 1-2 cm in 
diameter; stem erect or slightly curved, 15-30 cm long, glabrous below, 
301 in upper part at base of bracts shaggy-pubescent; leaves alternate, the 
lower broadly ovate -elliptic to 8 cm long and 4 cm broad subamplexicaul, 
the upper lanceolate, the floral linear-lanceolate paired 2 mm broad; 
panicle terminal, many-flowered; flowers borne singly in the axils of the 
paired bracts; pedicels to 2 cm long, erect at anthesis, at length nutant; 
terminal flower staminate, the others perfect; perianth white, green or 
faintly violet at base within, with 3-5 greenish longitudinal nerves, 
campanulate; perianth segments oblong-oval to lanceolate, 1.5-1.8 cm long, 
0.4-0.5 cm broad, often with very elongate broad pubescent tip, subequal; 
nectaries calcariform, very prominent, dark green and violet dotted outside, 
shaggy; stamens one-third the length of perianth; filaments slender, densely 
pubescent, about as long as the oblong greenish anthers; pistil with entire 
stigma, about equaling or exceeding the stamens; capsule stipitate, winged 
in upper part. March. 

Slopes and banks of mountain streams.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
Endemic. Described from E. Bukhara (Pyandzh and Murgab rivers). Type 
in Leningrad. 

5. Rh. stenantherum Rgl. inA.H.P. Ill (1873) 204. — F r it i 1 1 ar i a 
stenanthera Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1883) 652. — Ic. : Izv. Ova lyubit. 
estestv., antrop. i etnogr. XXI, pt. 2 (1876) tab. XXII, f. 1-5. 



230 



(299) 




Plate XVIII 

1. Rhinopetalum arianum A. Los . et Vved . : la) flower, lb) capsule, lc) stamen, Id) bulb. 

2. R. stenantherum Rgl.: 2a) flower, 2b) capsule, 2c) stamen, 2d) pistil.— 3. Korolkowia 
Sewerzovii Rgl.: 3a) capsule, 3b) stamen, 3c) perianth segment, 3d) bulb. 



231 



Perennial; bulbs small, to 1 cm long, white; stem 6-15 cm long, rarely 
longer, in lower part sulcate, the leafy part often shaggy with short hairs; 
lower leaves commonly approximate, to 5 cm long, 2 mm broad, 
amplexicaul; upper leaves 1-3, sometimes absent, much longer, alternate; 
floral leaves paired, linear, upright, shorter than the lower; all leaves 
glabrous, rather firm, glaucescent; raceme 1 -8 -flowered; pedicels short, 
recurved; perianth segments 12-22 mm long, 4-7 mm broad, pale rosy- 
violet with 3 greenish nerves, in the spur area dark, violet-brown to 
greenish-brown, oval-lanceolate, obtusish or with blunt elongate points, 
12-18 mm long, 0.4-0.6 cm broad, pubescent at base and at apex; nectaries 
calcariform, similar on all perianth segments, though somewhat larger on 
the outer, hence flowers symmetric; stamens at most half the length of 
perianth; filaments slender, slightly dilated below, white-pubescent, as long 
as the oblong anthers; capsule subglobose, narrowed into a stipe, narrowly 
winged, the wings toothed at apex. April. (Plate XVIII, Figure 2 a-d). 

Gravelly and stony slopes .— Centr. Asia: Pam. -Al. , Syr D., T. Sh. 
Endemic. Described from Bogun, in Kara-tau foothills. Type in Leningrad. 



302 Genus 271. FRITILLARIA L.** 

Gen. PI. ed. II (1742) No. 330.- Amblirion Rafin. in Journ. phys. LXXXIX (18X9)102.- Corona 
Fisch. etR. Grah. in Edinb. N. Phil. Gen. (1789) 49.- Imper ia lis Adans. Fam. II (1763)48.— 
Morucodon Salisb. Gen. PI. Fragm. (1866) 56. 

Perianth campanulate or turbinate; perianth segments 6, petaloid; 
nectaries above the base in the shape of a triangular, oval or round pit, 
often prominent outside, thus segments appearing curved at a right angle 
and the flower turbinate or cylindric; stamens 6, inserted at base; style 
3 -fid; capsule 6 -angled, 3-locular, winged or wingless; stem leafy; bulb 
of 2-4 or numerous fleshy scales. 

1. Bulb of 4 fleshy scales, large; flowers in an umbel (Section 
Petilium L.) 2. 

"*■ Bulb of 2 fleshy scales or numerous small scales, small; flowers 

solitary or in a raceme 3. 

2. Perianth yellowish-green 22. F. Raddeana Rgl. 

* Perianth red 23. F. Eduardi Rgl. 

3. Bulb of 2 fleshy scales; flowers solitary or in a raceme (Section 

Euf r it i 11 ar i a Boiss.) 4. 

■+ Bulb of numerous small scales, sometimes the outer ones stalked 

("eyelets"). (Section Liliorhiza Kellog.) 24. 

4. All leaves alternate 5. 

"*■ Leaves opposite or verticillate, sometimes the middle ones alternate. 

19. 

5. Stem always 1 -flowered (Caucasian species) 10. 

•+ Stem 1-5-flowered 6. 

6. Flowers yellowish-green 1. F. pallidiflora Schrenk. 

"+ Flowers reddish or bright violet 7. 

7. All leaves alternate 8. 

"*• Upper and lower leaves approximate, the upper sometimes in 3's, the 

middle alternate 2. F. montana Hoppe. 



* From Latin fritillus, adicebox, referring to shape of perianth. 
** Arranged by A.S.Lozina-Lozinskaya. 



232 



8. Capsule winged, 6-angled; floral leaves spirally twisted 

3. F. ruthenica Wikstr. 

■**" Capsule obtusely 3-angled; floral leaves not twisted 9. 

9. Capsule acuminate; pedicels exceeding the uppermost leaf; flowers 
faintly checkered 4. F. meleagroides Patrin. 

"•" Capsule obtusish; pedicels shorter than the uppermost leaf; flowers 
„-« conspicuously checkered 5. F. meleagris L. 

10. Perianth unicolor 11. 

■* Perianth in upper part yellow, in lower part violet or purple, or purple 

with a longitudinal yellow band 17. 

11. Flowers yellow 6. F. lutea Mill. 

*♦* Flowers purple, brown or violet 12. 

12. Perianth turbinate -Campanulate 13. 

+ Perianth conical or campanulate 14. 

13. Stem to 15 cm long; perianth lighter-colored, greenish-brown, faintly 
checkered 7. F. Kotschyana Herb. 

+ Stem to 30 cm long; perianth darker, dark brownish-purple, 

conspicuously checkered violet -purple 8. F. latifolia Willd. 

14. Perianth to 5 cm long, broadly campanulate . . .' 

9. F. grandiflora Grossh. 

+ Perianth to 3 cm long, narrowly campanulate or conical-campanulate. 
15. 

15. Style with entire or obsoletely 3-lobed stigma 16. 

"*" Style rather deeply 3-fid, with 3 stigmas .... 10. F. orientalis Adam. 

16. Filaments glabrous 11. F. caucasica Adam. 

** Filaments shaggy 12. F. armena Boiss. 

17. Perianth segments purple, with a yellow longitudinal band 

13. F. kurdica Bois. et Noe. 

"*" Perianth segments in lower part violet or purple, in upper part yellow. 
18. 

18. The borderline between the colors of lower and upper parts of perianth 
distinct 14. F. Michailovskyi Fom. 

+ The borderline between the colors of lower and upper parts of perianth 
indistinct 15. F. Grossheimiana A. Los. 

19. Upper and lower leaves paired, the middle alternate or verticillate. 
20. 

+ All leaves verticillate, rarely the lower paired 22. 

20. Perianth tubular -campanulate, the segments at the site of nectary 
curved at right angle 16. F. Walujewi Rgl. 

"*■ Perianth broadly campanulate, the segments slightly incurved . . . . 21. 

21. Distance between flowers and leaves equaling the leafy part of stem; 
flowers brownish- violet 17. F. Regelii A. Los. 

**■ Distance between flowers and leaves shorter than the leafy part of stem; 
flowers yellowish-green, purple-tipped 18. F. Olgae Vved. 

22. Flowers dark brownish-purple, large, narrowly campanulate 

19. F. ussuriensis Maxim. 

+ Flowers light-colored, yellowish or rosy-green 23. 

23. Stem 1 -flowered; leaves rarely with twisted tips 

20. F. ferganensis A. Los. 

"*" Stem many-flowered; floral and cauline leaves always with strongly 

twisted tips 21. F. verticillata Willd. 



233 



304 



24. Stem with a single leaf whorl 25. 

+ Stem with numerous leaf whorls . . . 24. F. kamtschatcensis (L.) Fisch. 

25. Perianth segments obovate, obtusish 25. F. dagana Turcz. 

■+ Perianth segments oblong-elliptic, strongly tapering at both ends, 

acute 26. F. Maximoviczii Freyn. 



Section EUFRITILLARIA Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 177. -Sect. 
Fritillaria ex Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 145. — Sect. Petilium Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 147, p. p. — Bulb small, 1 - 1 .5 cm in diameter, consisting of 
2 fleshy scales; flowers solitary or in a few -flowered raceme. 



Series 1. Alternifoliae A. Los.— Leaves alternate; flowers in a terminal 
raceme or rarely solitary; perianth campanulate. 

1. F. pallidiflora Schrenk, Enum. PI. nov. II (1842) 5; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, 148, 187. — Ic: Gartenflora (1857) t. 209. 

Perennial, glabrous throughout, pale green, glaucescent with waxy bloom; 
stem to 80 cm long, erect, 5-7 mm in diameter; leaves alternate, broadly 
lanceolate, acuminate, 7-13 cm long, 2-3.5 cm broad; upper leaves shorter 
and narrower, sessile, sometimes gathered in a whorl, the lower 
semiamplexicaul; floral leaves linear -lanceolate, strongly acuminate, 
commonly paired at base of pedicels; flowers nodding, 1-5 in a sparse 
raceme; pedicels erect, recurved at the ends, 5-9 cm long; perianth 
campanulate, 2.5-4.5 cm long, 2.5-3 cm in diameter; segments pale yellow, 
with darker translucent nerves, turning brown after anthesis, checkered 
pale brown within, greenish and red-spotted below; nectaries deep, oval; 
outer perianth segments oblong-obovate, round-tipped, curved at a right 
angle at the site of nectary; inner segments slightly shorter than the outer, 
ovate -spatulate, narrowed toward base, slightly acuminate, curved at an 
obtuse angle; stamens shorter than the pistil, the filaments appressed to 
style; stigma deeply dissected; capsule winged, oblong, to 2.5 cm long 
and 2 cm broad, rounded at top; flowers with a faint unpleasant odor. May- 
June. 

Slopes of the subalpine zone. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb., T. Sh. 
Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. (Kuldja). Described from Dzungaria Ala Tau. 
Type in Leningrad. 
305 Note. Regel in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI (1868) mentions var. 

uniflora with a solitary flower and var. pluriflora with 2 to many 
flowers . 

2. F. montana Hoppe, Flora XV, 2 (1832) 476. — F. tenella Shmal'g., 
Fl. II, 507; Asch. u. Gr. Synopsis III (1905-07) 190, nonM.B.— 

F. racemosa L. D. minor Ker.-Gawl. Bot. Mag. (1809) t. 1216, non 
Schult. — Ic: Rchb. Ic . Fl. Germ. X, f. 278. 

Perennial; bulb small, globose; stem 20-45 cm long, erect, glabrous; 
leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, slightly canaliculate, obtuse, the upper 
and lower always gathered in pairs, the upper sometimes in 3's, the middle 
alternate, 7-13 cm long, 3-10 mm broad; floral leaf forming an erect 
tassel; flowers solitary or 2; pedicels shorter than upper leaves, suberect; 



234 



perianth dark red, broadly campanulate, checkered with yellowish within; 
perianth segments elliptic, 18-26 mm long, 8-12 mm broad, the outer 
narrower; style 3 -fid nearly to the middle; capsule obovoid, flattened at 
top, tapering at base into a short stipe. April-May. 

In meadows among shrubs. — European part: M. Dnp. (Podolia). 
Gen. distr. : Balkans, E. Europe. Described from Europe (Trieste). 

3. F. ruthenica Wikstr. in Vet. Acad. Handl. II (1821) 353 tab. 5, f. 2; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 147.— F. verticillata M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. I 
(1808)268, non Willd. — Ic. : Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. tab. 2; Sweet. Br. Fl. 
Gard. IV (1838) 1343. 

Perennial; bulb to 1 cm in diameter, flattened; stem 20-50 cm long, 
erect, slender, glabrous, smooth, leafy from middle third; leaves 
alternate, slightly amplexicaul, linear, acute, 6-9 cm long, 3-5 mm broad, 
the upper filiform, shorter, approximate, with spirally twisted tips; 
flowers 1-5, in a loose terminal raceme in the axils of upper leaves; pedicels 
curved, much shorter than perianth; perianth campanulate, dark red, 
faintly darker-checkered, yellowish within a greenish downward-enlarged 
band; outer perianth segments narrowly oval, to 3 cm long, to 8 cm broad, 
the inner obovate obtusely long-tipped, to 3.5 cm long and to 1.5 cm broad; 
nectaries shallow, rounded-oval, forming a prominent tubercle on the 
outside; style 3 -fid to the middle, exceeding the stamens; filaments dilated 
below, longer than the anthers, capsule winged, 6 -angled, to 2 cm long and 
1.8 cm broad, flattened at top, slightly narrowed toward base. April-May. 
(Plate XIX, Figure 8). 

Scrub, meadows, and stony places .— European part: V.-Don, U. Dnp., 
M. Dnp., Bl., L. Don, Transv., L. V. ; Caucasus: Cisc; W. Siberia: 
U. Tob.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (N. ), Balkh., T. Sh., Syr D. Described 
from the Caucasus. 

306 4. F. meleagroides Patrin ex Schult. f. Syst. veget. VII, 1 (1829)345.— 
F. minor Ldb. Fl. alt. II (1830) 34; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 146, Shmal'g., 
Fl. II, 508.— F. pyrenaica Georgi Beschr. d. Russ. R. Ill, 4(1775) 
900, nonL.-Ic: Ldb. Ic. PI. Fl. Ross. II, t. 130. 

Perennial; bulb to 1.5 cm in diameter, flattened, globose, white, with 
a brown membranous tunic; stems 25-60 cm long, glabrous, smooth, 
leafless in lower part; leaves 3-7, alternate, linear, semiamplexicaul, 
attenuate toward apex, 5-15 cm long, 1-7 mm broad, straight or slightly 
recurved; flower solitary, terminal, pendulous, smaller than that of 
F. meleagris Wikstr.; pedicel longer than the uppermost leaf; perianth 
segments dark brownish-violet, faintly checkered or speckled, 2-3 cm 
long, 7-12 mm broad, the outer narrower, oblong-elliptic, narrowed, the 
inner oblong-obovate, obtuse and spiculate; stamens as in F. meleagris 
Wikstr. ; style 3-fid nearly to the middle; capsule oblong-ovoid, obtusely 
3-angled, capsule acuminate, to 2 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. 
April-May. 

Steppe belt, meadows, brooks, mudflats, sometimes on solonetz. — 
European part: Bl., U. Dnp., V.-Don, L. Don, Transv., L. V.; W. Siberia: 
U. Tob., Alt., Irt.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. Endemic. Described 
from Altai. 



235 



5. F. meleagris L. Sp. PI. (1753) 436; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 146; 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 508.— F. praecox hort. ex Ind. Sem. H. Ber. (1855) 
10.— Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X, t.442; Gartenfl. (1867) t. 550. — Exs. : 
PI. Finl. Exs. No. 574. 

Perennial; bulb flattened, with a brown membranous tunic, globose, 
7-15 mm in diameter; leaves 2-6, alternate, borne on the upper part of 
stem, linear-lanceolate, tapering toward both ends, obtusish, 
semiamplexicaul, 8-13 cm long, 3-10 cm broad, the upper shorter and 
narrower; flowers commonly solitary, rarely 2, nodding; pedicel shorter 
than the uppermost leaf; perianth segments oblong-elliptic, slightly 
tapering toward apex, obtuse, subequal, the outer slightly narrower than 
the inner, 3-4 cm long, 1-1.5 mm broad, conspicuously checkered with 
dark purple and whitish; stamens paler below, about half the length of 
perianth segments; anthers linear, yellow; filaments two-thirds the length 
of anthers, gradually dilated toward base; pistil slightly exceeding the 
stamens; style 3-fid to l/3; capsule obtusely 3 -angled, flattened at top. 
May- June. 

Woods, meadows, and wet places. — European part: V.-Don, L. Don, 
Transv., L. V., Bl. Gen. distr. : W. Europe. Described from France and 
Italy. Type in London. 



307 Series 2. Trichostileae Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 177 p.p.— Leaves 
alternate; flowers solitary; perianth turbinate; style parted to 1/4. 

6. F. lutea Mill., Gard. Diet. ed. VIII (1768) No. 4 M. B., Fl. 
taur.-cauc. I (1808) 269. — F. orientalis Willd. ex Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
145, non Adams. — F. glaucescens Willd. ex Kunt, Enum. pi. IV (1843) 
250. — Ic: M.B. Cent. pi. Ross. tab. 41; Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X (1848) 
t.442.— Exs.: PI. Or. exs. No. 152; Herb. Fl. cauc. No. 164. 

Perennial; bulb white, 2 cm across; stem 15-20 cm long, 2 mm in 
diameter, glabrous, leafless below, bearing above the middle up to 
6 alternate narrowly lanceolate (the upper linear) glabrous obtusish leaves; 
lower leaves 10 cm long, 1.5 cm broad; upper leaves 7 — 8 cm long and 
3-6 mm broad; flowers solitary, nodding, borne in the axils of the terminal 
upright leaves; pedicels recurved; perianth turbinate, 3-3i cm in diameter, 
yellow, with oblong greenish nerves and checkered on both si : ?s or merely 
inside with reddish-brown transverse lines, broadly oval, tap'i ~ing at base 
into a claw, fimbriate -margined, with an apical tuft of short white hairs; 
outer segments not clawed, narrowed, curved perpendicularly at the deep 
narrowly ovate nectary; stamens shorter than pistil; filaments slightly 
dilated below, appressed to style; anthers 1 cm long; style divided into 
3 fleshy lobes, bearded between the lobes; capsule ovaloid-clavate, 
obtusely 3 -angled. April-May. (Plate XIX, Figure 1, a, b). 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W. and E. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from cultivated specimens originating from Kazbek area. 

7. F. Kotschyana Herbert in Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1844) misc. 43.— 

F. latifolia |3 Kotschyana Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 178.— F. nobilis 
Bak. Bot. Mag. (1896) tab. 7500. 



236 






Bulb ovaloid, less than 1 cm across; stem monanthous, 12-15 cm long, 
smooth, glabrous, reddish, glaucous -green above; leaves 4-6, alternate, 
scattered, glaucescent, semiamplexicaul, linear-elliptic, 5-6 cm long, 
1-1.5 cm broad*, obtuse, the upper narrower and acuminate; flower 
turbinate-campanulate, nodding, large, greenish-red, checkered, paler 
and more yellow within; perianth segments elliptic, obtuse, to 4 cm long, 
the inner 2 cm the outer 1 cm broad; nectaries small, shallow; stamens 
shorter than perianth; anthers pale yellow; filaments dilated below; style 
3 -parted to 1/3; capsule oblong-obovoid, obtusely angled, ca. 2 cm long. 
May- June. 

Mountain woods. — Caucasus: Tal. Gen. distr. : N. Persia. Described 
from plants grown at Manchester from bulbs obtained from El'brus. 

308 8. F. latifolia Willd. Sp. PI. II (1799)92, Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 145.— 
F. esculenta Adams in Wed. et Mohr. Beitr. I (1805) 52. — Ic. : Bot. 
Mag. t. No. 853, 1207; Redoute Lil. (1802) tab. 151. 

Perennial; bulb flattened-globose, to 1.5 cm across, white, consisting 
of 2 fleshy scales, bearing numerous small bulblets between the scales; 
stem to 30 cm long, leafless to the middle, rather densely leafy in upper 
part, glabrous, smooth; leaves alternate, the upper broadly elliptic to 
narrowly lanceolate, the lower to 8 cm long and 3 cm broad, the upper 
3 cm long and less than 1 cm broad, acuminate, many-nerved, rather firm, 
thickish, light green, glabrous; flowers solitary, terminal; pedicels 
recurved to nutant, becoming erect in fruit; perianth turbinate, dark violet - 
purple, checkered with yellow inside, with a greenish bloom on the outer 
surface; inner perianth segments oblong-obovate, 3.5 cm long, 2-2.5 cm 
broad; outer segments oblong-elliptic, slightly tapering toward base, 
1-1.5 cm broad; filaments slightly dilated below, as long as anthers; pistil 
3 -fid to l/3, as long as stamens; capsule to 3 cm long, 13 mm broad, 
cylindric, slightly narrower at base, obtusish, with rounded ribs. April- 
May. 

Subalpine and alpine zones; slopes with clay soil, and meadows.— 
Caucasus: Cisc, W. and E. Transc. Endemic. Described from cultivated 
specimens. Type in Berlin. 

9. F. grandiflora Grossh., Mon. Jard. Bot. Tifl. XIII-XIV (1919) 52.— 
Ic. : Ibid. tab. V. 

Perennial, glaucous throughout; stem 25-53 cm long; leaves 5-10 
(mostly 7-8), alternate, the lower 1.6-2.3 mm broad, the upper much 
narrower; flowers solitary or 2 or 3, large, broadly campanulate; perianth 
segments 3.7-5.2 cm long, brownish-purple, rather faintly checkered, 
oblong, with an oblong-oval nectary somewhat above the base, the outer 
greener and narrower than the inner, all broadly triangular-tipped, acute; 
stamens one-third the length of perianth; filaments pubescent, half as 
long again as the anthers; style thick, 3-fid nearly from the middle. April. 

Rocks in woods. — Caucasus: Tal. Endemic. Described from vicinity 
of village of Lerik. Type in Tiflis. 

311 10. F. orientalis Adams in Web. et Mohr, Beitr. I (1805) 50.— 

F. tenella M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. (1808)269, 425. 



237 



(309) 




Plate XIX 

1. Fritillaria lutea Mill.: la) capsule; lb) pistil.- 2. F. Maximoviczi Freyn.- 

3. F. ferganensis A. Los.: 3a) capsule.- 4. F.Grossheimiana A. Los.- 5. F.Michailowskyi 

Fomin.- 6. F. Raddeana Rgl. : 6a) bulb.- 7. F. ka m tsch a t cens is (L.) Ker.-Gawl. bulb.- 

8. F. ruthenica Wikstr. bulb. 



238 



Perennial; bulb round in cross section, white; stem very slender, 
15—40 cm long, smooth, glabrous, leafy from the middle third; leaves 
linear, slightly canaliculate, tapering toward apex, the upper grouped in 
2's or 3's, to 8 cm long, 3-5 cm broad; flowers solitary; pedicels 
recurved, shorter than uppermost leaf; perianth campanulate; perianth 
segments oblong-elliptic, obtuse, obtusely green-tipped, the outer 3 cm 
long and 1 cm broad, the inner 3 cm long and 1.4 cm broad, dingy purple 
outside, yellowish checkered with dingy purple within; stamens about half 
the length of perianth; anthers shorter than filaments; style 3 -fid to more 
than l/3; capsule obtusely 6 -angled. June. 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: Cisc. Described from the Caucasus. 



Series 3. Olostyleae Boiss. Fl. Or. (1884)177, p. p. — Leaves 
alternate; flowers solitary; perianth campanulate; style simple or 3 -parted 
at summit. 

11. F. caucasica Adams in Web. et Mohr, Beitr. I (1805) 51.— 

F. tulipifolia M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. I (1808) 27; v Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
145; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 185. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. t. 5960; M.B. Cent. PI. 
Ross. I, t. 121. — Exs.: PI. or. exs. (1922) No. 108; HFR No. 591, sub 
F. tulipaefolia M. B. 

Perianth; bulb white, consisting of 2 fleshy scales, up to 2 cm across; 
stem glabrous, smooth or very finely sulcate, 15-40 cm long, leafy from 
the middle; leaves 3-4, glaucous, alternate, the lower oblong-oval, to 
8 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, the upper narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 
all amplexicaul; flowers solitary, nodding; perianth campanulate -conical, 
dark reddish-violet, not checkered, cinereous outside; perianth segments 
18-25 mm long, elliptic -lanceolate, many-nerved, with a narrow nectary; 
stamens slightly shorter than perianth, glabrous below; style simple, 
with 3-lobed stigma; capsule oblong-ovaloid, to 2 cm long, narrowed below. 
April. 

Mountain slopes, scrub. — Caucasus: Cisc, E. and W. Transc, Dag. 
Endemic. Described from Konstantinogorsk. 

Note. There are records of var. angustifolia Miscz. ex Grossh. 
Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 220.— all leaves linear, 2-4 mm broad. — Cisc. and 
Georgia (Tiflis) and var. lencoranica Miscz. I.e. — larger plants; 
flower larger, campanulate. — E. Transc. (Baku). 

12. F. armena Boiss. Diagn. pi. I, VII (1846) 106. — Ic: Bot. Mag., 
tab. 6365; Gartenfl. (1883) 150. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 1 cm across, consisting of 2 small scales; 
312 stem glabrous, slightly sulcate, 10-20 cm long, very slender, leafy in 
middle part; leaves 3 or 4, alternate, the lower lanceolate 4-5 cm long 
and to 1.5 cm broad, the upper linear much shorter, all acuminate, the 
lower amplexicaul; flowers solitary, rather small, nodding; perianth 
conical, to 20 mm long, dark red, not checkered; perianth segment elliptic - 
lanceolate, obtuse, ciliate at tips; nectaries small, oblong; stamens with 
shaggy filaments about twice the length of anther; pistil exceeding the 
stamens; style simple, with 3-lobed stigma. April. 



239 



Alpine zone; alpine meadows, slopes, and scrub. — Caucasus: E. and 
S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Turkish Armenia. Described from Armenia. 
Type in Geneva. 



Series 4. Discolores A. Los. — Perianth campanulate, with upper and 
lower part differently colored or with longitudinal medial band differing in 
color from the margins. 

13. F. kurdica Boiss. et Noe. in Diagn. pi. 2, IV (1859) 103; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V, 183. — F. racemosa Grossh. Fl. Kavk. 1(1928)221, non 
Ker. -Gawl. 

Perennial; bulb to 1.5 cm across; stem to 20 cm long, leafy in upper 
half (reckoning from the deep buried bulb); leaves alternate, the lower 
paired, largest, to 7 cm long and 1 cm broad; upper leaves commonly 3, 
narrower, the uppermost floral sublinear, 3 cm long; flowers always 
solitary, nodding or declined; pedicels much shorter than the campanulate 
perianth; outer segments oblong-oval to lance -oval, slightly acuminate, 
2.5 cm long, 8 mm broad, the inner oblong-obovate, round-tipped, tapering 
toward base, all dark purple, checkered in lower part, with conspicuous 
dark longitudinal nerves and a prominent (especially within) oblong median 
band, the outer segments glaucescent outside; filaments dilated below; 
anthers short, obtuse; style as long as stamens; ovary with rounded ribs; 
stigma 3-lobed. May. 

Mountain slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr.: Arm. -Kurd. 
Described from vicinity of Lake Van. Cotype in Leningrad. 

14. F. Michailovskyi Fomin. in Mon. Jard. Bot. Tifl. 1 (1905) 18. 
Perennial; bulb 1-1.5 cm across, white, of 2 fleshy scales; stem 

10-20 cm long, sulcate; leaves 3-5, the lower approximate, sometimes 
nearly opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, 6-7 cm long, 1-2 mm broad, 
semiamplexicaul, tapering at both ends, obtuse, the upper narrowly 
313 lanceolate to linear, acuminate; flowers solitary, rarely 2 or 3, nodding; 
perianth campanulate; perianth segments oblong-elliptic, to 30 mm long, 
obtusish, ciliate at tips, the lower part dark reddish-violet, the upper 
bright yellow, the borderline between the two parts distinct; nectaries deep, 
prominent outside as a large tubercle or spur; filaments ciliate, papillose, 
slightly longer than anthers; style as long as ovary, 3 -fid to the middle. 
May. (Plate XIX, Figure 5). 

Stony soil, slopes. Possibly occurring in S. Transc. (known from 
former Kars Region). Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd. Described from Mount 
Askor-dag. Type in Tiflis. 

15. F. Grossheimiana A. Los. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 739. 
Perennial; bulb white, globose, 1-1.5 cm across, of 2 fleshy scales; 

stem 5-20 cm long, glabrous, smooth, leafless below, densely leafy from 
middle third; leaves alternate, approximate, glaucous, broadly lanceolate 
to narrowly linear; strongly acuminate, to 5 cm long; flowers 1 or 2, 
terminal; perianth narrowly campanulate, the inner segments oval-oblong, 
the outer narrower, elliptic, 1.7-2 cm long, violet outside, the inner 
segments yellow, checkered, the lower part darker, the upper lighter, 



240 



with no distinct borderline between the two parts (c.f. F. Michailovskyi 
Fomin.); style parted to 1/3; stamens about half the length of perianth. 
May. (Plate XIX, Figure 4). 

Dry stony slopes.— N. Iran. Described from Iranian Azerbaijan, 
Sakhend. Type irt Leningrad. Possibly occurring in S. Armenia. 



Series 5. Verticillatae A. Los.— Leaves verticillate, sometimes the 
middle ones alternate; flowers in a terminal raceme or solitary. 

16. F. Walujewi Rgl. Gartenflora (1879) 353. — Ic. : Ibid. tab. 993. 
Perennial; stem glabrous, 20-30 cm long, leafy below; lower leaves 

opposite; middle leaves commonly in whorls of 3 or 4, the upper opposite 
or alternate, all linear-lanceolate; lower leaves obtuse, scarcely tapering, 
the middle and upper attenuate to a sharp point, the uppermost and the floral 
with spirally coiled tips, glaucous beneath, green above, to 10 cm long and 
1.5 cm broad; flower solitary (rarely 2 or 3); nodding, tubular- 
campanulate; perianth segments oblong-elliptic, 5 cm long, 1.5 cm broad, 
with a prominent projection corresponding to nectary, subequal, whitish- 
green outside, brownish-purple within with whitish spots and faintly 
314 checkered; nectariferous pit round; filaments longer than anthers, dilated 
below; pistil with a 3-lobed stigma, exceeding the anthers; ovary cylindric; 
capsule 2.5-3.5 cm long, 2 cm broad, flattened at top, the ribs winged. 
May. 

Mountains. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb.; T. Sh. Endemic. 

17. F. Regelii A. Los. sp. nov in Addenda III, p. 739.— F. ruthenica 
Wikst. var. bucharica Rgl. in sched. 

Perennial; bulb 1 cm across, of 2 small white scales, clothed with 
whitish membranous scales; stem to 40 cm long, erect, slightly sulcate, 
leafy only in middle part, leafless elsewhere, the upper portion of stem 
about as long as the leafy portion; lower and upper leaves opposite, paired, 
the middle alternate or sometimes opposite, the upper sometimes alternate; 
lower leaves lanceolate, obtuse, the middle and upper narrowly lanceolate, 
strongly acuminate, all upright, 6-7 cm long, 5-1.5 cm broad, 
prominently many-nerved; flowers commonly solitary (rarely 2), declined, 
not nodding; pedicels recurved at the ends, 1.5-3 cm long; bracts at the 
base of pedicels 2 or 3, linear, acute, erect, slightly twisted at the ends; 
perianth campanulate, brownish-violet, glaucescent outside; perianth 
segments oblong-lanceolate to ovate -lanceolate, narrowed aoward base, 
with numerous darker nerves, obtusely point -tipped, 3 cm*Lor#, 9-13 mm 
broad; nectaries oblong, superficial; filaments dilated below, ybout as 
long as anthers; pistil shorter than perianth, the style cleft to l/3; ovary 
acutely 6 -angled, deeply emarginate. June. 

Mountain slopes, chernozem soils, and dense plant stands. — Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. Darvaz and Karateginskie mountains. Endemic. Described 
from Kulyab and from Peter the Great Range. Type in Leningrad. 



18. F. Olgae* Vved. in Fl. Turkm. I, 2 (1932) 297. — F. serawscha- 
nica Fedtsch. inschedis. 

* Arranged by O. A. Fedchenko. 



241 



Perennial; bulb 1 .5-1 .8 cm across, white, the outer scales light-colored, 
membranous; stem erect, 20-60 cm or sometimes up to 1 m long, slightly 
sulcate, often minutely puncticulate with reddish-lilac, with leaves rather 
evenly distributed from base, the distance between leaves and flowers very 
variable but always much shorter than the leafy portion of stem; leaves 
linear-lanceolate, strongly acuminate, the lowest obtuse, slightly arching; 
upper and floral leaves round-tipped, 6-11 cm long, 0.5-2 cm broad 
(3.5 cm in plants from Kugitang), in whorls of 3-6 or opposite, the lower 
315 paired; flowers 1-5, erect or declined; perianth broadly campanulate, 

strongly narrowed toward base; segments yellowish-green outside, green 
on the back; inner surface lustrous, dark green with purple apex or reddish- 
violet throughout, the faint checkered purple pattern intensified toward the 
purple apex; the outer face of inner segments also purple at apex; outer 
segments narrowly elliptic, narrowed toward base, to 3 cm long, 0.8 cm 
broad, subacuminate; inner segments oblong- obovate, strongly narrowed 
toward base, 3 cm long, 1.4 cm broad, round-tipped or apiculate; nectaries 
triangular, blackish-purple, at the base of perianth segments; stamens half 
the length of perianth; filaments slightly dilated below; anthers acuminate; 
style cleft nearly to the middle; capsule 1.5-2 cm long, 2-2.5 cm broad, 
with winged ribs and acutely emarginate top. June. 

Juniper woods, gullies, and slopes.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
(Zeravshan, Kugitang). Endemic. Described from Kugitang. Type in 
Tashkent. 

Note. Solitary-flowered forms are associated with the E. part of the 
distribution area (Lake Kuli-kalon). They are lower and resemble in 
aspect F. Regelii Los. 

19. F. ussuriensis Maxim, in Trautv. Rgl., Maxim, et Winkl. Dec. 
pi. nov. (1882) 9. 

Perennial; bulb small, ca. 1 cm across; stem to 60 cm long, slender, 
glabrous, leafless in lower third, leafy above; leaves verticillate, the 
upper often paired, linear, acuminate, to 15 cm long, 0.2-0.6 cm broad, 
the upper with characteristically twisted tips, the floral erect, with strongly 
twisted tips; flowers solitary, declined; pedicels slender, slightly shorter 
than perianth; perianth narrowly campanulate, brownish-violet outside, the 
inner surface purple, lilac below, checkered with yellow and yellowish- 
tipped; outer perianth segments oblong-obovate, obtuse -tipped, to 3.5 cm 
long and 1.5 cm broad; inner segments oblong-elliptic, acutish, slightly 
shorter and narrower than the outer, all bent at a right angle at the site 
of nectary; nectaries round, prominently tumid outside; stamens shorter 
than perianth; filaments dilated below, pubescent, longer than anthers; 
pistil with shaggy style and deeply lobed stigma; capsule broadly obovoid, 
with rounded angles and a round top. May. 

Wet sandy soils, woods, meadows, and river valleys. — Far East: 
Uss. Endemic. Described from the Vaifudin River. Type in Leningrad. 

20. F. ferganensis A. Los sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 740. 
Bulb 1 cm across; stem very slender, finely sulcate, pale green, 

25-40 cm long, with leaves evenly distributed from middle third, 
316 monanthous; lower and mostly upper leaves opposite, paired, the middle 
in whorls of 3 or 4, linear, gradually attenuate to sharp point 
(this spirally coiled in upper leaves), to 12 cm long, 0.6 cm broad, the 
lower leaves broader and shorter, linear-lanceolate, purple; floral leaves 

242 



almost subulate, rather strongly twisted; flowers solitary, declined; 
pedicels much shorter than perianth; perianth broadly campanulate, slightly 
narrowed toward base, pale violet -rose, greenish below, checkered with 
greenish-brown; perianth segments ca. 3 cm long, the outer oblong-elliptic, 
obtusish, 0.8-0.9 cm broad, the inner oblong-obovate, prominently obtuse- 
tipped, 1.2-1.3 cm broad, nectaries oblong, on lower one -third of segments, 
prominent outside; stamens about half the length of perianth; filaments 
slightly dilated, longer than the obtuse anthers; pistil with deeply cleft style; 
capsule 1.5 cm long and broad, the wings about as broad as the angles, 
tapering to a point at apex, the top strongly emarginate. May. (Plate XIX, 
Figure 3, a). 

Stony slopes and juniper thickets .— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Alai and 
Trans -Alai ranges, Alai Valley). Endemic. Described from the Kandur 
and Airtash rivers. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A species related to F. Regelii A. Los., F. Olgae Wed., 
and F. verticillata Willd. It differs from these species in the following 
characters: from F. Regelii Los. in its leaves and flower color; from 
F. Olgae Vved in the always monanthous stem, and the shape and color 
of flowers; from F. verticillata Willd. in the mbnanthous stem, flower 
color and narrower leaves. 

21. F. verticiUata Willd. Sp. pi. II (1799)91.— F. leucantha Fisch. 
ex Schult. Syst. VII (1829) 393. — F. scandens Fisch. ex Schult. I.e.— 
F. altaica Lam. ex Schult. I.e. — Ic. : Bot. Mag., t. 5969. 

Perennial; bulb globose, to 2 cm across; stem 20-60 cm long, in lower 
part leafless and rough due to tubercles, from middle third rather densely 
leafy, glabrous, smooth; lowest leaves opposite, broader than the rest; 
other leaves in whorls of 3-7, narrowly lanceolate to linear, 5-10 cm long, 
2-10 mm broad, all leaves with strongly helicoid tips (at flowering only 
the tips of upper leaves coiled); flowers 1-5, nodding, campanulate; 
pedicels shorter than perianth; outer perianth segments oblong-elliptic, 
narrowed at both ends, acuminated concave, 3-4.5 cm long, 1.5 cm broad; 
inner segments oblong-obovate, point-tipped, 3-4.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm 
broad, yellowish white, with darker-striped outside, the inner surface 
checkered with pale violet; nectaries on lower one-fourth, prominently 
31? tuber -shaped outside; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments dilated 
below, slightly longer than anthers; pistil exceeding the stamens, 3 -fid to 
1/3; capsule obovoid, 2-2.5 cm broad, 2.5-3 cm long, winged, 6-angled, 
truncate and emarginate. April. 

Stony and dry slopes. — W. Siberia: Alt.; Centr. Asia: Balkh., Dzu.- 
Tarb. Endemic. Described from Siberia (Altai). Type in Berlin. 



Section PETILUUM (L.) ex Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 177. — L. Gen. PI. 
ed. I (1737) No. 259 (pro gen.).— Bulb large, to 8 cm across, of 4 fleshy 
scales, these united in lower part; flowers in a terminal umbel. 

22. F. Raddeana Rgl. in A.H.P. X (1887) 365. — F. aschabadensis 
M. Michel in Journ. Soc. Hort. Fr. (1902) 195. — F. M ar c . - M i c h e li 
Freyn et Sint. in sched. — Ic. : Bot. Mag., t. 7850. 

Perennial; bulb to 6 cm across, broadly ovoid; robust glabrous plants; 
stems erect, 50-60 cm long, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, covered at the middle 
with alternate or subverticillate decurrent leaves, leafless in upper part; 

243 



leaves glabrous, lustrous, pale green, sessile; lower and middle leaves 
broadly lanceolate, slightly acuminate, to 15 cm long and 5 cm broad; 
upper leaves linear-lanceolate, acute; inflorescence 2 -7 -flowered, cymose 
at base, with a cluster of linear acute recurved floral leaves; pedicels 
declined, slightly longer than flower; flowers broadly campanulate; perianth 
segments pale yellow or greenish, with several yellowish-green nerves 
and an apical tuft of short white hairs, the outer oblong-lanceolate, the 
inner lance -rhomboidal; nectaries at base of segments shallow, scarcely 
prominent outside; filaments white, slightly dilated, shorter than the style; 
anthers yellowish, to 6 mm long; style 3 -fid. April. (Plate XIX, Figure 6 a). 

Scrub and stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (in Kopet Dagh 
foothills). Endemic. Described from Khodzha-Kala-bami. Type in 
Leningrad. 

23. F. Eduardii Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII, 3 (1883) 654, tab. II.— 
F. imperialis var. inodora Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII, 3 (1883) 653.— 
Ic: Gartenfl. (1884) tab. 1165. 

Perennial; bulb inodorous, ovaloid -ovoid, 5.6 cm long, 4-5 cm across, 
with 4 yellowish inner and dark brown outer scales; stem erect, sulcate, 
glabrous, 40-60 cm long, covered from the middle third nearly to summit 
318 with evenly distributed leaves, a very short naked portion just below the 
inflorescence; leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate -lanceolate, semi- 
amplexicaul, acuminate, slightly crisp-margined, with numerous parallel 
veins, to 12 cm long, 4.5 cm broad; flowers in a crowded terminal 
umbellate leafy inflorescence; floral leaves narrower and shorter than the 
cauline, forming a terminal rosette; flowers several times the length of 
pedicel, erect or declined (not nodding as in F. imperialis L.); perianth 
bright red, campanulate, 4.5 cm long; perianth segments subequal, oblong- 
lanceolate, the reflexed tips terminating in a minute mucro bearing a tuft 
of hairs; nectaries round, superficial, at the base of segments; stamens 
much shorter than pistil; filaments scarcely dilated, longer than anthers; 
pistil equaling the perianth; with a short ovary and a 3-lobed stigma; 
capsule broadly cylindric, 6-7 cm long, 5-6 mm broad, with winged ribs, 
flat at base and at top; seeds irregularly oblong-ovoid, angled. March. 

Mountain slopes.— Centr. Asia (mountains of E. Bukhara). Endemic. 
Described from Tash-Mailik, Boratag, Pyandzh River. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The species F. Eduardii Rgl. was mentioned by A. Regel 
and was considered by him as synonymous with F. imperialis L. 
It differs, however, markedly in perianth color and the not nodding flowers, 
and should therefore be separated. 



Section LILIARHIZA (Kellog) A. Los. — Li li ar hi z a Kellog in Proc. 
Calis. Acad. 11(1863)46; Sect. Petilium Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 147, p.p. 
Bulb consisting of numerous small scales, increasing in diameter; outer 
scales stalked, separating from the bulb and accrescent; flowers solitary 
or in a raceme. 

24. F. kamtschatcensis (L. ) Fisch. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. II (1840) 
181; Kom., Fl. Kamch. I, 300; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 147.— Lilium 
kamtschatcense L. Sp. pi. (1753) 303. — Ic. : Gartenfl. (1856) t. 173; 
Hook. Fl. bor. Am. t. CXCIII A. 

244 



Perennial; bulb up to 2 cm across, consisting of numerous 3 -angled 
scales, the outer stalked ("eyelets"*) and serving for reproduction; stem 
erect, to 50 cm long and 0.8 cm in diameter, glabrous, smooth, often 
anthocyanin-tinged in lower third, and leafless; leaves verticillate, in 
whorls of 3-10, slightly amplexicaul, ovate-lanceolate, to 7 cm long, 
2.5 cm broad, attenuate toward apex, subobtuse, dark green above, 
glaucescent beneath, with numerous dark longitudinal veins and often with 
broad blackish-brown longitudinal bands; leaves of upper whorls smaller; 
floral leaves solitary, acuminate; flowers in a close raceme of 2 or 3, 
rarely solitary, declined; longer than pedicel; perianth narrowly 
319 campanulate-funnelform, purple, brighter within; segments rather fleshy, 
lanceolate, slightly revolute -margined, 2.5-3.5 cm long, 1 .3-1 .5 cm broad, 
the outer narrower, oval-lanceolate, deeply furrowed within, the marginal 
furrows fimbriate -verrucose; nectaries on the lower part of segments, 
superficial, hooded at summit; stamens with anthers attached in lower part; 
anthers 3-angled below, shorter than the filaments; style 3-fid nearly to 
the middle; capsule ovoid, 1.5-2 cm long, obtusely angled. June. 
(Plate XIX, Figure 7). 

Woods, meadows, in dense grass stands, sandy soils, and tundra. — 
Far East: Kamch., Sakh., Uss. Gen. distr. : N. America. N. Japan. 
Described from Canada. Type in London. 

Economic importance. Bulbs with a high starch and sugar content, are 
boiled for food and are stored for winter use. They resemble chestnuts in 
taste and play a considerable role in the life of the inhabitants who often 
use them as a substitute for bread. 

25. F. dagana Turcz. in Flora XVII (1834) I Beibl., 25; Ldb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, 148; Turcz. Fl. baic.-dah. II, I (1856) 211. — F. chamarensis 
Turcz. ex Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 148. — Ic. : Trautv. Imag. et descr. 
Fl. Ross. (1844) t.I. 

Perennial; bulbs of several small scales; stem to 35 cm long, glabrous, 
smooth, speckled with anthocyanins especially in lower part, with a single 
whorl of 3-5 leaves in upper part; leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate - 
lanceolate, attenuate toward apex, obtuse, rounded at base, to 8 cm long, 
to I2 cm broad, 5-7-nerved, glabrous; floral leaf solitary, oblong-ovate 
to ovate -lanceolate, terminating in a long-tapering obtuse tip, commonly 
shorter and broader than the cauline leaves; flowers solitary, nodding; 
pedicel shorter than perianth; perianth broadly campanulate, outside 
brownish-purple with a dark spot about the nectary, the inner surface 
orange-purple checkered with a lighter color; perianth segments oblong- 
obovate, to 4 cm long, obtusish; outer segments to 1 cm broad, more 
acute; inner segments to 1.3 cm long, more rounded at apex; nectaries 
triangular; stamens about half the length of perianth; filaments slender, 
slightly dilated below, much longer than anthers; style exceeding the 
stamens, 3-fid to l/3; capsule 1.5 cm long, 1.3 cm in diameter, rounded 
at base, obtuse at top, the irregular ribs dilated upward. May. 

Woods and slopes in the subalpine zone. — E. Siberia: Dau., Ang.-Say., 
Yen. (SE). Endemic. Described from Transbaikalia (Urgudei). Type in 
Leningrad. 



* [The term apparently corresponds to "rice-grain" bulbletsj 



245 



320 26. F. Maximowiczii Freyn, PI. Karonae inO.B.Z. (1901)36.— 

F. dagana Maxim. Prim. Fl. Amur. (1859)279, non Turcz. 

Perennial; bulb less than 1 cm across, of several scales; stem 
20-35 cm long, slender, glabrous, smooth, leafless below, with a single 
leaf whorl at upper third and occasionally a small solitary leaf between 
the whorl and flower; leaves 4 or 5 in whorl, linear-lanceolate to linear, 
subobtuse, glaucescent beneath, dark green above, 6-8 cm long, 3-10 mm 
broad; floral leaf solitary; flowers solitary (sometimes 2); pedicel short, 
erect; perianth broadly open-campanulate, outside purplish-violet, 
glaucescent; inner surface reddish, finely checkered with translucent 
yellow; perianth segments to 5 cm long and to 14 mm broad, oblong-elliptic, 
tapering at both ends, terminating in a narrow obtuse tip, the margin yellow, 
beset with short hairs; nectaries on lower third of segments, oval; stamens 
about half the length of perianth; filaments slender, several times as long 
as anthers; stigma deeply lobed; capsule ovaloid, obtusish, narrowed 
toward base, ca. 2 cm long, rather broadly winged. June. (Plate XIX, 
Figure 2). 

Larch and birch woods and slopes. — E. Siberia: Dauria; Far East: 
Uss., Ze.-Bu., Uda. Endemic. Described from Zeya landing-stage. 



Genus 272. TULIPA* L. ** 

L. Gen. pi. (1753) 145. 

Perianth segments 6, deciduous, destitute of nectaries; stamens 6, 
shorter than perianth, equal or the inner somewhat longer; anthers 
basifixed; ovary many-ovuled, with sessile stigma or with more or less 
developed style; seeds flat. Perennial bulbose plants, with cauline leaves 
and (in the USSR) heliophilous [heliotropic ?] flowers. 

Economic importance. In addition to being accepted as widely distributed 
commercial ornamentals, tulips are also the object of specialized 
collections. Hence, in spite of the availability of numerous cultivated 
varieties and the horticultural introduction of wild species, there is a 
continuous pursuit of ever new tulips. It may be noted that fanciers do not 
disdain species with small insignificant flowers which, by accepted 
standards, are not ornamental. 

Thus, all the tulips may be considered to some extent as an export 
321 article. Horticultural firms of international standing, whose catalogs have 
long been adorned with the names of our wild tulips, maintain a continuous 
demand. Many tulips are very difficult to propagate in the West and, since 
the species are in most instances restrictedly endemic, they can be obtained 
only in the Soviet Union. Provided that proper arrangements are made to 
ensure that the foreign consumers become acquainted with the entire range 
of our tulips, the export of tulip bulbs may turn into a significant item 
of foreign trade. 

Tulips must not be neglected in our urban planting programs . It should 
be remembered that the most robust and large -flowered tulips (T u 1 i p a 
Fosteriana, T. ingens, T. Schmidtii, T. Eichleri, 
T. Micheliana, T. T ub e r g e n i a n a , T. lanata, T. Greigii, 

* Name derived by corruption from dulbend , the Persian word for turban. 
** Arranged by A .1. Vvedenskii. 



246 



T. Hoogiana, T. ku s c h k e n s i s) grow wild on USSR territory and all 
that is needed is to organize the supply of their bulbs. 
Local inhabitants often use raw tulip bulbs for food. 

Note. Study of the genus Tulip a is beset with exceptionally great obstacles. One of the serious 
difficulties consists in the fact that it is almost impossible to make use of herbarium material in the study 
of Tulip a species. On top of that, the species are polymorphic and they vary to such an extent in respect 
of such characters as the color and shape of perianth segments or the presence of basal blotch and colored 
margin, that it is often most difficult to relate a deviating specimen to a given species even through found 
as a population component of that species. Characters of more stable nature are the consistence and vesture* 
of the bulb tunics as well as the shape of flower and bud. The last two characters are virtually undiscernable 
in the herbarium. 

Another obstacle in the study of tulips is the absence of precise records of origin for various species, 
since many tulips were described in horticultural establishments where provenance data were not given due 
attention or were possibly concealed. 

Because of the incomplete knowledge of many species, the systematics of tulips is very imperfect. 
The now accept system of Baker and Boissier** is highly artificial, but it would be difficult to attempt its 
revision in view of the scarcity of our information concerning the tulip flora of Hither Asia. It has only been 
possible to establish two new monotypic sections for two severely isolated Central Asian tulips and to transfer 
T. sogdiana from the section Leiostemones to the section Eriostemones. This species, in having 
naked filaments, has so far been detached from related forms. 

When collecting tulips, it is necessary to note in detail the color of all flower parts and to cut the bulb 
lengthwise. The latter procedure ensures better drying of the plant and facilitates the study of bulb tunics. 
It is very important to dig up and to dry sterile specimens, noting the possible presence of an underground 
shoot. As already mentioned, an important character is provided by the direction of the bud before expansion 
so that, whenever possible, fixation of this character should be secured. 

l.t Filaments naked 2. 

"•" Filaments hairy or bearded at base 49. 

322 2. Style obsolete or obsolescent 3. 

■* Style distinct, the length of ovary 47. 

3. Anthers opening gradually and very slowly from top to base and 
becoming contorted 43. T. Kaufmanniana Rgl. 

"*" Anthers opening rapidly, not becoming contorted 4. 

4. Anthers several times the length of filaments; perianth segments 

20-30 mm long, pale yellow, acute, the outer pubescent 

42. T. Krauseana Rgl. 

"* Anthers shorter to not more than 3 times the length of filaments; 

plants differing in other characters 5. 

5. Bulb tunics strongly produced (up to soil level), their inner face 
hairy-lanuginose throughout 6. 

+ Bulb tunics not produced or only slightly produced, and if strongly so 
appressed -hairy or arachnoid -villous only at summit and naked below. 
8. 

6. Upper leaves surpassing or at least reaching the lower; aerial part 
of the plant one -half to two -thirds as long as the underground part; 
perianth segments rather gradually acuminate, with a dark violet blotch 
on both faces 23. T. Borszczowii Rgl. 

"*" Upper leaves not surpassing the flower; aerial part slightly shorter 
than the underground part; perianth segments rather abruptly 
acuminate 7 . 

7. Perianth segments without a basal blotch 22. T. Behmiana Rgl. 

* Vesture must be observed on the younger (inner) bulb tunics. 
** Baker in Journ. Bot. 14(1874)276-277; Boissier Fl. Or. V (1884) 191. 
t For identification with the aid of this key, it is desirable to have live plants in addition to herbarium 
material. 

247 



323 



■+ Perianth segments commonly with a blackish-violet basal blotch on 

the inner face, rarely on both faces . ... 21. T. Lehmanniana Merckl. 

8. Leaves 2 (3); perianth segments 15-25-(30) mm long, white, yellow 
at base, becoming faintly rose after anthesis, the outer dingy violet 

on the outside, the inner abruptly narrowed into a claw; small, glabrous 
desert plants; bulb tunics firm, coriaceous, lanose on inner face. 

48. T. sogdiana Merckl. 

"*■ Leaves 3 to several; large plants with bright flowers or small mountain 
plants, differing in their characters 9. 

9. Bulb tunics profusely arachnoid-villous all over the inner face. ... 10. 
+ Bulb tunics glabrate or pilose or lanate, always with straight hairs, or, 

if arachnoid-villous, then tunics hairy only at summit 13. 

10. Outer perianth segments acutish, slightly longer than obtuse inner 
segments 4. T. Julia C. Koch. 

"•" Perianth segments subequal, acute 11. 

11. Perianth segments raspberry-red; stem and flower glabrous 

3. T. Hoogiana B. Fedtsch. 

"*■ Perianth segments red 12. 

12. Perianth segments abruptly short-acuminate, commonly with an 

emarginate blotch; peduncle usually glabrous, rarely pubescent 

2. T. kuschkensis B. Fedtsch. 

+ Perianth segments rather gradually long-acuminate, commonly with 

an acute blotch; peduncle pubescent 1. T. Tubergeniana Hoog. 

13. Robust plants, 40-50 cm tall; leaves 6-12, evenly distributed, the 

lower narrowly lanceolate, the upper sublinear 

17. T. Schmidtii Fom. 

■+ Leaves 3 or 4, broader, or numerous and narrow and then the plants 
small, 10-30 cm tall 14. 

14. Stems in upper part and peduncle pubescent 15. 

"*" Stem and peduncle glabrous 30. 

15. Inner perianth segments shorter than the outer, concave, emarginate, 
connivent; leaves bright glaucous, approximate, rapidly diminishing 

in size up the stem, the lowest broadly oblong to subelliptic 

12. T. Albertii Rgl. 

"*" Inner perianth segments not concave, obtuse or acute 16. 

16. Bulb tunics on inner face lustrous, glabrous or with few hairs at 
summit; filaments red; perianth segments subequal 17. 

*♦" Bulb tunics pubescent all over or densely hairy at summit; filaments 
yellow, black or variegated; inner perianth segments different from 
the outer 18. 

17. Leaves (3) 4, spreading, not crisp; perianth segments orange-red, 
obtuse to acutish 10. T. praestans Hoog. 

"*" Leaves 3 (the uppermost much reduced, often bractlike), spreading, 

crisp; perianth segments red, spreading acute 

. . . ." 11. T. subpraestans Vved. 

18. Perianth segments yellowish or yellow, the outer flushed with violet 

on the outside 19. 

+ Perianth segments various shades of red or yellow or sometimes white, 
the outer not suffused with violet (see T. Greigii) 22. 

19. Bulb tunics coriaceous, with appressed hairs confined to the summit 

of inner face 20. 



248 



,_. ■* Bulb tunics hairy all over 21. 

20. Lowest leaf sublorate to linear-lanceolate; bulb tunics subcoriaceous. 
35. T. iliensis Rgl. 

"* Lowest leaf lanceolate to oblong; bulb tunics firm, coriacerous. 

36. T. ferganica Vved. 

21. Perianth segments acuminate, the outer somewhat longer 

33. T. altaica Pall. 

"*■ Perianth segments acute or acuminate, the outer scarcely shorter. 

32. T. dubia Vved. 

22. Bulb tunics slightly and thinly coriaceous, rather profusely lanate. 
23. 

"*" Bulb tunics hairy or woolly 24. 

23. Leaves glaucous, slightly crisp; perianth segments with a black 
marginless blotch 7. T. ingens Hoog. 

■*■ Leaves glaucescent, crisp; perianth segments with a black yellow - 

margined blotch 6. T. lanata Rgl. 

24. Leaves slightly spreading, all distinctly carinate; perianth segments 
strongly spreading, acute; bulb tunics woolly . . . 9. T. carinata Vved. 

"*■ Leaves more or less spreading, ecarinate; bulb tunics hairy or merely 
at summit woolly 25. 

25. Very robust plants; lowest leaf commonly broad, oblong or elliptic; 
flowers saucer-shaped; perianth segments commonly obtuse, minutely 
mucronulate, mostly with a 3-tipped black yellow -margined or yellow 
blotch 8. .T. Fosteriana Irv. 

+ Lowest leaf lanceolate or oblong (or sometimes to broadly elliptic and 
then leaves violet -speckled); basal blotch not 3-tipped, and if 3-tipped 
then narrow and very long 26. 

26. Inner perianth segments slightly longer than the outer, connivent, 

the outer with reflexed tips; leaves violet-speckled 27. 

"*" Inner perianth segments equal or the outer slightly longer 28. 

27. Perianth segments orange -red (sometimes yellow), at base yellow 
with a black blotch 13. T. Greigii Rgl. 

"*■ Perianth segments red, at base with a black yellow -margined or 

marginless blotch 14. T. mogoltavica M. Pop. et Vved. 

28. Perianth segments with a narrow long yellow -margined or marginless 
black blotch 1/3-1/2 the length of the segments; leaves violet -striped 
or without stripes 15. T. Micheliana Hoog. 

■+ Perianth segments with a short basal blotch occupying 1/5-1/4 its length. 
29. 

29. Perianth segments gradually long-acuminate, red, the black basal blotch 
margined with yellow, with a 3 -toothed tip; ovary about the length of 
stamens 16. T. Eichleri Rgl. 

"*■ Perianth segments rather abruptly acuminate, very variable in color; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens 27. T. Schrenkii Rgl. 

30. Perianth segments red or rose, rarely yellow or white 
(c.f, T. Schrenkii), the outer face not suffused with violet .... 31. 

"*" Perianth segments white, yellowish or yellow, rarely red, the outer 
suffused outside with dingy violet or reddish-violet, rarely without 
violet shades (c. f. T. Ostrovskiana, T. Kolpakovskiana and 
T. Zenaidae) 38. 



249 



325 



326 



31. Bulb tunics very firm, coriaceous, the woolly or arachnoid -villous 
hairs confined to summit; leaves (3) 4-8, linear, the lowest sometimes 
linear-lanceolate 32. 

"•" Bulb tunics hairy or woolly all over or merely at summit 34. 

32. Bulb tunics arachnoid-shaggy at summit. . . . 20. T. Wilsoniana Hoog. 
"*" Bulb tunics woolly at summit 33. 

33. Perianth segments rather abruptly acuminate, terminating in a long 

sharp point; leaves spreading, scattered, not crisp 

18. T. Maximowiczii Rgl. 

"•" Perianth segments obtuse or rarely terminating in a very short point; 
leaves spreading, approximate, crisp 19. T. linofolia Rgl. 

34. Bulb tunics densely covered all over with woolly hairs 

5. T. Florenskyi Woron. 

+ Perianth segments hairy all over or merely at apex covered with woolly 
hairs 35. 

35. Bulb tunics weakly coriaceous, blackish-brown, more or less hairy all 
over 27. T. Schrenkii Rgl. 

■+■ Bulb tunics black, coriaceous, densely hairy or woolly at summit, 

more or less oblong 36. 

36. Flowers rose 26. T. rosea Vved. 

+ Flowers red (sometimes yellow) 37. 

37. Perianth segments (2)3 (4 or 5) cm long, red; leaves mostly surpassing 
the flower; ovary greenish 24. T. Korolkovii Rgl. 

"•" Perianth segments (2.75) 4-6 cm long, bright red; leaves usually not 

surpassing the flower; ovary commonly rose .... 25. T. nitida Hoog. 

38. Filaments dilated from base, narrowed above to a point 39. 

"•" Filaments gradually narrowed from base or with nearly parallel margins 

(c.f. T. Korshinskyi) 42. 

39. Bulb tunics subcoriaceous to subchartaceous; small plants 

39. T. tianschanica Rgl. 

+ Bulb tunics large, coriaceous; more vigorous plants 40. 

40. Leaves (3 or 4) 5 or 6 (7), very close together, all sublorate 

40. T. tetraphylla Rgl. 

"*" Leaves 3 or 4, scattered, the lowest linear-lanceolate 41. 

41. Filaments strongly dilated, abruptly narrowed at summit 

31. T. brachystemon Rgl. 

+ Filaments gradually attenuate at summit ... 32. T. platystemon Vved. 

42. Small plants with approximate leaves 43. 

"•" Stronger plants with scattered leaves; bulb tunics firmly coriaceous. 

45. 

43. Leaves sublorate 41. T. hissarica M. Pop. et Vved. 

+ Lowest leaf lanceolate to oblong-ovate, much larger than the upper 

leaves 44. 

44. Flowers yellow; filaments attenuate from base 

37. T. anisophylla Vved. 

"•" Flowers white; filaments with nearly parallel margins, abruptly 

narrowed at summit 38. T. Korshynskyi Vved. 

45. Flower bud erect; lowest leaf elliptic to oblong or rarely lanceolate. 
30. T. Zenaidae Vved. 

■*■ Flower bud drooping; lowest leaf linear-lanceolate to lanceolate . . .46. 



250 



327 



46. Perianth segments yellow, not blotched; leaves commonly surpassing 
the flower 29. T. Kolpakovskiana Rgl. 

"*" Perianth segments red, with a black basal blotch; leaves not surpassing 
the flower 29. T. Ostrovskiana Rgl. 

47. Bulb tunics naked inside; leaves opposite; anthers oblong-elliptic, ca. 
2.5 mm long 63. T. heterophylla (Rgl.) Baker. 

■+ Bulb tunics with appressed hairs inside at summit; leaves alternate; 

anthers 3-6 mm long 48. 

48. Leaves subapproximate, commonly spreading; perianth segments 

obtuse or obtusish; filaments gradually attenuate from base 

62. T. uniflora (L. ) Bess. 

+ Leaves much scattered, spreading; perianth segments very acute; 

filaments dilated below the middle 61. T. heteropetala Ldb. 

49. Leaf solitary, longitudinally crested on upper surface 

44. T. Regelii Krasn. 

+ Leaves 2 to several, never crested 50. 

50. Perianth segments violet or pale rosy- violet 51. 

"•" Perianth segments yellow or white, with a yellow basal spot, becoming 

tinged with rosy-violet only at fading 52. 

51. Perianth segments violet, 30-40 mm long, the outer slightly narrower 

than the inner; bulb tunics rigidly coriaceous 

44*. T. violacea Boiss. et Buhse. 

+ Perianth segments pale rosy-violet, 20-35 mm long, the outer two- 
thirds as broad as the inner; bulb tunics papery 

45. T. caucasica Lipsky. 

52. Bulb tunics naked or with few appressed hairs at summit; ovary with 

a fairly long style 53. 

"•" Bulb tunics arachnoid -woolly all over or merely at summit lanate or 

appressed-hairy 54. 

53. Leaves 3-7, very close together, spreading; flowers 1-8; bulb tunics 
coriaceous, naked 60. T. tarda Stapf. 

+ Leaves 2, scattered, spreading; bulb tunics papery, naked or with few 
appressed hairs at summit 59. T. dasystemon Rgl. 

54. Bulb tunics rather densely appressed-hairy at summit. Anthers without 
cusp 55. 

"*■ Bulb tunics arachnoid-woolly all over, or merely at summit rather 
densely appressed-hairy. Anthers terminating in a short cusp; leaves 
commonly 2 57. 

55. Perianth segments yellow, 40-55 mm long, the outer not tinged outside 
with violet; anthers the length of filaments, 8-13 mm long 

. 45*. T. silvestris T. 

+ Perianth segments 20-35-(40) mm long; anthers one-third to one-half 
the length of filaments, 3-4 mm long 56. 

56. Perianth segments yellow, the outer often violet -tinged on the outside. 
46. T. Biebersteiniana Schult. 

■* Perianth segments white, yellow at base, the outer violet -tinged on 
„„„ the outside 47. T. patens Agardh. 

57. Bulb tunics lanate inside at summit 58. 

■+ Bulb tunics arachnoid -woolly over the whole inner face 60. 

58. Bulb tunics subcoriaceous; style fairly long, approximately the length 
of ovary 58. T. dasystemonoides Vved. 

*•" Bulb tunics coriaceous; style shorter 59. 



251 



59. Leaves much scattered, spreading, commonly much shorter than the 
flower 49. T. Buhseana Boiss. 

■+ Leaves less scattered, spreading, commonly surpassing the flower, 

perianth segments with relatively weak pubescence 

50. T. turkestanica Rgl. 

60. Bulb tunics papery or nearly so 61. 

+ Bulb tunics coriaceous 62. 

61. Leaves scattered; anthers 2-3 mm long; style short 

53. T. biflora Pall. 

■* Leaves very close together, subopposite; anthers 5-6 mm long; style 
long 57. T. orithyioides Vved. 

62. Perianth segments obtuse 56. T. Callieri Hal. et Lev. 

+ Perianth segments acute or acutish 63. 

63. Bulb tunics densely arachnoid -woolly inside; perianth segments acute; 
anthers 4-6 mm long; leaves commonly not surpassing the flower . 64. 

+ Bulb tunics less hairy; perianth segments acutish; anthers 2-4 mm 

long; filaments naked above the ring of hairs; leaves slightly surpassing 
the flower 65. 

64. Leaves commonly spreading, much scattered; flower mostly solitary; 
inner perianth segments oblong-ovate, rather abruptly contracted into 
the claw 51. T. turcomanica B. Fedtsch. 

"•" Leaves spreading, less scattered; flowers mostly several; inner 

perianth segments oblong, rather gradually tapering into the claw . . . 
52. T. bifloriformis Vved. 

65. Outer perianth segments bearded at base, the inner broadly oblong, 

rather gradually tapering into the densely ciliate claw 

54. T. polychroma Stapf. 

+ Outer perianth segments naked at base, the inner oblong-ovate, rather 
abruptly tapering into the claw, this less ciliate at base; filaments less 
pubescent 55. T. koktebelica Junge. 



329 Section TULIPANUM Reb. in Giorn. bot. It. II (1851) 57. — Bulb tunics 

profusely arachnoid -shaggy over the whole inner surface; flowers large, 
i bright-colored; filaments glabrous; ovary with a sessile stigma. 

1. T. Tubergeniana Hoog. in Gard. Chron. XXXV (1904) 358, cum 
tabula. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 3-5 cm thick; tunics brown, papery, profusely 
arachnoid-shaggy on inner surface; stem (5)-15-30 cm long, the upper 
part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves (3) 4, falcate, glaucescent, 
crisp, more or less pubescent, ciliate, surpassing the flower; lowest leaf 
lanceolate, (l.5)-2-4 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments red, 
2.5-10 cm long, gradually acuminate to a pubescent point, the commonly 
acute black basal blotch margined with pale yellow-orange; outer segments 
rhomboidal or deltoid, slightly broader than the obovate or oboblong inner 
segments; stamens one -third the length of perianth; filaments naked, black; 
anthers violet, twice the length of filaments; ovary slightly shorter than 
stamens, commonly with a violet bloom; stigma sessile, much broader 
than ovary, usually purple. April. 

Clayey slopes in mottled outcrop areas. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (SW). 
Endemic. Described from cultivated specimens originating from Bukhara; 
without precise indication of origin. 

252 



2. T. kuschkensis B. Fedtsch. in Bot. Jahrb. L. (1914) 612 (nomen 
nudum); Ej. in Fl. Turkm. 2 (1932) 302. - Ic. : Bot. Mag. (1934) tab. 9370. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 3-5 cm thick; tunics brown, papery, profusely 
arachnoid-shaggy on inner surface; stem 20-50 cm long, glabrous or 
sometimes the peduncle pubescent; leaves (3) 4 (5), falcately recurved in 
upper part, scattered, glaucous, crisp, glabrous, ciliate-margined, 
commonly not surpassing the flower, successively decreasing in size up 
the stem, the lowest leaf lanceolate and 2-4 cm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments red, 4.5-9 cm long, abruptly short -acuminate to a 
pubescent point, the black basal blotch commonly narrowly emarginate and 
margined with pale yellow; outer segments oblong-rhomboidal or 
subobdeltoid, scarcely broader than the obtriangular or subobdeltoid-ovate 
inner segments; stamens one-third the length of perianth; filaments 
glabrous, black; anthers half as long again as the filaments, violet; ovary 
slightly shorter than stamens, greenish; stigma sessile, much broader than 
the ovary, yellowish; capsule cylindric, 3-angled, 1 .5-3 cm broad, 
3-6 cm long. April. 

Clayey or rarely stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kushkinskii 
River). Endemic. Described from Kushka. Type in Leningrad. 

330 3. T. Hoogiana B. Fedtsch. in Gard. Chron. XLVIII (1910) 53, cum 

tabula. — T. amabilis B. Fedtsch. in Bot. Jahrb. L. (1914) 612 (nomen 
nudum). — T. in gens B. Fedtsch. in Fl. Turkm. (1932)302, non Hoog. — 
Ic: Fl. Turkm. 2 (1932) 301. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-3-(4) cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or 
brown, papery, profusely arachnoid-shaggy on inner surface; stem 
20-40 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves (3) 4,(5), spreading, 
scattered, slightly crisp, glaucous, glabrous, more or less ciliate, not 
exceeding or slightly exceeding the flower, progressively decreasing in size 
up the stem, the lowest lanceolate, 1.5-4 (8) cm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments raspberry-red, very rarely pinkish-orange or orange, 
3.5-8 cm long; outer segments deltoid, gradually acuminate and terminating 
in a pubescent point, scarcely narrower than the obovate inner segments, 
these rather abruptly acuminate to a pubescent point; stamens one -third to 
one -half the length of perianth; filaments naked, black, red or yellow at 
base, white below anthers; anthers half as long again as filaments, yellow; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, commonly red at the top; stigma 
sessile, slightly broader than ovary, yellow; capsule 1 .5-2 cm broad, 
2-4 cm long. April-May. 

Clayey or rarely gravelly slopes from the foothills to the steppe zone 
of mountains. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Centr. and W. Kopet Dagh). 
Endemic. Described from cultivated specimens with unreliable indication 
of origin: "Bukhara". 

4. T. julia C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII (1849) 225; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
134. — T. montana var. Julia Baker in Journ. Bot. 14 (1874) 279 (p. p. ); 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 193 (p.p.). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-3 cm thick; tunics brown, papery, profusely 
arachnoid-shaggy on inside; stem 12-30 cm long, the stem and peduncle 
glabrous; leaves 4, slightly spreading, scattered, more or less crisp, 
glabrous, commonly ciliate-margined, not surpassing the flower, 



253 



progressively decreasing in size up the stem; lowest leaf lanceolate to 
oblong-lanceolate, 1-4 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments red, 
the dark basal blotch margined with yellow; outer segments 2.5-4.5 cm 
long, oblong- rhomboidal to oblong, acutish, terminating in a short pubescent 
point, slightly longer than the obovate to oblong-obovate obtuse inner 
segments; stamens about half the length of perianth; filaments naked, black; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with sessile stigma. April-June. 

Dry stony slopes . — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr.: Iran. Described 
from Shuragel. Type in Berlin. 



331 Section LEIOSTEMONES Eoiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 191 . — Eulb tunics 

nearly glabrous on the inside, or hairy at summit or all over, or profusely 
woolly, or merely at summit profusely arachnoid -shaggy; filaments naked; 
ovary with sessile stigma or with a style, this always shorter than ovary. 

5. T. Florenskyi Woron. in Not. Syst. Herb. Horti Bot. Petrop. V 
(1924) 61. — T. montana var. Julia Baker in Journ. Bot. 14 (1874) 
279 (p. p. ); Eoiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 193 (p. p. ). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 2 cm thick; tunicsbrown, subcoriaceous, densely 
woolly on the inside; stem 10-20 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; 
leaves (3) 4, spreading subapproximate, glaucous, crisp, glabrous, commonly 
smooth-margined, not surpassing the flower, rather gradually decreasing in 
sizeupthe stem; lowest leaf lanceolate, 1.5-2 .5 cmbroad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments red with a grayish-black yellow -margined basal blotch 
or yellow, 2.5-3.5 cm long; outer segments obovate -rhomboidal to oblong- 
rhomboidal, short-acuminate to a pubescent point; inner segments obovate- 
oblong, obtuse, slightly emarginate, sometimes short -pointed; stamens 
two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments naked, black, at base and below 
the anthers yellow; anthers yellow, scarcely shorter than filaments; ovary 
slightly shorter than filaments, with subsessile stigma; capsule ca. 1.5 cm 
thick, 3-4 cm long, short-beaked. April. 

Dry stony slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc: Gen. distr.: Iran. Described 
from Sultanabad. Type in Leningrad. 

6. T. lanata Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 647, t. IV (p. p. ). 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-4 cm thick; tunics thinly subcoriaceous, brown, 

profusely lanate on the inside; stem 40-60 cm long, the upper part of stem 
and peduncle pubescent; leaves 4, spreading, scattered, crisp, glaucescent, 
more or less pubescent, ciliate, not surpassing the flower, progressively 
decreasing in size up the stem; lowest leaf lanceolate, 3-6 cm broad; 
flower solitary; perianth segments red, 5-8 cm long, more or less 
acuminate to a pubescent point, the black obtuse or emarginate basal blotch 
margined with pale yellow; outer segments rhomboidal to oblong-rhomboidal, 
slightly broader than the oblong-obovate inner segments; stamens one-third 
to two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments naked, black; anthers 
commonly yellow, twice the length of filaments; ovary slightly shorter than 
stamens, with sessile stigma; capsule 2 cm broad, 5 cm long. April-May. 
Clayey or rarely stony slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam. -Al. (Surkhan and Kafirnigan river basins). Endemic. Described 
from Khodzha-balkata. Type in Leningrad. 



1920 254 



332 7. T. ingens Hoog in Gard. Chron. XXXII (1902) 14, f. 7. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3-(4) cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or 

brown, thinly subcoriaceous, rather profusely lanate on the inside; stem 
15-35 cm long, the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves 
3-(5), spreading, scattered, slightly crisp, glaucous, pubescent, more 
or less ciliate -margined, progressively decreasing in size up the stem, 
not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate, 2 -5- (9) cm broad; flower 
solitary; perianth segments red, 4-11 cm long, more or less acuminate 
to a pubescent point, the black obtuse or emarginate blotch not margined; 
outer segments oblong-rhomboidal, slightlybroader than the oboblong 
to oboblong-elliptic inner segments; stamens one -third to two-fifths the 
length of perianth; filaments naked, black; anthers commonly violet, twice 
the length of anthers; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with sessile 
stigma; capsule ca. 2 cm broad, 3-6 cm long. April-May. 

Clayey slopes, up to 2500 m. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Central 
Zeravshan, Kashka-darya River basin and south to Kugitang). Endemic. 
Described from "Bukhara", without any more precise indication of origin. 

8. T. Fosteriana Irv. in Gard. Chron. XXXIX (1906) 322, f. 130. 
Perianth; bulb ovoid, 2-5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, coriaceous, 

densely hairy on the inside especially at summit; stem 15-35 cm long, 
the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves 3 or 4, spreading, 
scattered, slightly crisp, glaucous or green, pubescent, ciliate, not 
surpassing the flower, rapidly decreasing in size up the stem; lowest leaf 
oblong to elliptic, 3-15 cm broad; flower solitary, saucer-shaped; perianth 
segments red, 4.5-12.5 cm long, commonly obtuse with a very short 
pubescent point, the 3 -pointed basal blotch black margined with yellow or 
yellow throughout; outer segments oblong-elliptic to oboblong; inner 
segments obovate to oboblong; stamens one -third to two-fifths the length 
of perianth; filaments naked, black; anthers violet, half as long again as 
filaments; ovary slightly shorter than anthers, with sessile stigma; capsule 
2.5-3 cm broad, 5-7 cm long. April-May. 

Fine-textured slopes and rock benches. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. 
(Samarkand mountains). Endemic. Described from "Bukhara" from 
cultivated specimens, without precise indication of origin. 

9. T. carinata Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 579. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, coriaceous, 

woolly on the inside; stem 20-55 cm long, the upper part of stem and 
peduncle woolly; leaves (3) 4, slightly spreading to suberect, scattered, 

333 glaucescent -green, not crisp, carinate, pubescent, ciliate, not surpassing 
the flower, progressively decreasing in size up the stem; lowest leaf 
lanceolate, 1 .5-3 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments red, mostly 
gradually very long- acuminate to a pubescent cusp, 4-8 cm long, the 
obtuse or acute or sometimes 3 -pointed basal blotch black or yellow or 
black margined with yellow; outer segments oblong-lanceolate to oboblong; 
inner segments oboblong-lanceolate to oboblong; stamens one -third the 
length of perianth; filaments naked, black or blackish; anthers yellow or 
violet, slightly longer than filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, 
with sessile stigma. May-June. 

Stony slopes in the middle and upper mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (Chul'bair, Khodma-gurgur-ata). Endemic. Described from 
Khodma-barku. Type in Tashkent. 

255 



Note. The closely interrelated species of W. Pamirs T. lanata, 
T. ingens, T. Fosteriana, and T. car in at a, together with three 
apparently new species — Chash (Lipsky), Khanaka (Aniskhov) and vicinity 
of Stalinabad [Dyushambe] (?) (Zapryagaev), Nura-tau (Popov, Bochantsev), 
deserve further study on live material. 

10. T. praestans Hoog. in Gard Chron. XXIII (1903) 364, f. 126.— 

T. suaveolens Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 650 (exclus. var. bicolor), 
non Roth. Cat. I, 1797. -Ic: Bot. Mag. LIX (1903) t. 7920. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm thick; tunics thick, coriaceous, blackish- 
brown, glabrate on the inside; stem 15-40 (75) cm long, the upper part of 
stem and peduncles pubescent; leaves (3) 4, spreading, scattered, 
glaucescent, not crisp, pubescent, ciliate, carinate, rather gradually 
decreasing in size up the stem, not surpassing the flowers; flowers 1 or 2; 
perianth segments orange -red, 3.5-7 cm long, oblong-obovate, commonly 
obtuse, rarely acutish, subequal; stamens two-fifths the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, red; anthers yellow or violet, half as long again to twice 
as long as filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, suffused with 
violet; stigma subsessile; capsule li-2 cm thick, 3-4 cm long April-June. 

Stony or clayey slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (SE). Endemic. Described from E. Tadzhikistan. 

Note. Regel' (A.H. P. X (1887) 366) gave a description based on 
cultivated specimens of the species T. Boettgeri from the vicinity of 
Kangurt. No samples have remained in the herbarium. Considering the 
provenance, it might be assumed that Regel 1 was dealing with orange-colored 
T. praestans, but certain characters included in the description 
contradict such an assumption. The author presents a translation of the 
original description. 
334 Bulbs ovoid; inner surface of tunics covered at apex with appressed hairs; 
stem glabrous, leafy above the middle, to 40 cm long; leaves 4, with hairy 
cartilaginous margin, very often crisp, glabrous on both sides; lowest leaf 
elliptic -lanceolate; upper leaves shorter and narrower, lanceolate or the 
uppermost linear-lanceolate; perianth segments obovate, round-tipped, 
mucronate, orange, without a basal blotch, glabrous, the outer to 6 cm long, 
the inner slightly shorter; filaments linear-lanceolate, purple, 6-7 mm 
long, naked; anthers linear-lanceolate, 15-17 mm long; stigma broader 
than ovary. 

11. T. subpraestans Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 597. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, blackish- 
brown, lustrous glabrate on the inside; stem 15-30 cm long, the upper 
part of stem and peduncle more or less pubescent; leaves 3 (the uppermost 
much reduced and often bractlike), spreading, glaucous, crisp, pubescent, 
not surpassing the flower; flower solitary; perianth segments red, without 
a basal blotch, 3-5 cm long, oblong, widely spreading, subequal; stamens 
two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments naked, red; anthers yellow; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile stigma. April-May. 

Stony and clayey slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. (Sebistak, Sarsaryak). Endemic. Described from Tut-kaul. Type 
in Tashkent. 



256 



12. T. Alberti Rgl. inA.H.P. V(1877)264.— Ic. : Rev. Hort. (1881)430. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, blackish-brown, 

oblong, hairy on the inside, more densely so at summit; stem 12-20 cm 
long, stocky, the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves 3 (4), 
spreading, approximate, intensely glaucous, pubescent, more or less 
ciliate-margined, crisp, rapidly decreasing in size up the stem, often 
surpassing the flower; lowest leaf broadly oblong to subelliptic, 3-7 cm 
broad; flowers solitary; perianth segments red or raspberry-colored or 
yellow, at base yellow with a black blotch; outer segments 3.5-6 cm long, 
slightly longer than inner, pubescent outside, rather abruptly acuminate 
to a pubescent point, rhomboidal or oboblong, tapering at apex; inner 
segments triangular-obovate, cuneate at base, concave, emarginate, 
connivent; stamens one-third to one -half the length of perianth; filaments 
naked, yellow; anthers yellow, slightly longer than filaments; ovary slightly 
longer than filaments; greenish, with sessile stigma; capsule 2-2.5 cm 
broad and 3-5 cm long. April. 
335 Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Balkh. (Targyl, Kuyankuz), T.Sh. 

(Kara-tau, Chu-Ili Mountains). Endemic. Described from Tashkent Ala Tau. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Fertile specimens (in a very poor state of preservation) from 
the lower reaches of the Sary-su River apparently belong to this species. 

13. T. Greigii Rgl. inA.H.P. II (1873) 449; Boiss. Fl. Or. V 196 
(p.p ). — T. altaica var. karatavica Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
XLI, 1 (1868) 439.- Ic. : Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXII (1873) t. 773. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2.5-4 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, blackish- 
brown, the inner surface densely hairy especially at summit; stem 20-40 cm 
long, the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves (3) 4-6, 
approximate, spreading, crisp, glaucous, profusely violet -speckled on 
upper side, the upper more or less pubescent, ciliate, rapidly decreasing 
in size up the stem, commonly reaching the flower; lowest leaf oblong to 
broadly elliptic, 3.5-14 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments 
orange-red, sometimes yellow with a red central blotch, at base yellow 
with a black blotch, 3-10 cm long, rather abruptly cuspidate, the cusp 
pubescent; outer segments pubescent outside (especially on the back), ovate, 
spreading in upper part, slightly shorter than the obovate more or less 
connivent inner segments; stamens one-third the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, yellow or blackish; anthers yellow, rarely violet, twice 
the length of filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, greenish, 
with sessile stigma; capsule 2-3 cm broad, 4-6 cm long. April-May. 

Clayey slopes.— Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (Kzyl-Orda), Syr D., T. Sh. 
Endemic. Described from Kara-tau mountains. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The plants from Syr Darya call for further study. They differ 
from the northern (typical), T. Greigii in their longer peduncles and the 
more gradual diminution of leaves up the stem. 

14. T. mogoltavica M. Pop. et Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) 
No. 594. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-4 cm thick; tunics more or less produced, 
coriaceous, blackish-brown, hairy on the inside, more densely so at summit 



257 



and at base; stem 10-30 cm long, the upper part of stem and peduncle 
pubescent; leaves 4, subapproximate, spreading, crisp, glaucous, 
profusely violet -spotted on the upper side, more or less pubescent, ciliate, 
rather gradually decreasing in size up the stem, not surpassing the flower; 
lowest leaf oblong-lanceolate to broadly oblong, 2-7 cm broad; flower 
solitary; perianth segments red, 3-10 cm long, abruptly acuminate to a 
short pubescent cusp, theblackbasal blotch margined with yellow or not 
336 margined; outer segments pubescent on the back, elliptic -rhomboidal, 

spreading in upper part, slightly shorter than the triangular-obovate more 
or less connivent inner segments; stamens two-fifths the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, black; anthers blackish-violet, twice the length of 
filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, greenish, with subsessile 
stigma; capsule ca. 2 cm broad, 3-4 cm long. April. (Plate XX, 
Figure 1 a, b). 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Mogol-tau). Endemic. Described 
from Mogol-tau mountains. Type in Tashkent. 

15. T. Micheliana Hoog in Gard. Chron. XXXI (1902) 350, f. 120.— 
T. Greigii Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 196 (p.p.). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-4 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, blackish-brown, 
the inner surface hairy, more densely so at summit and at base; stem 
15-40 cm long, the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves 4 
or 5, spreading, more or less scattered, glaucous, with violet often 
interrupted stripes on the upper side or without stripes, more or less 
pubescent, ciliate, crisp, gradually decreasing in size up the stem, mostly 
not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf linear-lanceolate to oblong, 2-6 cm 
broad; flower solitary; perianth segments red to raspberry-red, 2.5-10 cm 
long, rather abruptly acuminate to a pubescent cusp, the acute or 3 -pointed 
black spot margined with yellow or rarely without a margin; outer segments 
slightly pubescent on the black, broadly rhomboidal to oblong-rhomboidal, 
rarely oblong-lanceolate; inner segments obtriangular or oboblong, rarely 
oblong-oblanceolate; stamens one -third to two-fifths the length of perianth 
segments; filaments naked, black, yellowish or red at base; anthers 
commonly violet, twice the length of filaments; ovary slightly shorter than 
stamens, green, with sessile stigma; capsule 1.5-2.5 cm broad, 3-6 cm 
long. April-May. 

Stony or clayey slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm., Pam.-Al. (NW). 
Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from the Transcaspian area. The description 
based on cultivated specimens does not provide a precise indication of 
origin. 

16. T. Eichleri Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXIII (1874) 193, t. 799; Boiss. Fl. 
Or. V, 194.— Ic: Rgl. I.e. — Exs.: Herb. Fl. cauc. No. 58; Fl. cauc. 
exs. No. 128; PI. or. exs.. No. 354. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, blackish- 
brown, suboblong, hairy on the inside, especially at summit and at 
339 base; stem 20-40 cm long, the upper part of stem and peduncle 
pubescent; leaves 3 (4), more or less spreading, scattered, more 
or less (the upper ones) pubescent, ciliate, glaucous, crisp, progressively 
decreasing in size up the stem, not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf 
linear-lanceolate to oblong, 1-6 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth 



258 



;337) 




Plate XX 



1. Tulipa mogoltavica M . Pop. et Vved. : la) outer perianth segment; lb) inner perianth segment. - 

2. T. sogdiana Merckl,: 2a) outer perianth segment; 2b) inner segment perianth; 2c) style; 2d) stamen. 



259 



segments red, 2.5-7 cm long, rather gradually acuminate to a pubescent 
cusp, the rather small rhomboidally 3 -pointed black basal blotch margined 
with yellow; outer segments oblong to oblong-lanceolate; inner segments 
oblong-oblanceolate; stamens two-fifths to one-half the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, black, sometimes yellow at base; anthers yellow or violet, 
twice the length of filaments; ovary about the length of stamens, with 
sessile stigma. April-May. 

Dry slopes and among field crops. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Iran (?). Described from Shemakha. Type in Leningrad. 

17. T. Schmidtii Fom. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis. 14 (1909)47.— 
Ic: Miscz. in Tr. Byuroprikl. bot. V (1912) t . XLII. - Exs . : Herb. Fl. 
cauc. No. 18, 59. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2.5-5 cm thick; tunics subcoriaceous, brown, 
woolly on the inside; stems 40-50 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; 
leaves 6-12, reclinate or slightly spreading, more or less scattered, 
carinate, glaucous, glabrous, ciliate-margined, not surpassing or slightly 
surpassing the flower; lowest leaf narrowly lanceolate, 2-4.5 cm broad; 
flower solitary; perianth segments red, the rhomboid subacute black basal 
blotch margined with yellow; outer segments 5-10 cm long, slightly longer 
than the inner, deltoid, gradually acuminate to a slightly pubescent point; 
inner segments obovate -deltoid, rather abruptly acuminate to a short point; 
stamens one -third to one -half the length of perianth; filaments naked, 
black; anthers yellow, about as long as filaments; ovary slightly shorter 
than stamens, red at the top, with sessile stigma; capsule 2-2.5 cm broad, 
6-7 mm long. May. 

Slopes and among field crops. — Caucasus: S. Transc, Tal. Endemic (?), 
Described from Talysh: Eshakcha. Type in Leningrad. 

18. T. Maximowiczii Rgl. inA.H.P. X (1889) 687. -? T. Batalini 
Rgl. inA.H.P. X (1889) 688.- Ic. : Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXXVIII (1889) 

t. 1307.— 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics black, coriaceous, firm, 
the inner surface woolly at summit; stem 15-30 cm long, the stem and 
peduncle glabrous; leaves (4) 5-8, spreading, scattered, not crisp, 
glaucous, narrowly purple-margined, more or less ciliate, linear, 
gradually decreasing in size up the stem, commonly surpassing the flower; 
lowest leaf 5-10 mm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments red, rather 
340 abruptly acuminate to a fairly long point, the bluish-black truncate or 

obtusely 3 -pointed blotch margined on the sides with white; outer segments 
rhomboidal-oblong or oboblong; inner segments oboblong to oblong-obovate; 
stamens half the length of perianth; filaments naked, black; anthers violet, 
two- thirds the length of filaments; ovary slightly shorter than perianth, 
with violet-tinged ribs and a very short style. April. 

Mottled outcrops (always ?). — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Vakhsh, Kizyl-su). 
Endemic. Described from Bukhara, without precise indication of origin. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. T. Maximowiczii and T. linifolia are very closely related 
and supplementary observations on live material are needed for definite 
distinction. 



260 



19. T. linifolia Rgl. inA.H.P. VIII (1884) 648, t. V, f . 1 -2a-e (p. p. ). - 
Ic: Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXXV (1886) t. 1235. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics black, coriaceous, firm, 
the inner surface woolly at summit; stem 10-20 cm long, the stem and 
peduncle glabrous; leaves (3)-6-8, spreading, approximate, crisp, usually 
not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf 4-6 mm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments red, 2-4 cm long, obtuse, rarely with a very short point, 
the outer rhomboidal-lanceolate to rhomboid-oblong; inner segments 
oboblong to oboblong-ovate; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments 
naked, black; anthers yellow, one-half to two-thirds the length of filaments; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with very short stigma. April- June. 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Pyandzh). Endemic. Described 
from Kala-i-khum. Type in Leningrad. 

20. T. Wilsoniana Hoog in Gard. Chron. XXXII (1902) 50. — Ic: Hoog 
inGard. Chron. XXIX (1901) f. 121. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-2 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 
coriaceous, with a mass of protruding arachnoid-shaggy hairs at summit; 
stem 10-20 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 4 or 5, 
spreading, approximate, glaucous, crisp, glabrous, narrowly purple - 
margined, more or less ciliate, progressively decreasing in size up the 
stem, surpassing the flower; lowest leaf narrowly linear-lanceolate, 
6-20 mm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments bright red, 2-5 cm 
long, obtusish, the small black basal blotch not margined; outer segments 
oblong- rhomboidal to oblong; inner segments oblong-obovate; stamens 
one-third the length of perianth; filaments naked, black below, red above; 
anthers yellow, two -thirds the length of filaments; ovary slightly shorter 
341 than stamens, greenish, with subsessile stigma; capsule ca. 1.5 cm broad, 
(l.5)-2-3 cm long. May-June. 

Stony slopes in the steppe mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. 
Endemic. Described from Kopet Dagh. 

21. T. Lehmanniana Merckl. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. Sav. etr. VII 
(1854) 513. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-4 cm thick; tunics very firmly coriaceous, 
blackish-brown, strongly produced (up to soil surface), profusely covered 
on the inside with woolly (sometimes slightly crisp) hairs; stem 20-50 cm 
long, the aerial part as long as or longer than the underground part, the 
stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 4, declined or more or less spreading, 
scattered, glaucous, crisp, glabrous, smooth-margined, rather rapidly 
decreasing in size up the stem, usually markedly shorter than lower; lowest 
leaf lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 cm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments yellow, orange or red, 2.5-7 cm long, usually acuminate 
to a short slightly pubescent point, the dark violet or blackish -violet 
basal blotch commonly confined to the inner face; outer segments obovate 
to oblong- rhomboidal; inner segments triangular-oblanceolate to triangular- 
obovate; stamens one -third the length of perianth; filaments naked, yellow 
or the upper part blackish-violet; anthers yellow, as long as filaments; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with sessile stigma; capsule 1-1.5 cm 
in diameter, 2.5-3 cm long. April. 



261 



Sandy hammadas and mottled outcrops. — Centr. Asia: Kyz. K., Mtn. 
Turkm., Syr D., Amu D. Gen. distr. : Iran. (N. Afghanistan). Described 
from area between Bukhara and Kermin. Type in Leningrad. 

22. T. Behmiana Rgl. in A.H.P. VI (1880) 505. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm thick; tunics very firm, coriaceous, 
blackish-brown, strongly produced (up to soil surface), commonly lanate 
on the inside; stem 15-40 cm long, the aerial part slightly shorter than 
the underground part, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 4, spreading, 
scattered, glaucous, very crisp, glabrous, smooth-margined, rather 
rapidly decreasing in size up the stem, not surpassing the flower; lowest 
leaf lanceolate, 2-3 cm broad; flower solitary, nodding in bud; perianth 
segments yellow or red, without a basal blotch, 2.5-6 cm long, usually 
abruptly acuminate to a slightly pubescent point; outer segments oblong- 
rhomboidal or triangular-obovate; inner segments obovate to triangular- 
obovate; stamens one-third to two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments 
naked, yellow or the upper part oblong [sic]; anthers yellow or rarely 
violet, scarcely shorter than filaments; capsule ca. 2 cm in diameter, 
3-5 cm long. April-May. 
342 Sand and sand-and-stone deserts. — Centr. Asia: Balkh. Endemic. 
Described from Iliisk. Type in Leningrad. 

23. T. Borszczowii Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI, 1 (1868)438.— 
T. aurata Litv. in Izv. Turk, geogr. o-va IV, 5(1905)35. — Ic. : 
Gartenfl. XXXIII (1884) t. 1 175 g-k. — Exs. : HFRNo.2448. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-4 cm thick; tunics very firm, coriaceous, 
blackish-brown, strongly produced (up to soil surface), profusely lanate 
on the inside; stem 20-40 cm long, the upper part one-half to two-thirds 
as long as the underground part, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 4, 
spreading, glaucous, very crisp, glabrous, smooth-margined, rather 
rapidly decreasing in size up the stem, surpassing or at least reaching 
the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 12-42 cm broad; 
flower solitary, erect in bud; perianth segments yellow, orange or orange - 
red, 3-6 cm long, usually gradually acuminate to a slightly pubescent 
point; outer segments rhomboidal; inner segments obdeltoid to triangular- 
obovate; stamens one-third to two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments 
naked, dark violet; anthers dark violet, as long as filaments; ovary slightly 
shorter than stamens, with sessile stigma; capsule 1.5-2 cm in diameter, 
2.5-4.5 cm long. May. 

Sand and sandy clay deserts. — Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Kyz. K (N. ). 
Endemic. Described from parts of Kara Kum deserts near Aral Sea. Type 
in Leningrad. 

24. T. Korolkovii Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 295. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. 
(1876) t. XXII, f. 6-7. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 (3) cm thick; tunics firm, coriaceous, 
black, produced (sometimes considerably), woolly on the inside; stem 
10-20 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 3, spreading, more 
or less scattered, crisp, glaucous, progressively decreasing in size up 
the stem, commonly surpassing the flower; lowest leaf linear-lanceolate, 
0.5-1 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments red, sometimes yellow 



262 



or mottled, (2)-3-(4.5) cm long, with a small usually truncate blotch on 
inner face, commonly obtuse, sometimes with a very short pubescent point; 
outer segments rhomboidal or obovate; inner segments obovate to 
triangular -obovate; stamens two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments 
black, often yellowish-below; anthers yellow, one -half to two-thirds as 
long as filaments; ovary greenish, with subsessile stigma. March -April. 

Sandy or gravelly slopes in the foothills. — Centr. Asia: Syr D. Endemic. 
Described from Paris. Type in Leningrad. 

343 25. T. nitida Hoog in Gard. Chron. XXXI (1902) 350, f. 119. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, I2-22 cm thick; tunics firm, coriaceous, black, 

produced (sometimes considerably), the inner surface woolly at summit; 
stem 10-20-(30) mm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 3, 
spreading, more or less scattered, very crisp, glaucous, progressively 
decreasing in size up the stem, commonly not surpassing the flower; lowest 
leaf linear-lanceolate, 0.75-1.5 cm broad; flower solitary, nodding in bud; 
perianth segments bright red, (2.75)-4-6 cm long, commonly obtuse, often 
with a very short pubescent point, the small basal blotch on the inner face 
usually 3 -pointed; outer segments deltoid to broadly oblong- rhomboidal; 
inner segments obovate to triangular-obovate; stamens one-third the length 
of perianth; filaments black or rose; anthers yellow, as long as or longer 
than filaments; ovary commonly rose -colored, with a short style; capsule 
ca 1.5 cm in diameter, 2.5-3 cm long, short -beaked. April. 

Stony and gravelly slopes .— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described 
from Bukhara; the description based on cultivated specimens without 
precise indication of origin. 

Note. The characteristics distinguishing this species from 
T. Korolkovii are not clear at present and specimens from the N. parts 
of Pam.-Al. can be referred with equal justification to either species. 

26. T. rosea Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 596. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-2 cm thick; tunics firm, coriaceous, black, 

the inner surface with protruding woolly hairs; stem 7-20 cm long, the 
stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 3, more or less scattered, spreading, 
crisp, glaucous, progressively decreasing in size up the stem, commonly 
surpassing the flower; lowest leaf linear-lanceolate, 1-1.5 cm broad, 
flower solitary; perianth segments rose, 2.5-4 cm long, obtuse or 
sometimes with a very short point, the small basal blotch on inner face 
obtusely 3 -pointed; outer segments elliptic -rhomboidal; inner segments 
obovate; stamens two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments naked, black, 
the upper part purple; anthers yellow, as long as filaments; ovary pale 
rose, slightly shorter than stamens, with a very short style; capsule 
(unripe) ca. 1 cm in diameter, 1.5 cm long, short-beaked. April. 

Mottled outcrops.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (E. part of the foothills of 
Turkestan Range). Endemic. Described from Kim (Santo). Type in 
Tashkent. 

27. T. Schrenkii Rgl. inA.H.P. 11(1873)452.— ? T. oxypetala 
Stev. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXX, 2 (1857)81. — T. Gesneriana Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 134, non L. ; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 194; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 505.— 

344 rp Gesneriana var. acutiflora Pacz. in Zap. Kiev. O-va Est. XI, I 



263 



(1890) 159. — T. monticola Wulff, Fl. Kryma I, 3(1930)41.— 

T. suaveolens auct.— Ic: Ageenko, Obzor rast. Kryma (1897) t. 1.— 

Exs. : Doerfler Herb. Norm. No. 4181. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-3 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, slightly 
coriaceous, more or less hairy on the inside; stem 15-40 cm long, the 
stem and peduncle glabrous or more or less pubescent; leaves 3 (4), more 
or less spreading, scattered, glaucous, rather crisp, glabrous or pubescent, 
progressively decreasing in size up the stem, not surpassing the flower; 
lowest leaf linear-lanceolate to oblong, 1.5-6 cm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments red, yellow or white, 2.5-5.5 cm long, usually abruptly 
acuminate to a pubescent cusp, rarely obtuse, the basal blotch black or 
yellow or absent; outer segments oblong-rhomboidal to oblong; inner 
segments oblong-obovate to oboblong; stamens half the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, yellow or black; anthers slightly longer than to twice as long as 
filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile stigma; 
capsule 1-1.5 cm in diameter, 2-5 cm long. May. 

Steppes, semideserts and deserts. — European part: Transc. (S. ), Bl., 
Crim., L. Don, L. V.; Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., W. (N. part) and E. Transc; 
W. Siberia: U. Tob., Irt. (W.); Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. (N. ). Gen. distr. : 
Arm. -Kurd. Described from vicinity of Ishim. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. The author has not seen the authentic T. oxypetala but, to 
judge by Wulff s description (op. c. 40), it does not apparently differ from 
T. Schrenkii, as the difference in the length of relationship of anthers and 
filaments —the character proposed by Wulff — is of no significance. Anthers 
twice the length of filaments also occur in T. Schrenkii. All the same, 
it cannot as yet be fully established that T. oxypetala and 
T. Schrenkii are in fact identical. 

The author has not found any morphological differences between the 
yellow -flowered mountainous T. monticola and T. Schrenkii of the 
Crimean steppes. 

28. T. Ostrovskiana Rgl. in A. H. P. VIII (1884) 659. — Ic . : Rgl. in 
Gartenfl. XXXIII (1884) t. 1144. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-2 cm thick; tunics black, coriaceous, 
densely covered on the inside with appressed hairs; stem 15-40 cm long, 
the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 3, spreading, scattered, glaucous, 
crisp, glabrous, more or less ciliate, rather gradually decreasing in size 
up the stem, not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf linear-lanceolate to 
lanceolate, 1-4 cm broad; flower solitary, nodding in bud; perianth 
segments red, 3-8 cm long, acute, the black basal blotch margined with 
yellow; outer segments rhomboidal; inner segments oboblong; stamens 
one-third to two-fifths the length of perianth; filaments naked, attenuate 
345 from base, yellow or blackish; anthers violet, twice the length of filaments; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile stigma. May. 

Clayey and gravelly clay slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. 
Asia: T. Sh. (N. ). Endemic. Described from Alma Ata. 

29. T. Kolpakovskiana Rgl. inA.H.P. V (1877) 266. — T. triphylla 
auct. — Ic: Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXVII (1878) t. 951 . 

Perennial; bulbs ovoid 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics black, coriaceous, the 
inner surface densely covered at summit with appressed hairs; stem 



264 



15-35 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 3, more or less 
spreading, scattered, glaucous, crisp, glabrous, ciliate, gradually 
decreasing in size up the stem, commonly surpassing the flower; lowest 
leaf linear-lanceolate, 1-3 cm broad; flower solitary, nodding in bud; 
perianth segments yellow, 2.5-6 cm long, acute; outer segments more or 
less violet -tinged on the back, oblong to oblong-rhomboidal; inner segments 
oblong-oblanceolate to oboblong; stamens one -third to two-fifths the length 
of perianth; filaments naked, attenuate from base, yellow; anthers yellow, 
as long as filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile 
stigma. May. 

Clayey and gravelly slopes in the foothills. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. 
(Dzungarian Ala Tau, S. part), T. Sh. (N.). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. 
Described from Alma Ata. 

Note. Numerous hybrids between T. K o 1 p a ko vs ki an a and 
T. Ostrovskiana are known, as for instance from the Alma Ata area, 
that display various combinations in flower color and habit and thus 
completely obliterate the distinction between these species and render their 
determination difficult. 

30. T. Zenaidae Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 150. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm thick; tunics black or blackish-brown, 

coriaceous, the inner surface covered at summit with appressed hairs; 
stem 15-30 (40) cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 3, 
spreading, scattered, glaucous, not crisp, glabrous, ciliate- or rarely 
smooth -margined, rather rapidly decreasing in size up the stem, not 
surpassing the flower; lowest leaf oblong-lanceolate to oblong, 3-6 cm 
broad; flower solitary, erect in bud; perianth segments yellow (the outer 
reddish outside), orange or red, sometimes with a black or yellow basal 
blotch, 3-6.5 cm long, acuminate or acute; outer segments oblong- 
rhomboidal to oblong; inner segments oboblong; stamens two -fifths the 
length of perianth; filaments naked, attenuate from base, yellow or black; 
anthers yellow, scarcely longer than filaments; ovary green or violet 
tinged, slightly shorter than stamens, with sessile stigma. April-May. 
346 Fine-textured and stony slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Centr. 

Asia: T. Sh. (Kirghiz Ala Tau). Endemic. Described from Shekule, 
Aleksandrovskii Range. Type in Tashkent. 

31. T. brachystemon Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXI (1882) 323, t. 1099, f. 2,3. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 2 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 

coriaceous, the inner surface covered at summit with appressed hairs; 
stem to 35 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves (3) 4, reclinate, 
spreading, glabrous or slightly ciliate, progressively decreasing in size 
up the stem; lowest leaf linear -lanceolate, 2-3 cm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments yellow, 3-4.5 cm long, mostly obtuse; outer segments 
violet -tinged on the back, lanceolate to oblong; inner segments oblong- 
rhomboidal to oboblong; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments 
naked, gradually dilated at base and abruptly attenuate at apex, yellow; 
anthers yellow, as long as filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, 
with subsessile stigma. April-July. 

Gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Dzungarian Ala Tau, 
S. part). Endemic. Described without precise indication of origin. 



265 



32. T. platystemon Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 150. 
Perennial; bulb ca. 2 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, reddish-brown, 

the inner surface covered at summit with appressed hairs; stem 17 cm 
long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 4, scattered, glabrous, 
the lower spreading; lowest leaf linear-lanceolate, 2 cm broad; flowers 2 
(always ?); perianth segments yellow, 4 cm long, obtusish; outer segments 
violet -tinged, oblong- rhomboidal; stamens two-fifths the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, dilated above the middle, gradually narrowed at both ends, 
yellow: anthers yellow, slightly longer than filaments; ovary about half 
the length of stamens, with sessile stigma. June. 

Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Sary-biya). Endemic. Described from the 
location indicated. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A species known from a single specimen and needing more study. 

33. T. altaica Pall, ex Spreng. Syst. II (1825) 63; Ldb. Fl, Riss. IV 
135; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 638. — Ic: Ldb. Ic. pi. fl. Ross. II (1830) 
t. 134. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, often almost 
papery, brown, hairy all over the inner surface; stem 10-35 cm long, the 
upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves 3 (4), commonly 
347 spreading, scattered, glaucous, crisp, glabrous or (the upper) more or 
less pubescent, ciliate, progressively decreasing in size up the stem, 
not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate to oblong, 1-4 cm broad; 
flower solitary; perianth segments yellowish or yellow, 2.5-5 cm long, 
acuminate or acute; outer segments greenish or dingy violet, oblong- 
rhomboidal or oblong, slightly longer than the oblong -obo vat e to oboblong 
inner segments; stamens two-fifths to one -half the length of perianth; 
filaments naked, yellow; anthers yellow, half as long again to twice as long 
as filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile stigma; 
capsule 1.5-2 cm in diameter, 2.5-4 cm long. May. 

Steppes and stony slopes . — W. Siberia: Irt. (E.), Alt. (SW); Centr. 
Asia: Balkh. (E.), Dzu.-Tarb. Endemic (?),, Described from Imaus (Altai). 

Note. The tulip reported by Fedchenko for Ala-kul' (Rast. Turk. 
(1915) 245) as T. iliensis, should apparently be referred to this species, 

34. T. dubia Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 148. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or brown, 

papery, hairy all over the inner surface; stem 10-25 cm long, the upper 
part of stem and peduncle pubescent; leaves 2-4, more or less spreading, 
approximate, crisp, more or less pubescent, ciliate, abruptly decreasing 
in size up the stem, not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf ovate to oblong, 
1.5-3 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments 2-4 cm long, equal, 
yellow or yellowish (?); outer segments violet -tinged outside, oblong- 
rhomboidal, acute or acuminate; inner segments oboblong, obtusish to 
obtuse; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments naked, yellow; 
anthers yellow, two-thirds the length of filaments; ovary two-thirds the 
length of stamens, with subsessile stigma. June. 

Fine -textured slopes, with or without admixture of gravel, in the upper 
mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (W.). Endemic. Described from the 
Chotan River. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Hybridizing with T. Kaufmanniana Rgl. 



266 



35. T. iliensis Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXVIII (1879) 162, tab. 975, f.c-d 
et 227, tab. 982, f. 4-6. — T. Hoeltzeri Dykes, Notes (1930) 74, 
tab. XXVIII (exlus syn. ). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics subcoriaceous, brownish- 
black, the inner surface covered at summit and at base with appressed 
hairs; stem 10-30 cm long, glabrous, or the upper part and peduncle 
pubescent, or rarely the peduncle glabrate; leaves (3) 4, scattered, 
spreading or rarely reclinate, glabrous or the uppermost sometimes 

348 pubescent, mostly scarcely crisp, commonly not surpassing the peduncle; 
lowest leaf sublorate to linear-lanceolate, 0.7-1.5 cm broad; flower 
solitary; perianth segments yellow, 2.5-3.5 cm long, acute or acuminate; 
outer segments commonly violet -tinged, elliptic -rhomboidal; inner 
segments oboblong; stamens two-fifths to one -half the length of perianth, 
naked, slightly dilated at the middle and gradually narrowed at both ends, 
yellow; anthers half as long again as filaments, yellow; ovary two-thirds 
the length of stamens, with subsessile stigma. May. 

Among shrubs. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Ketmen-tav: Podgornoe). 
Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from the upper course of the Hi River. 
Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A similar species. T. Dykesiana m. (= T. Hoeltzeri 
Rgl. in herb.! = T. Triphylla var. Hoeltzeri Rgl. in Gartenfl. (1884) 
34, tab. 1144 f. 3, 4, a, b, non T. Hoeltzeri Dykes I.e.. ), described 
without precise indication of origin, is distinguished in the first place by 
the filaments being strongly dilated in upper part and abruptly narrowed 
toward the anther. The very incomplete specimens from Karachok. 
(A. Regel) belong perhaps to this species. 

36. T. ferganica Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 148. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, (l) — 1.5 — 3 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or 

black, firmly coriaceous, the inner surface appressed-woolly at summit 
and at base; stem (5)-10-40 cm long, the upper part of stem and peduncle 
pubescent; leaves 3, approximate, rarely scattered, commonly spreading, 
more or less pubescent, ciliate, crisp, rather abruptly decreasing in size 
up the stem, not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate or oblong, 
1.5-4 cm broad; flowers 1 (2); perianth segments 2.5-6.5 cm long, yellow; 
outer segments violet-tinged outside, oblong to oblong- rhomboidal, 
gradually acuminate or acute; inner segments oboblong, rather abruptly 
acuminate to a pubescent point; stamens two-fifths to one -half the length 
of perianth; filaments naked, yellow; anthers yellow, slightly longer than 
filaments; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile stigma; 
capsule 1.5-2 cm broad, 2.5-4 cm long. May- June. 

Stony and fine -textured slopes in the middle mountain zone.— Centr. 
Asia: Pam.-Al. (Alai Range), T. Sh. (Fergana and Chatkal ranges). 
Endemic. Described from the Kugart River. Type in Tashkent. 

37. T. anisophylla Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 147.— 
T. Kolpakovskiana var. humilis Rgl. in A. H. P. VIII (1884) 651 . 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, (l .5)-2-2.5 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, tawny, 
covered inside at summit and at base with appressed hairs; stem 

349 (3) -8 -20 cm long; peduncle glabrous or rarely with very minute scattered 



267 



pubescence; leaves 3, commonly crowded, spreading, glabrous, crisp, 
reaching the flower, unequal; lowest leaf commonly oblong-ovate, 1.5-3 cm 
broad; upper leaves much reduced, the uppermost sometimes bractlike; 
flowers 1 (2); perianth segments yellow, 1.5-3.5 cm long, obtuse or 
obtusish; outer segments violet -tinged, elliptic to rhomboidal -elliptic; 
inner segments obovate to obovate -oblong; stamens one -half the length of 
perianth, glabrous, entire; anthers yellow; style about half the length of 
ovary. March. 

Middle mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Darvaz). Endemic. 
Described from Kala-i-khum. Type in Leningrad. 

38. T. Korshinskyi Vved. in Bull. Univer. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 149. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-2-(3) cm thick; tunics coriaceous, nearly 

black, the inner surface covered at summit and at base with appressed 
hairs; stem (5)- 10-20 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 
(2 or 3) 4 (5), subapproximate, strongly spreading or sometimes reclinate; 
glabrous, crisp, commonly surpassing the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate, 
1.5-3 cm broad, the other reduced; flower 1 (2); perianth segments white, 
apparently with a yellow basal blotch, 1.5-4 cm long; outer segments violet- 
tinged outside, linear-lanceolate to lance -rhomboidal, up to half as long 
again as the oblanceolate- rhomboidal to obovate -rhomboidal inner segments, 
stamens half the length of perianth; filaments naked, yellow, violet -tinged 
on the back, linear -oblong, abruptly narrowed at apex; anthers yellow; 
style up to half as long as ovary. March- June. 

Stony slopes in the middle and upper mountain zones.— Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from Sary-dash. Type in Leningrad. 

39. T. tianschanica Rgl. in A. H. P. VI (1880) 508. - Ic. : Rgl. inA.H.P. 
VIII (1884) t. 5. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, I2-2 cm thick; tunics subcoriaceous to almost 
papery, blackish-brown, produced, the inner surface appressed-hairy at 
summit; stem 6-15 cm long, glabrous; leaves 3, approximate, spreading, 
commonly crisp, surpassing the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate, 7-10 mm 
broad, commonly smooth-margined, 2-3 times as broad as the narrowly 
linear-lanceolate ciliate upper leaves; flower solitary; perianth segments 
yellowish, 15-25 mm long, oboblong, gradually tapering into petiole, 
obtuse, glabrous; outer segments dingy violet outside, slightly longer than 
the inner; stamens about half the length of perianth; filaments yellow, 
naked, abruptly dilated above the middle, gradually narrowed toward base; 
350 anthers yellow; oblong-elliptic, 22-3 mm long; ovary slightly shorter than 
stamens, long-styled; capsule oblong, ca. 1 cm broad, 2 cm long, long- 
beaked. May -June. 

Stony slopes in the alpine zone. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Centr. T. Sh.), 
rare. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from the Agiaz River. Type in 
Leningrad. 

40. T. tetraphylla in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 296 . — T. Kesselringii Rgl. 
inA.H.P. V (1878) 637.- Ic: Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXVIII (1879) t. 964. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics black, the inner surface 
appressed-hairy at summit; stem (5)-15-20 cm long, the stem and 
peduncle glabrous; leaves (3 or 4) 5 or 6, (7), crowded, spreading, crisp, 



268 






glaucous, ciliate, sublorate, surpassing the flower; lowest leaf 1 — 1.5 cm 
broad; flowers 1 or 2 (to 4), nodding in bud; perianth segments (2)-3-4 cm 
long, acutish to obtusish, yellow; outer segments violet -tinged, greenish 
on the back, oblong-to oblong -rhomboidal; inner segments dingy green on 
the back at base, oboblong to oblong-obovate; stamens one -third the length 
of perianth; filaments naked, yellow, dilated in upper part, gradually 
narrowed toward base; anthers yellow, linear -oblong, 7-8 mm long; 
ovary shorter than stamens, short -styled. May. 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Centr. T. Sh.). Gen. distr. : 
Dzu.-Kash. Described from the Kochkur River. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Specimens displaying transition toward T. Kolpakovskiana 
Rgl. are known from the Alma Ata area. They are evidently of hybrid origin. 

41. T. hissarica M. Pop. et Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 
(1935) 149. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics brown or grayish, 
papery, the inner surface appressed-hairy at summit, strongly produced; 
stem ca. 7 cm long, glabrous; leaves 4, subverticillately crowded, 
spreading, crisp, glabrous, smooth- or slightly ciliate -margined, linear, 
ca. 5 mm broad, surpassing the flower; flower solitary; perianth segments 
yellowish, 17-20 mm long, acute, glabrous; outer segments lanceolate, 
greenish on the back, two-thirds as broad as and slightly longer than the 
inner; inner segments commonly oblong, gradually narrowed into claw; 
stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; filaments naked, gradually 
attenuate from base; anthers linear-oblong, 6 mm long; ovary slightly 
shorter than stamens, with a very long style. June. 

The alpine mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. (Gissar Range). 
Endemic. Described from Mura Pass. Type in Tashkent. 

351 42. T. Krauseana Rgl. inA.H. P. VI (1880) 508. - Ic. : Lipsch. in Bull. 
Jard. Bot. Acad. Sc. URSS XXX (1932) 735. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-4 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, brown, more 
or less produced, the inner surface appressed-hairy especially at summit 
and at base; stem 7-20 cm long, pubescent; leaves 3, approximate, 
spreading, violet-speckled, pubescent, crisp, surpassing the flower; lowest 
leaf larger, oblong, 2-3 cm (in sterile plants up to 5 cm) broad; upper 
leaves linear-lanceolate; flower solitary; perianth segments pale yellow (?), 
20-30 mm long, acute; outer segments pubescent outside; filaments naked; 
anthers several times the length of filaments. April. 

Stony fine-textured slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. (Kara-tau). Endemic. 
Described from Kara-tau mountains. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A very dubious species. The authentic plant is very unreliable 
(bulb missing and flowers scarcely open) and almost unidentifiable. 
Lipschitz's specimens, on which the description was based, most probably 
represent a preflowering stage of T. Greigii Rgl. The specimen from 
Baisun (Musa) is evidently a nonflowering T. Micheliana Hoog. plant. 



Section SPIRANTHERA Vved. hoc loco. — Anthers opening gradually and 
slowly from apex to base, becoming contorted; filaments naked; ovary with 
subsessile stigma; bulb tunics more or less hairy on the inside. 



269 



43. T. Kaufmanniana Rgl. in Gartenfl. XXVI (1877) 194, t.906. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-4 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 
coriaceous, the inner surface more or less covered with appressed hairs; 
stem (l0)-20-30-(50) cm long, the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent; 
leaves 2 or 3, spreading or slightly reclinate, scattered, glaucous, usually 
not surpassing the flower; lowest leaf lanceolate or oblong to oblong-elliptic, 
2-13 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments white with a yellow 
basal blotch or yellowish throughout, acute to obtuse; outer segments 
broadly suffused on the back with dingy violet or reddish-violet, slightly 
exceeding the inner segments, 2.5-8 cm long, lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate; inner segments oblong-elliptic or oboblong; stamens half the 
length of perianth; filaments naked, yellow; anthers yellowish, linear, 
3-4 times the length of filaments, gradually opening from apex to base, 
becoming contorted; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with subsessile 
stigma; capsule 1.5-2 cm broad, 3-6 cm long. April-June. 

Stony slopes in the lower and middle mountain zones. — Centr. Asia: 
T. Sh. (W. Tien Shan). Endemic. Described from Chirchik. 
352 Note. Specimens collected by Knorring by the Kul'dambes River need 
further study. They have very narrow linear-lanceolate leaves and 
relatively narrow perianth segments, thus differing from the common 
T. Kaufmanniana. 

Numerous natural hybrids between T. Kaufmanniana Rgl. and 
T. Greigii Rgl., known from Karshan-tau mountains, do not differ from 
artificially obtained hybrids (see Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. XX (1895) 352, 
tab. 12; Dykes, Notes (1930) 105, tab. LII, LIII). Specimens occupying 
an exactly intermediate position between these species are rare; the plants 
mostly approach one or the other of the parents and appear to be color forms 
of the latter. T. suaveolens var. bicolor Rgl. (A.H.P. VIII (1884) 
650) should partly be referred here. 



Section LOPHOPHYLLON Vved. hoc loco. — Leaf solitary, with twisted 
longitudinal crests; bulb tunics hairy on the inside; filaments hairy; ovary 
short -styled. 

44. T. Regelii Krasn. in Scrip. Bot. Hort. Univ. Petrop. II (1887) 21.— 
Ic: Taliev, Tr. Prikl. bot, gen. i sel. XXIV 2 (1931) 66. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, 
slightly produced, the inner surface covered at summit and at base with 
appressed hairs; stem 5-10 cm long, glabrous; leaf solitary, amplexicaul, 
oblong to elliptic, acute, glabrous, smooth, with twisted longitudinal crests 
on the upper face, surpassing the flower, 1.5-3 cm broad; flower solitary; 
perianth segments white, yellow at base, 20-25 mm long, acutish to obtuse; 
outer segments lanceolate, dingy violet on the back, about half as broad 
as the inner segments, these oblong and ciliate at base; stamens about 
half the length of perianth; filaments hairy; anthers linear-oblong, 5-6 mm 
long; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, short-styled. April. 

Stony slopes. — Centr. Asia: Endemic. Described from Kurtu, Andrakai. 
Type in Leningrad. 



270 



Section ERIOSTEMONES Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 191 .- Bulb tunics 
glabrous or hairy or arachnoid -lanate on the inside; flowers in most species 
small, inconspicuous; filaments pubescent, in one species (T. sogdiana) 
naked; ovary with subsessile stigma or with a more or less developed style, 
but this never longer than ovary. 

44. *T. violacea Boiss. et Buhse in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XII 
(1860)211; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 199. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. LI (1895) t. 7440. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-3 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, rigidly 

353 coriaceous, the inner surface densely covered at summit with appressed 
hairs; stem 12-18 cm long, glabrous; leaves 3 (4), spreading, approximate, 
linear, glabrous, smooth, scarcely surpassing the flower; lowest leaf 

ca. 1 cm broad, broader than the others; flowers solitary; perianth 
segments violet, black and yellow -blotched at base, 30-40 mm long, 
oboblong, acute, pubescent at tips; inner segments slightly broader, ciliate 
at base; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments densely bearded at 
base; anthers oblong, 6 mm long; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, 
with subsessile stigma. April. 

Dry slopes. Possibly occurring in Soviet Talysh. — Gen. distr. : Iran. 
Described from Khummes. Type in Leningrad. 

45. T. caucasica Lipsky in Schedis ad Herb. Fl. Ross. (1902) No. 942. 
T. Lipskyi Grossh. in Fl. Kavk. 1(1928)223. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 - 1 .5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, papery, 
produced, the inner surface covered at summit with appressed hairs; stem 
7-12 cm long, glabrous; leaves 2 (3), spreading, approximate, glabrous, 
smooth- or slightly ciliate -margined, not surpassing or only slightly 
surpassing the flower; lowest leaf broader than the others, linear- 
lanceolate, 8-12 mm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments pale rosy- 
violet, 20-35 mm long, acutish, ciliate at base; outer segments 
oblanceolate, two thirds as broad as the oboblong inner segments; stamens 
half the length of perianth; filaments bearded at base, anthers ellipsoid, 
ca. 2 mm long; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, short-styled. June. 

Alpine mountain zone. — Caucasus: Cisc. (upper course of Kuban River). 
Endemic. Described from Uchkulan. Type in Leningrad. 

45. * T. silvestris L. Sp. pi. (1753) 305; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 506 (p.p. ).— 
Ic: Redoute LII. Ill (1807) t. 165. — Exs.: Fl. ital. exs. No. 1025. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 
coriaceous, the inner surface densely covered at summit and at base with 
appressed hairs or sublanate; stem 20-40 cm long, glabrous; leaves 2 or 
3 or 4, scattered, spreading, glabrous, smooth, not surpassing the flower; 
lowest leaf broader than the others, linear-lanceolate, 12-20 mm broad; 
flower commonly solitary, nodding in bud; perianth segments yellow, 
40-55 mm long, acute; outer segments often greenish outside, gradually 
acuminate, ciliate at base, bearded at apex; stamens two-fifths to one-half 
the length of perianth; filaments densely bearded at base; anthers linear- 
oblong, the length of filaments, 8-13 mm long; ovary slightly shorter than 
stamens, with subsessile stigma; capsule ca. 1.5 cm broad, 3 cm long, 
acuminate. April. 

354 In woods; sometimes a weed. — Gen. distr.: W. Europe. Described from 
S. Europe. 



271 



Note. In recent times (Grossheim, Fl. Kavkaza II (1928) 223, Wulff, 
Fl. Kryma 3 (1930) 42), as the morphological and geographical limits of 
Tulipa silvestris L. had become fairly clear, this species has been 
reported for the Crimea and the Caucasus. The author has not, 
unfortunately, had the opportunity of seeing the specimens cited by 
Grossheim and Wulff, but he doubts if they would conform to the description 
given here which is based on west European plants. 

46. T. Biebersteiniana Schult. Syst. VII (1829) 382; Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
(1884) 199. — T. silvestris var. minor Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 
136. — T. silvestris var. Niphontiana Czern. Consp. plant. Chare. 
Ucr. (1859)64. — T. silvestris var. Biebersteiniana Rgl. in 
A.H.P. 11(1873)442; Shmal'g. , Fl. II, 506. — T. bessarabica Zapal. 
Consp. Fl. Gal. I (1906) 167. — T. australis var. taurica Miscz. in 
Tr. Byuro prikl. bot. V (1912) 51 . — T. silvestris M. B. Fl. taur.-cauc. 
I (1808) 270 et auct., non L. — Ic. : Syreisch., 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I (1906) 
240. — Exs.: HFR No. 897. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics coriaceous, blackish-brown 
to nearly black, the inner surface rather densely appressed-hairy at summit 
and at base; stem 15-30 cm long, glabrous; leaves 2 (3), spreading, rarely 
declined, scattered, glabrous, smooth- or rarely ciliate-margined, not 
surpassing the flower; lowest leaf broader than the others, narrowly linear - 
lanceolate, 5-20 mm broad; flowers l-(5), nodding (?) in bud; perianth 
segments yellow, (l5)-20-30-(40) mm long, acute, rather gradually 
tapering; outer segments often violet-tinged outside, lanceolate, up to twice 
as broad as the inner segments, these oblong-ovate, ciliate at base and 
more or less bearded at apex; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments 
densely bearded, anthers oblong, one -third to one -half the length of 
filaments, 3-4 mm long; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with 
subsessile stigma; capsule 1-5 cm [sic] broad, 1.5-2.5 cm long, pointed 
at the top. April-May. 

Steppes, slopes, scrub, forest glades, and river valleys. — European 
part: U. V. (S. ), N. Dnp., V.-Don, Transv., Crim., L. Don, L. V. ; 
Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., E. Transc; W. Siberia: U. Tob., Irt. (?); Centr. 
Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh. ( ? ), Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. (?). Described 
from area between Mozdok and Kizlyar. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Ever since the earliest encounters with the Caucaso-Ukrainian 
tulip of the T. silvestris s. 1. group, botanists have usually attempted 
its subdivision into two distinct taxonomic and systematic entities. This 
tendency has recently been considerably strengthened by ecological 
differences, but nobody has so far indicated any clear morphological 
355 differences between T. Biebersteiniana plants of the steppe and 

meadow-forest belt, respectively. Even Taliev (Tr. Prikl. bot., gen i sel. 
XXIV 2 (1930) 111-112), one of the last botanists who studied 
T. Biebersteiniana s. 1. and apparently knew it better than anyone 
else, did not succeed in establishing this distinction. The author is acquainted 
with T. Biebersteiniana only by way of the herbarium, not having 
been able to make any contribution to this problem. He merely has to 
mention that the T. Biebersteiniana type is the mesophytic race 
("in hortis et vineis ad fluvium Terek, inter Mosdok et Kisljar" MB, I.e.), 



272 



whereas the xerophytic race is scarcely distinguishable from 
T. australis Link. 

47. T. patens Agardh. ex Schult. Syst. VII (1829) 384; Kryl., Fl. Zap. 
Sib. Ill, 639. — T. tricolor Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 33. — T. silvestris 
var. tricolor Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 136; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 506.— 
Ic: Ldb. Ic. pi. Fl. Ross. II (1830) t. 135. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics slightly coriaceous to 
almost papery, blackish-brown to grayish-brown, produced, the inner 
surface appressed-hairy at summit and at base; stem 10-25 cm long, 
glabrous; leaves 2 (3), commonly spreading, scattered, glabrous, smooth- 
or slightly ciliate -margined, not surpassing or only slightly surpassing 
the flower; lowest leaf broader than the others, narrowly linear-lanceolate, 
4-10 mm broad; flowers solitary; nodding in bud; perianth segments white, 
yellow at base, 15-35 mm long, acuminate; outer segments dingy violet on 
the back, lanceolate, about half as broad as the inner, these oblong, ciliate 
at base and more or less bearded at apex; stamens half the length of 
perianth, densely bearded at base; anthers oblong, one-third to one-half 
the length of filaments, 3-4 mm long; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, 
short-styled; capsule ca. 1.5 cm thick, 2-2.5 cm long, pointed at the top, 
May. 

Steppes, stony slopes, and solonchaks. — European part: L. Don, L.V. ; 
W. Siberia: U. Tob., Irt., Alt. (SW). Endemic. Described from Siberia. 

Note. Owingto the unusually close kinship with T. Bierbersteiniana 
and the fact that it is often impossible to distinguish the two species in the 
herbarium, it is difficult to define the western limit of T. patens. One 
should certainly regard with great suspicion the reports of this species for 
the southern part of the European USSR and for the Caucasus (Taliev, Tr. 
Prikl. bot., gen. i sel. XXIV, 2 (1931) 75-77). 

48. T. sogdiana Bge in Mem. Acad. Petersb. sav. etrang. VII (1854) 
514; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 193. — T. Androssovii Litw. in HFR (1908) 
No. 1895— Exs. : HFR No. 1895. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 0.75-1.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or 
brown, coriaceous, mostly very firm, lanate on the inside; stem 
356 10-15-25 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 2 (3), more or 
less Scattered, spreading, often finally somewhat twisted, sometimes 
slightly crisp, glabrous, smooth, linear to lance-linear; lowest leaf broader 
than the others, 4-10 mm broad, not surpassing the flower; flowers 1 (2); 
perianth segments white, almost imperceptibly rosy violet-tinged, yellow 
at base, 15-25-(30) mm long; outer segments oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
dingy violet outside, about half as broad as the inner; inner segments ovate, 
obtuse, mucronate, abruptly narrowed into the claw, sometimes slightly 
ciliate at base; stamens two-fifths to one-half the length of perianth; 
filaments yellow, naked; anthers oblong, 4-5 mm long, yellow, short - 
pointed; ovary shorter than stamens, with a very short style; capsule 
oblong, ca. 1 cm broad, ca. 1.5 cm long, short-beaked. March-April. 
(Plate XX, Figure 2 a, d). 

Sandy, rarely clayey or stony deserts. — Centr. Asia: Kyz. K., Kara K., 
Amu D. Endemic. Described from area between Bukhara and Kermin. Type 
in Leningrad. 



273 



49. T. Buhseana Boiss. in Diagn. pi. or. II, 4 (1859) 98. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 — 1.5 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, the 

inner surface sparingly woolly at summit*; stem 15-40 cm long, glabrous 
or rarely in upper part pubescent; leaves 2, very scattered, declined or 
very rarely spreading, glabrous, more or less ciliate, linear; lowest leaf 
broader than the others, 3-6-10 mm broad, usually far from reaching the 
flowers; flowers (l) 2 or 3 (to 6); perianth segments white, yellow at base, 
(l3)-15-20-30 mm long, acute; outer segments lanceolate, dingy violet 
outside, more or less bearded at the very base, about half as broad as 
the inner segments; inner segments oblong, rather gradually tapering into 
the claw, bearded and ciliate at base; stamens half the length of perianth; 
filaments yellow, densely bearded at base, commonly hairy above; anthers 
linear-oblong, 4-6 mm long, yellow or at apex faintly violet, short-pointed; 
ovary slightly shorter than stamens, short -styled; capsule oblong or rarely 
subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diameter, (l ) — 1 .5 — 2 cm long, short-beaked. April. 

Sandy and clayey soils. — Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp., Balkh., Kyz. K., 
Mtn. Turkm., T. Sh. (N. foothills). Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash., Iran., 
Described from Kara-chokat. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A species with a disjointed distribution area. The filaments of 
plants from the northern part of the area are nearly always hairy above the 
bearded base, and this characteristic distinguishes them from the typical 
T. Buhseana which has naked filaments . It should, however, be noted 
that the author has also seen individuals with hairy filaments in the southern 
357 part of the distribution area. In addition, the northern race, which at one 
time he proposed to separate as T. Talievii, is apparently characterized 
by the drooping of buds and of faded flowers, but this characteristic needs 
confirmation with more ample material. 

50. T. turkestanica Rgl. in A. H. P. Ill (1875) 296 (quoad spec, pamir- 
alaica). — T. silvestris var. turkestanica Rgl. in A.H.P. 11(1873) 
443. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) t. XXI. f. 1-4.- Exs . : Fl. turk. exs. 
No. 57. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 .5-2-(3) cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or 
brown, coriaceous, the inner surface woolly at summit; stem 10-25 mm 
long, the upper part of stem and peduncle pubescent, rarely glabrous; 
leaves 2, distant, spreading, glabrous, ciliate, linear; lowest leaf broader 
than the others, (5)-8-15 mm broad, usually surpassing the flowers, very 
rarely not reaching them; flowers 1-7, erect in bud; perianth segments 
white, yellow at base, 12-25 mm long, acute; outer segments lanceolate, 
dingy violet outside, rather gradually tapering into a claw, more or less 
bearded at base, ciliate, stamens half the length of perianth; filaments 
yellow, densely bearded at the dilated base, naked or hairy above; anthers 
linear-oblong, 4-6 mm long, commonly yellow, rarely faintly violet, short- 
pointed; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, short -styled; capsule oblong, 
ca. 1 cm in diameter, 1.5-2 cm long. March- April. 

Clayey and stony slopes of foothills, up to 2500 m.— Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al., T. Sh. (Mogol— tau, Pasha-ata). Endemic. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Plants from Alai Valley need further study. According to 
Velichko they have pale yellow flowers. 



Young protective tunics have a sparse arachnoid pubescence over the entire surface. 



274 



51. T. turcomanica B. Fedtsch. in Fl. Turkmen. II (1932) 306 (quoad 
spec, exclus. descr. ). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or brown, 
coriaceous, densely and delicately arachnoid-shaggy on the inside, stem 
15-30 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 2, very distant, 
reclinate or rarely spreading, glabrous, smooth or slightly ciliate, linear; 
lowest leaf broader, 6-15 mm broad, not surpassing the peduncle; flowers 
1 (2 or 3); perianth segments white, yellow at base, 20-30 mm long, acute; 
outer segments lanceolate, dingy violet outside, bearded at base with long 
hairs, about half as broad as the inner; inner segments oblong-ovate, 
358 acuminate, rather abruptly tapering at base into a short claw, long-ciliate 
and more or less bearded at base; stamens half the length of perianth, 
filaments yellow, densely bearded at the dilated base, sometimes hairy 
above; anthers linear-oblong, 4-6 mm long, yellow, short-pointed; ovary 
slightly shorter than stamens, short-styled. April. 

Mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. Gen. distr.: Iran. 
Described from Kopet Dagh. Type in Leningrad. 

52. T. bifloriformis Vved. in Herb. Fl. As. Med. (1935) No. 576. — 
T. turkestanica auct. p.p. — T. biflora auct. fl. As. Med. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, 
densely and delicately arachnoid-shaggy on the inside; stem 10-25 cm long, 
the upper part of stem and peduncle commonly pubescent, very rarely 
glabrous; leaves 2, distant, reclinate, glabrous, ciliate, linear to linear- 
lanceolate; lower leaf broader, (6) 10-15 mm broad, usually surpassing 
the flower; flowers (l) 2-8 (to 11); perianth segments white, yellow at base, 
(11 )-15-20-(30) mm long, acute; outer segments oblong-lanceolate, dingy 
violet outside, bearded at base, two-thirds as broad as the inner, inner 
segments oblong, acuminate, more or less tapering into a claw, slightly 
bearded at base, long-ciliate; stamens about half the length of perianth; 
filaments yellow, densely bearded at base with long hairs, commonly hairy 
above; anthers linear-oblong, 5-6 mm long, often violet, rarely yellow, 
very short -pointed; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, short -styled; 
capsule commonly oblong, 1-1.5 cm in diameter (l)— 1.5 — 2.5(3) cm long, 
short-beaked. March-July. 

Clayey and stony slopes in foothills, up to 1900 m.— Centr. Asia: Syr 
D., T. Sh. (W.), Pam.-Al. (?). Endemic. Described from Tashkent . 
Type in Tashkent. 

Note. The plants from Kara-tau are very squat and they have very hairy 
mostly produced bulb tunics; leaves usually surpassing the flower; buds 
and faded flowers erect (T. orthopoda m. in herb.). On the other hand, 
the plants from the Aleksandrovskii Range have less hairy tunics, while 
the button and faded flowers are nodding (T. binutans m. in herb.). 

Additional collections are needed from the Alai Range, as the material 
from this area (Shakhimardan, Sary-kamysh, Ak-bura) is insufficient. 

53. T. biflora Pall. Reise III (1876) 727, t. D, f . 3; Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
200, Shmal'g., Fl. II, 506. — T. silvestris var. biflora Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV (1853) .136.- Ic. : Fl. Yugo-Vost. Ill (1929) Figure 187. 



275 



359 Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics brown or grayish-brown, 
papery, produced and slightly clasping the stem base, finely arachnoid- 
woolly on the inside; stem 10-20 cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; 
leaves mostly 2, distant, declined, very rarely spreading, glabrous, 
smooth, linear; lower leaf broader, 3-7-(l0) mm broad, slightly surpassing 
the flowers; flowers 1 or 2 (to 6); perianth segments white, yellow at base, 
13-25 mm long, acute; outer segments lanceolate, dingy violet outside, 
bearded at base, about half as broad as the inner; inner segments oblong 

to oblong-ovate, acuminate, gradually tapering into a rather long claw, 
bearded at base, ciliate; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments 
yellow, bearded at base; anthers oblong, 2-3 mm long, yellow, with a very 
short point; ovary scarcely shorter than stamens, short-styled, capsule 
short -beaked, 8-13 mm in diameter, about as long as or slightly longer 
than broad. April. 

Solonetz steppes, sonoletz soils and clayey slopes. — European part: 
Bl. (??), Crim. (??), L. V.; W. Siberia: U. Tob. (S.), Irt. (S.); Centr. 
Asia: Ar.-Casp. Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from deserts adjacent 
to the Caspian. 

54. T. polychroma Stapf. in Denkschr. Akad. Wien. L. (1885) 18.— 
T. biflora var. grandiflora Grossh. in Grossh. et Schischk. PI. 
orient, exsicc (1928) No. 353 . 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, 
slightly produced, finely arachnoid-woolly on the inside; stem 6-15 cm long, 
the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 2, rather distant, falcately 
spreading, glabrous, smooth or rarely slightly ciliate, linear; lower leaf 
broader, 5-10 mm broad, slightly surpassing the flower; flowers 1 (2); 
perianth segments white, yellow at base, 15-25 mm long, acutish; outer 
segments oblong-lanceolate, dingy violet outside, bearded at base, half as 
broad as the inner; inner segments broadly oblong, rather gradually tapering 
into a claw, densely ciliate at base, often whitish; stamens half the length 
of perianth; filaments yellow, bearded at base; anthers oblong, 2-4 mm 
long, yellow, with a very short point; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, 
short-styled. April. 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: Cis. (E.), E. Transc. Gen. distr.: Iran. 
Described from Iran: Shurab. Cotype in Leningrad. 

55. T. koktebelica Junge inTrav. Mus. Bot. Acad. Petersb. XVI (1916) 
112. 

360 Perennial; bulb ovoid, l-(l2) cm thick; tunics brown, coriaceous, 
slightly produced, finely arachnoid on the inside; stem 10-20 cm long, 
the stem and peduncle glabrous, the aerial part of stem much shorter than 
the underground part; leaves 2, rather distant, falcately spreading, 
glabrous, nearly smooth-margined, linear; lower leaf broader, 6-15 mm 
broad, slightly surpassing the flower; flowers 1 or 2; perianth segments 
white, yellow at base, 18-25 mm long, acutish; outer segments oblong- 
lanceolate, dingy violet outside, glabrous at base, two-thirds as broad 

as the inner; inner segments oblong-lanceolate, rather abruptly tapering 
at base into a fairly long claw, ciliate at base; stamens half the length of 
perianth; filaments yellow, slightly bearded at base; anthers oblong, 
2.5-3 mm long, yellow, with a very short point; ovary slightly shorter 
than stamens, short-styled. March. 



276 



Dry stony clay slopes.— European part: Crim. Endemic. Described 
from Koktebel 1 [Planerskoe]. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. An exceedingly rare species, known only from the classical 
location; closely related to T. Callieri and requiring further study. 

56. T. Callieri Halacsy et Lev. in Jahreskat. Wien. Tauschanst. (1897) 
69. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1.5 cm thick; tunics brown, subcoriaceous, 
produced and slightly clasping the stem base, densely and finely arachnoid- 
woolly on the inside; stem 10-15 cm long, glabrous, at anthesis almost 
entirely concealed underground; leaves 2, approximate, spreading, glabrous, 
slightly ciliate -margined, linear; lower leaf broader, 5-10 mm broad, 
greatly surpassing the flowers (up to twice as long); flowers 1 (2 or 3); 
perianth segments white, yellow at base, 13-17 mm long, obtuse; outer 
segments greenish-gray outside, about half as broad as the inner; filaments 
bearded at base, the beard twice the length of anthers; ovary short -styled; 
capsule subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diameter. April. 

Mounds. — European part: Crim. Endemic. Described from Sudak. 

Note. A very rare plant, known only from two locations (Sudak, 
Sarylar). The author has not had an opportunity of seeing flowering 
specimens and his conclusions are based solely on a single fruiting specimen 
collected by Transhel at the classifical location. 

57. T. orithyioides Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 150. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 1.5 cm thick; tunics almost papery, brownish- 
gray, rather sparsely and finely arachnoid -shaggy on the inside; stem 
7-10 cm long, glabrous; leaves 2, closely approximate to subopposite, 

361 spreading, crisp, glabrous, smooth, greatly surpassing the flower; lower 
leaf linear-lanceolate, broader, 1-1 .5 cm broad; flower solitary; perianth 
segments white, yellow at base, 18-24 mm long, acutish; outer segments 
dingy violet outside, lanceolate, glabrous; inner segments gradually 
narrowed into a claw, oblanceolate, ciliate at base, slightly shorter; 
stamens half the length of perianth; filaments yellow, long-ciliate below; 
anthers linear-oblong, 5-6 mm long, dingy violet, with a very short cusp; 
ovary as long as stamens, with a very long style; capsule oblong, ca. 
1.5 cm broad, 2-3 cm long, long-beaked. June. 

Centr. Asia: Found in Chul'bair mountains on a stony slope, at an 
altitude of 3000 m. Endemic. Described from the vicinity of Khodzha-barku. 
Type in Tashkent. 

Note. It is possible that the specimen , severely damaged by insects, 
that were collected by Lipsky at the Karshibet Glacier, belong to this 
species. 

58. T. dasystemonoides Vved. in Bull. Univers. As. Centr. 21 (1935) 
147. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 
subcoriaceous, the inner surface densely woolly at tips; stem 7-15 cm 
long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 2, more or less approximate, 
commonly spreading, glabrous, smooth, linear, greatly surpassing the 
flower; lower leaf broader, 6-12 mm broad; flowers 1(2); perianth 
segments pale yellow, 15-25 mm long, acutish; outer segments lanceolate, 



277 



dingy violet outside, glabrous, two-thirds as broad as the inner; inner 
segments oblong, gradually tapering into a claw, more or less ciliate at 
base; filaments half the length of perianth, yellow, hairy at base; anthers 
linear-oblong, yellow, 4-5 mm long, with a very short cusp; ovary about 
the length of stamens, with a rather long style. June -September. 

The alpine mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Tien Shan. Endemic. 
Described from Talass Ala Tau: Maidantal. Type in Leningrad. 

Note. Known from a few locations in W. Tien Shan (Maidantal, Chotan, 
Makhbal'kul', Dorofeevka). Related to T. dasystemon Rgl., from which 
it differs in the first place in densely woolly inner surface of the bulb tunics. 
The characteristics distinguishing it from T. turkestanica Rgl. are 
the subcoriaceous tunics and the more developed style. 

59. T. dasystemon Rgl. inA.H.P. VI (1880) 507. — O r i t hy i a 
dasystemon Rgl. in A.H.P. V (1877) 261. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1 — 1.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown or brown, 
papery, glabrous or with few appressed hairs at summit; stem 
10-20- (30) cm long, the stem and peduncle glabrous; leaves 2, distant, 
361 reclinate, glabrous, smooth- or rarely slightly ciliate-margined, linear; 
lower leaf broader, 5-15 mm broad; flower solitary; perianth segments 
pale yellow, 15-30 mm long, acute; outer segments lanceolate, dingy violet 
outside, glabrous, about half as broad as the inner; inner segments oblong- 
ovate, rather gradually tapering into a long claw, bearded and ciliate at 
base; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments yellow, hairy; anthers 
oblong, 3-5 mm long, yellow, with a very short cusp; ovary scarcely 
shorter than stamens, with a rather long style; capsule oblong, 0.75-1 cm 
broad, 1.5-2.5 cm long, with beak ca. 5 mm long. May-June. 

Subalpine and alpine mountain zones. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al., T. Sh. 
Gen. distr. : Dzu.-Kash. Described from the vicinity of Alma Ata. Type 
in Leningrad. 

Note. Another tulip occurring in the Fergana Range, in addition to 
T. dasystemon, grows apparently at lower altitudes and has firmer 
coriaceous bulb tunics. Cultivated specimens have displayed bright yellow 
flowers (T. paradasystemon m. in herb.). 

60. T. tarda Stapf. in Bot. Mag. (1933) t. 9321. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5-3 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, 

coriaceous, naked; stem 5-20 cm long, stocky, glabrous; peduncles 
pubescent; leaves 3-7, crowded, commonly spreading, green, with a purple 
margin 1-2 mm broad, glabrous, smooth-margined or more or less ciliate, 
slightly crisp, linear; lowest leaf broader than the others, 8-15 mm broad, 
surpassing the flowers; flowers 1-8; perianth segments white, 20-40 mm 
long, acute, with a large yellow basal blotch occupying most of the surface, 
or rarely yellow throughout; outer segments lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 
dingy violet outside, commonly glabrous, half as broad as the inner; inner 
segments oblong, gradually narrowed into a long claw, densely ciliate at 
base; stamens half the length of perianth; filaments yellow, densely bearded 
at base with long hairs; anthers linear -oblong, 5-7 mm long, yellow, with 
a very short cusp; ovary slightly shorter than stamens, with a rather long 
style. April-May. (Plate XXI, Figure 2 a-e). 



278 



Rocky and gravelly slopes. — Centr. Asia: T. Sh. Endemic. Described 
from Centr. Asia: "probably Turkestan". 

Note. This very interesting species is known from a few locations 
in close proximity to each other (Kastek, Dzhol-bulak, Dzhil'-aryk). 

Specimens (flowering) collected near Kumbel' Pass and at the Yassy 
River may be referred to this species. 



Section ORITHYIA Baker in Journ. Bot. 14 (1874) 277 (pro subgen).— 
Orithyia Don in Brit. Flow. Gard. IV (1838) t. 336 . — Bulb tunics naked 
on the inside or appressed-hairy at summit; filaments naked; style as long 
as ovary. 

363 61. T. heteropetala Ldb. Ic. pi. fl. Ross. I (1829) 21, t. 85.— 

Ornithogalum oxypetalum Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 27 . — O r it hy i a 
oxypetala Kunth Enum. IV (1843) 227; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 137.— 
O. uniflora var. oxypetala Rgl. in Izv. O-va lyub. est., antr. i 
etnogr. XXI, 2 (1876) 142; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 641. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics blackish-brown, papery, 
the inner surface appressed-hairy at summit; stem 10-20 cm long, glabrous; 
leaves 2, very distant, spreading, linear, glabrous, smooth; lower leaf 
broader, 5-7 mm broad, not surpassing the flower; flower solitary, erect; 
perianth segments yellow, 17-25 mm long, very acute, glabrous; outer 
segments lanceolate, dingy violet outside, two-thirds as broad as the inner; 
inner segments oblong, gradually tapering into a long narrow petiole; 
stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; filaments yellow, naked, dilated 
below the middle; anthers linear-oblong, 5-6 mm long, yellow; ovary as 
long as stamens, with a very long style. April-May. 

Steppes. — W. Siberia: Alt. Endemic. Described from Bukhtarminsk. 
Type in Leningrad. 

62. T. uniflora (L.) Bess, ex Baker Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV (1874) 295.— 
Ornithogalum uniflorum L. Mant. (1867) 62. — O r it hy i a uniflora 
Don in Brit. Flow. Gard. IV (1838), 336; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 137.— 
O. nutans Trautv. PI. imag. et descr. (1844)15, t. 10. — O. uniflora 
var. typica Rgl. in Izv. O-va lyub. estv., antr. i etnogr. XXI, 2 (1876) 
142; Kryl., Fl. Zap. Sib. Ill, 641. — T. nutans B. Fedtsch. in Bot. 
Jahrbuch L. (1914) 617. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm thick; tunics papery, blackish-brown, 
produced, appressed-hairy on the inside at summit; stem 10-25 cm long, 
glabrous; leaves 2, subapproximate, commonly spreading, glabrous, 
smooth, narrowly linear-lanceolate, usually slightly surpassing the flower; 
lower leaf broader, 4—10 mm broad; flower solitary, nodding in bud 
(always ?); perianth segments yellow, 15-30 mm long, glabrous, obtuse or 
obtusish; outer segments lanceolate or oblanceolate, dingy violet outside, 
two-thirds as broad as the inner; inner segments obovate, gradually 
narrowed into a claw; stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; filaments 
yellow, naked, gradually attenuate from base; anthers oblong, 3-5 mm long, 
yellow; ovary the length of stamens, with a very long style; capsule 
0.75-1 cm broad, 2-3.5 cm long, very long-beaked, narrowed at base. May. 



279 



Stony slopes and exposed places (steppes ?). — W. Siberia: Alt.; 
E. Siberia: Ang.-Say., Dau. (?); Centr. Asia: Dzu.-Tarb. (Tarbagatai). 
Gen. distr. : Mongolia. Described from Sinyaya Sopka (Altai). 

364 63. T. heterophylla (Rgl.) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV (1874) 295. — 
Orithyia heterophylla Rgl. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XLI, I (1868) 
440. — Ic: Rgl. Fl. turk. (1876) tab. XXI, f. 11-12. 

Perennial; bulb elongate -ovoid, 1-1.5 cm thick; tunics papery, blackish- 
brown, naked, produced at the top and clasping the stem base; stem 5-15 cm 
long, glabrous; leaves 2, more or less spreading, opposite, narrowly 
linear-lanceolate, glabrous, smooth, not surpassing the flower; lower 
(outer) leaf broader, 6-10-(l5) mm broad; flower solitary, commonly 
nodding; perianth segments yellow, dingy violet or dingy green outside 
(the outer more broadly so), 15-30 mm long, obtuse or acutish, glabrous, 
oblong-oblanceolate to oblanceolate; stamens two-thirds the length of 
perianth; filaments yellow, naked; anthers oblong-ellipsoid, ca. 2.5 mm 
long, yellow; ovary about as long as stamens, with a very long beak, 
gradually narrowed toward base. June- July. 

Stony slopes and meadows in the alpine zone.— Centr. Asia: T. Sh. 
(Centr.). Gen. distr.: Dzu.-Kash. Described from Trans-Ili Ala Tau. 
Type in Leningrad. 



Genus 273. ERYTHRONIUM * L.** 

L. Gen. plant., I, 1737, 92. 

Perianth nodding, the 6 segments spreading and recurved above the 
campanulate base; inner segments with a transversal plait and small pits 
at base; stamens 6; anthers linear -oblong; filaments linear at base, 
fusiformly inflated at the middle and strongly attenuate at summit; style 
filiform, enlarged at the top; stigma 3-lobed, the lobes usually 2-sided; 
capsule obovoid, few -seeded. 
1. Perianth segments averaging 2.5-5.5 cm in length, violet or rose 

(rarely white or yellowish); inner segments with a transversal plait and 

two oblong divergent lobes [auricles] at base 

1. E. sibiricum (Fisch. et Mey.) Kryl. 

+ Perianth segments averaging 2.5-4 cm in length, white or pale yellow 
at base, yellowish-reddish outside, the upper part of the inner surface 
with small scattered red spots; inner segments with a wavy-toothed 
transversal plait at base 2. E. caucasicum Woron. 

365 1. E. sibiricum (Fisch. et Mey) Kryl. , Fl. Zap. Sib. 111(1929)642.— 

E. dens canis var. sibiricum Fisch. et Mey. Ind. sem. Horti. Petr. 
VII, 1841; Linnaea XV, 1841; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 134. — Exs . : HFR (genus 
E. dens canis L. var. sibiricum Fisch. et Mey. ) No. 1042. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-cylindric, 3-6 cm long; stem erect, 12-30 cm 
long; leaves 2, borne about the middle of the stem, opposite, green, 
elliptic, acuminate, 8-15 cm long, 1.5-6 cm broad, the petiole amplexicaul, 
perianth segments oblong to sublanceolate, obtusish, violet or rose, rarely 
white or yellowish, 2.5-5.5 cm long, 5-12 cm broad, the 3 inner segments 

* Greek name of a plant mentioned by Dioscorides; Greek erythros, red. 
** Arranged by I. M . Krashennikov. 

280 



with a transverse plait and 2 small oblong obtuse spreading lobes [auricles], 
these ca. 1 mm long. (Plate XX, Figure 1,1a and 1 b). 

Margins of coniferous woods (spruce-fir-cedar), wooded water meadows : 
near melting snow in the alpine zone, alpine tundras and meadows, and 
stony mounds in the foothills . — W. Siberia: Alt.; E. Siberia: Ang.-Say. 
Gen. distr. : Mongolia. 

2. E. caucasicum Woron. in Acta. Inst. Bot. Ac. Sc. URSS I (1933) 
214. — Exs.: Fl. cauc. exs . (genus E. dens canis L.). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid-cylindric, 2-3 cm long; stem erect; leaves 2, 
about the middle of the stem, opposite, ovoid-oblong, glaucous, more or 
less speckled, the petiole amplexicaul; perianth segments lanceolate, 
2.5-4 cm long, white or pale yellowish, with small scattered red spots 
in upper part; inner segments with a transverse plait, this surmounted 
by several teeth; stigma lobes 3-5 mm long, spreading. February-March. 
(Plate XXI, Figure lc and d). 

Wood margins. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Cherkessiya, from Aibaz. 



Genus 274. LLOYDIA SALISB.** 

Salisb. in Trans. Hortic. Soc. I (1812) 328.— Ne c t arobo t ry u m Ldb. Fl. Alt. 11(1830)36. 

Perianth funnelform, the segments lanceolate or oblong-oboval, erect, 
style short; capsule obovoid; seeds small, oblong; small plants with 
solitary or rarely paired terminal flowers and narrow leaves. 
366 1. Lowest cauline leaf 1-2 mm broad, linear, acuminate; perianth 

segments obtusely round-tipped, with violet nerves and a nectariferous 

pit above the base 3. L. serotina (L.) Rchb. 

**■ Perianth segments destitute of nectary 2. 

2. Terminal flowers 1-5, in a corymb; perianth segments greenish in 

lower part, rose above 2. L. rubroviridis (Boiss. et Ky) Baker. 

+ Flowers 1-3, pure white; perianth segments narrow, oblong; lowest 

cauline leaf lanceolate, 5-7 mm broad ... 1 . L. triflora (Ldb.) Baker. 

1. L. triflora (Ldb.) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. XIV (1874) 300.— 
Ornithogalum triflorum Ldb. in Mem. Acad. Petrop. V (1812) 
529. — Gagea triflora Roem. etSchult. Syst. Veget. VII (1928) 551; 
Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 141. — lc: Ldb. Ic. tab. 379. 

Perennial; bulbs small, globose, solitary; basal leaf solitary, linear, 
carinate; stem 15-30 cm long; cauline leaves 1 or few, oblong, gradually 
acuminate, the lowest largest; flowers in a corymbose raceme of 1-5 
(mostly 3); peduncles slender, axillary, simple or rarely bifurcate, naked 
or bracteate; perianth segments obtusely round-tipped, pure white; anthers 
pale yellow; capsule trigonous. May-June. 

Margins of broad-leaved woods and shrub thickets, rarely on slopes 
in dense grass stands; a spring plant, often loosely cespitose.— Far East: 
Uss., Sakh., Kamch. Gen. distr.: Jap.-Ch. Described from a specimen 
of Tilesius, probably collected somewhere at the coast of Sea of Okhotsk. 
Type in Leningrad. 

* Named for E. Lloyd (1670-1709), museum curator in Oxford, who was first to find L. serotina in the 
mountains of Wales. 
** Arranged by V.L. Komarov. 

281 



:367' 




Plate XXI 



1. Erythronium s ib i r i c urn (Fisch . et Mey .) Kryl., la ,b) inner perianth segments. E.sibiricum; 
lc,d) inner perianth segments. E.caucasicum Woron.- 2. Tulipa tarda Stapf, 2a) outer perianth 
segments; 2b) inner perianth segments; 2c), 2d) stamen, 2e) pistil. 



282 



2. L. rubriviridis (Boiss. et Ky) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV (1877) 
301; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 202; Fedch., Rast. Turk. (1915) 248 . — G a g e a 
rubroviridis Eoiss. et Ky, Diagn. Ser. 2, IV (1859) 106. 

Perennial; bulbs ca. 1.5 cm across, ovaloid, with membranous tunics 
and small bulblets at base; basal leaves 1 or 2, narrowly linear; stem 
10-20 cm long, bearing 2-4 narrowly linear leaves; peduncles elongated; 
flowers rarely solitary, mostly in a raceme of 3 to 5; segments of the 

369 funnelform perianth elliptic-linear, not nectariferous, 3-5-nerved on the 
back; capsule oblong-clavate, flat at the top; seeds 3 -angled, flat, smooth. 
April- June. 

Dry grassy slopes, at altitudes from 500 to 2400 m, often loosely 
cespitose. — Centr. Asia: AmuD., Syr D. (Turkestan Range), Pam.-Al. 
Gen. distr. : E. Med., As. Min. Described from Mount Hermon. Type in 
Geneva. 

3. L. serotina (L.) Rchb. Fl. Germ. Exs. (1830) 102; Kryl., Fl. Zap. 
Sib. 642; Turcz. Fl. baic.-dah. II, 210; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 144.— 

L. alpina Salisb. inTrans. Hort . Soc. I (1812) 328. — B u 1 b o c o d i um 
serotinum L. Sp. p. (1753) 294. — N e c t a r ob o«t h r i um striatum 
Ldb. Fl. Alt. II (1830) 36. — Or nithogalum altaicum Laxm. in Nov. 
Comm. Acad. Petrop. XVIII (1 774) 530. — O. striatum Willd. Sp. pi. II 
(1799) 112. — Gagea serotina Ker-Gawl. Quart. Journ. Roy. Inst. I 
(1816) 180.— Nectarobothrium Redowskianum Schlecht. et Cham, 
in Linnaea VI (1831) 585. 

Perennial; bulb slender and long, completely enclosed together with stem 
base in vestiges of old leaves, these separating into fibers or entire; stem 
erect, 5-40 cm long; basal leaves commonly 2, filiform, to 1 mm broad, 
often exceeding the stem; cauline leaves up to 5, ca. 2 mm broad, the leaf 
subtending peduncle broader and bractlike; flowers solitary, rarely paired; 
perianth segments obovate, 1-1.5 cm long, white with a yellow blotch at 
base and 3 red or violet nerves; stamens and style much shorter than 
perianth; capsule globose, obtusely 3-angled, 3-celled, many-seeded; seeds 
strongly compressed'. June -September. 

Moss-and-lichen and stony arctic and mountain tundras, alpine meadows, 
moraines, gravelly declivities near melting snow, and rock crevices. Basal 
leaves develop before the stem. In mountains up to 3000 m.— Arctic: Arc. 
Eur. (Vaigach, Nenets tundras, Northern Urals), Arc. Sib., Chuk., An.; 
European part: bare peaks of Urals; Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., Centr. Asia: 
Pam.-Al. , T. Sh., Dzu.-Tarb.; W. Siberia: Ob, Irt., Alt.; E. Siberia: 
Lena-Kol., Ang.-Say., Dau.; Far East: Kamch., Okh., Ze.-Bu., Uda, Uss. 
(Sikhote-Alin), Sakh. Gen. distr.: Mountains of Centr. Eur., Alt. Eur., 
Bal.-As. Min., Dzu.-Kash., Him., Mong., N. Am., Ber. Described from 
the Swiss Alps. 

Genus 275. SCILLA* L.** 

L. Gen. plant. (1737)95. 

Perianth campanulate or rotate, azure, rarely violet or nearly white, 

370 the segments free or united at base; stamens 6, anthers pendulous; filaments 

* From Greek sci 1 la; the Latin name S c ilia referring to the medicinal plant U rg inea mar it im a 
Baker. 
** Arranged by A .A . Grossgeim . 

283 



371 



subulate above, more or less dilated below, inserted at base of perianth 
segments; ovary 3-celled, obtusely 3-angled, few-seeded; style 1, 
undivided; capsule globose, 3-angled; seeds black, globose or oblong; 
herbaceous plants, with a well-developed bulb and several basal leaves; 
scapes leafless; flowers few or numerous, in a raceme. 

Economic importance. Some S cilia species are beautiful and suitable 
as ornaments in parks and gardens and for use as house plants. Noteworthy 
among Soviet representatives of the genus are, among others, the Caucasian 
S. Roseni, with very large flowers and recurved perianth segments, and 
the Central Asian S. Raevskiana, with dark purplish-violet flowers . 
S. sibirica and certain related native species can also be extensively 
used, particularly in view of the fact that, under suitable conditions, they 
become readily naturalized and do not need any care. 

Various species of the genus Scilla (S. amoena, S. peruviana, 
S. hyacinthoides, etc . ) have been introduced into the gardens of 
W. Europe. 

1. Flowering at the end of summer and in fall; raceme many-flowered; 
flowers small, to 5 mm long 2. 

"*" Flowering in spring (mountainous species in May and June) .- 3. 

2. Inflorescence (20) 40-60-flowered, racemose at anthesis, dense; flowers 
rose-purple; cells of ovary 1-ovuled (Far East). . 1. S. japonica Baker. 

"*■ Inflorescence 6-20-flowered, corymbose at anthesis, later becoming 
elongated, loose; flowers reddish-violet; cells of ovary 2-ovuled 
(S. Ukraine, Crimea, Caucasus) 3. S. autumnalis L. 

3. Flowers small, ca. 4-5 mm long, pale azure; capsule obovoid-cordate, 
cylindrically 3-valved (S. Transc.) 2. S. atropatana Grossh. 

+ Flowers always large, 5-15 mm long; capsule not cylindric 4. 

4. Leaves narrowly linear, 1.5-2 (3) mm broad, numerous (up to 10); 
flowers few (1-3), erect, slightly open, dark violet-blue (Centr. Asia). 
17. S. Raevskiana Rgl. 

"*■ Leaves more than 3 mm broad, commonly few 5. 

5. Perianth segments smaller, 5-8 mm long, elliptic-lanceolate; flowers 
erect; racemes rather many-flowered 6. 

"* Perianth segments 10-15 mm long, oval-oblong; flowers often nodding. 
7. 

6. Scape 10-25 cm long; leaves to 12 mm broad; raceme 2- 10-flowered; 
perianth 8 mm long, bluish-violet (S. Ukraine, Crimea, Caucasus). 
4. S. bifolia L. 

"*■ Scape 2-8 cm long, delicate; leaves short, to 6 mm broad; inflorescence 
1 -3 -flowered; perianth 6-7 mm long, pale azure to nearly white 
(W. Transc.) 5. S. nivalis Boiss. 

7. Inflorescence a distinct and rather dense (2) 4- 10-flowered raceme; 
plants of Central Asia 8. 

+ Inflorescence 1-3 (4) flowered, if racemose then loose; plants of the 

European part of the Soviet Union and of the Caucasus 9. 

8. Leaves oboblong-spatulate, 15-25 mm broad at broadest upper third; 

raceme relatively dense, 5-10-flowered (Bukhara) 

16. S. bukharica Dessjat. 

"*" Leaves broadly linear, 3-6 (10) mm broad; raceme relatively loose, 

2-8-flowered (Centr. Asia) 15. S. puschkinioides Rgl. 



284 



372 



9. Perianth segments large, 17-30 mm long, recurved; ovary pyriform 
or obovoid (S. Transc.) 6. S. Roseni C. Koch. 

"*" Perianth segments smaller, sometimes not recurved; ovary pyriform 
segments smaller, sometimesnot recurved 10. 

10. Bracts at base of pedicels 2, prolonged into a rather long recurved 
subulate appendage; racemes loosely many-flowered; scapes 20-40 cm 
long (Talysh, E. Transc.) 8. S. Hohenackeri Fisch. et Mey. 

"*■ Bracts at base of pedicels never with a recurved appendage 11. 

11. Ovary pyriform or obovoid, narrowed toward base; flowers erect, 
sky-blue (W. Caucasus and S. Transc.) .... 7. S. Winogradowi Sosn. 

■+ Ovary ovoid or globose, not narrowed toward base 12. 

12. Racemes loose, many-flowered (up to 6 flowers), flabby 13. 

■* Flowers solitary or raceme few-flowered (up to 3 flowers) 14. 

13. Flowers dark violet; bracteoles acute, to 2-4 mm long; perianth 
segments oblong-elliptic (E. Transc, Tal.). . .11. S. caucasica Miscz. 

"•" Flowers pale azure; bracteoles obtuse, 1-1.5 mm long; perianth 

segments narrow (S. Transc.) 9. S. diziensis Grossh. 

14. Perianth pale-colored as a rule, pale azure to nearly white 15. 

"•" Perianth bright -colored as a rule, dark azure or blue 16. 

15. Flowers pale azure, solitary or in racemes of 2 or' 3; perianth 
segments obtusish, 12-15 mm long; bracts acutely lanceolate, to 4 mm 
long (W. Transc.) 12. S. monanthos C. Koch 

"*■ Flowers erect, white or pale azure, commonly in racemes of 2-4, 

rarely solitary; perianth segments 10-12 mm long; bracts very small, 
obtusish (Nakhichevan SSR) 14. S. Misczenkoana Grossh. 

16. Scape up to 10 (15) mm long, monanthous; perianth bright blue 

(S. Transc.) 13. S. armena Grossh. 

"* Scape mostly 2- or 3 -flowered; rarely monanthous; usually larger 

plants (European part of the USSR, Crimea, Caucasus) 

10. S. sibirica Andrevs. 



Subgenus EUSCILLA Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot, III. App. 4 (1870) 5.— 
Perianth segments free from base; stamens inserted at base of perianth 
segments, uniseriate. 



Section BARNADIA (Lindl.) Grossh. - B a r n a d i a Lindl. Bot. Reg. 
(1826) tab. 1029, pro gen. — Ovary cells 1-ovuled. 

1. S. japonica (Thunb.) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII (1873) 233 . — 
Ornithogadum japonicum Thunb. Fl. jap. (1784) 137. — B a r n ad i a 
japonica Schult., Syst. VII (1829) 555; Kunth., Enum. IV (1843) 337. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 15-25 mm long, covered with dark gray coats; 
leaves 2-8, appearing together with flowers, one-third to one-half the 
length of scape, fleshy, narrowly linear, 3-4 mm broad, attenuate toward 
apex; scape erect, firm, 25-40 cm long; inflorescence a dense many- 
flowered raceme, 8-12 cm long, 2 cm across; bracts, small, linear, acute, 
much shorter than pedicel; pedicels slender, 4-8 mm long, equaling or 
slightly longer than flower, horizontally spreading in fruit; flowers small, 
wide open, rose -purple; perianth segments 2-3 mm long, oblong; stamens 



285 



about the length of perianth; filaments triangularly dilated at base; capsule 
ovoid-oblong. July-August. (Plate IX, Figure 17). 

Grassy slopes. — Far East: Uss. Gen. distr. : Japan. Described from 
Japan. Type in London. 

Section PROSPT1RO (Baker) Grossh. — Ovary cells 2-ovuled. 

Cycle Vernales A. Grossh.— Flowers in fall; bracts solitary. 

2. S. atropatana Grossh. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 740, (Table X LI V, 
Figure 3a-d). 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid, ca. 15 cm long, 8-10 mm broad; scape slender, 
10-20 cm long; leaves 2, greatly exceeding the scape, narrowly linear, 
2-3 mm broad; raceme oblong, 10-20-flowered; scape often bifid; 
bracteoles small, obtuse; pedicels slender, 5-10 mm long, twice the length 
of flower; flowers only slightly open; perianth long; segments oblong-linear, 
373 ca. 2 mm broad, obtusish, pale azure; stamens slightly shorter than 

perianth; capsule obovoid-cordate, 3-valved, deeply furrowed between the 
valves, short-beaked at the top. April. 

Dry gravelly and stony slopes in the lower mountain zone. — Caucasus: 
S. Transc. (Nakhichevan SSR: Shakhbuz, Shakhtakhty, Dzhul'fa, Darry-dag, 
Ordubad). Endemic (possibly occurring in N. Iran). Described from 
Nakhichevan SSR. Type in Baku. 

Cycle Autumnales Grossh. in Mon. Jar. d. Bot. Tifl. ser. II, 3 (1927) 
184.— Flowering in fall; bracts solitary or none. 

3. S. autumnalis L. Sp. pi. (1753) 443; Ldb. Fl. Ross. Ill, 156; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V (1884) 224; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 498. — Ic. : Curtis, Fl. Londin. 
(1777) tab. 129, ed. II, v. IV (1835); Redoute, Liliaceae, tab. 317; Bot. 
Mag. t. 919; Rchb. Ic, Fl. Germ. (1848) tab. 1012.— Exs.: Fl. Exs . 
Austro-Hung. No. 1041; Herb. Fl. Cauc. No. 362 (1916). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 2-2.5 cm across, with pale brown or reddish- 
brown coats; scape 5-15 (20) cm long; leaves 5-6, after flowers, narrowly 
linear, canaliculate, erect, much shorter than scape; raceme densely 
many -flowered (containing 6-20 or more flowers), at first corymbose, 
later becoming drawn out; bracts none; pedicels obliquely ascending, 
equaling or longer than flower, ca. 7 mm long; flowers wide open, 
subrotate; perianth segments rounded-ovate, 4-5 mm long, reddish-violet; 
stamens half the length of perianth segments; capsule turbinate -obovoid, 
3-furrowed, ca. 3 mm long. August-October. (Plate IX, Figure 16). 

Scrub and grassy slopes. — European part: Bl., Crim. ; Caucasus: 
Cisc, W. and E. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr.: Centr. Eur., Atl. Eur., 
W. Med., E. Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described from S. Europe. Type in 
London. 



1920 286 



Section PLURIOVULATAE Grossh. — Ovary cells 4-10-ovuled. 



Cycle BIfoliae Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. ser. II, 3 (1927) 185.— 
Flowering in fall; ovary cells 6-ovuled; bracts solitary; seeds arillate. 

4. S. bifolia L. Sp. pi. (1753) 443; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 156; Boiss. Fl. 
or. V, 227; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 499. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. tab. 746; Redoute, 
Liliacee, tab. 254; Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. (1848) tab. 1015. — Exs.: Fl. Exs . 
Austro-Hung. No. 3906; HFR No. 84 (1898). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 2 (3) cm across, the coats dark gray, rosy 
within; scape 10-20 (to 40) cm long; basal leaves 2, rarely 3, broadly 
linear, long-sheathing, the relatively short blade recurved and commonly 
374 obtuse; inflorescence second, corymbose due to lower pedicels being much 
longer than the upper, 2-5 (to 10)-flowered; bracts none or obsolescent; 
flowers wide open, sky-blue, rarely purplish-azure or whitish; sometimes 
flowers, pedicels and the upper part of scapes purplish-violet 
(v. purpurea Miscz.); perianth segments oblong, obtuse, 5-12 mm long; 
stamens slightly shorter than perianth; capsule turbinate, obtusely 3 -angled; 
7-10 mm long. March -April. (Plate IX, Figure 14). 

Wood margins, scrub, and grassy slopes. — European part: U. Dnp., 
M. Dnp., Bl., Crim. ; Caucasus: Cisc, W. Transc. Gen. distr. : Centr. 
Eur., W. Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described from Centr. Europe. Type in 
London. 

5. S. nivalis Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, V (1844) 63. — S. bifolia j3 
nivalis Boiss., Fl. Or. V (1884) 227. — S. minor and S. dubia 
C. Koch in Linnaea XIX (1847) 315. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm broad, with dark gray coats; scape 
3-8 cm long; leaves narrowly linear, to 6 mm broad, short; inflorescence 
1 -3-flowered; pedicels unequal, always subtended by small white 
bracteoles; flowers pale azure to nearly white; perianth segments linear- 
oblong, 6-7 mm long; stamens slightly shorter than perianth segments. 
May -June. 

High-mountain meadows, at 1800-3000 m. — Caucasus: W. Transc. 
Gen. distr.: Bal.-As. Min. Described from Greece. Type in Geneva. 



Cycle Rosenianae Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. II, 3 (1927) 186.— 
Flowering in spring; ovary obovoid or pyriform; ovary cells 6-ovuled; 
bracts 2, united. 

6. S. Roseni C. Koch, in Reise n. d. Kauk. Isthm. II, 368 (nomen) et 
in Linnaea XXII (1849) 250. — S. cernua var. uniflora Som. et Lev. 
inA.H.P. XVI (1900) 426.— S. Koenigi Fomin in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. 
XIII (1908) 19. -S. macrantha E. Bordz. A. H. Jur. XI (1910) 32.- 
S. cernua Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 226 p. p. — Ic. : Miscz., Tr. 
Byuro po prikl. bot., 2 (1912). — Exs. : Herb. Fl. cauc. No. 115. 

Perennial; bulb large, ovoid, to 3 cm long and 2-2.5 cm across, with 
dark gray coats; scape 10-30 (40) cm long, monanthous or terminating in 
several flowers; leaves 2 or 3, shorter than scape, broadly linear, 



287 



3-8 (to 20) mm broad, pale green, lustrous, cucullate; bracts small, white, 
cordate at base, toothed or truncate at apex; pedicels shorter than flower; 
flower large; perianth segments 20-25 (to 30) mm long, oblong, obtuse, 
recurved, pale azure or whitish, paler in lower part, with a darker band 
on the back; stamens half the length of perianth; style longer than ovary. 
May-June. (Plate IX, Figure 11). 
375 High-mountain meadows. — Caucasus: W. and S. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Bal.-As. Min. (Asia Minor), Arm. -Kurd. Described from Asia Minor. 
Type in Berlin. 

7. S. Winogradowii Sosn. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. 33 (1914) 3.— 
S. Roseni var. pulchella Miscz., Tr. Prikl. Bot. 2 (1912) 46 p.p.— 
S. cernua Radde Mus. Cauc. II (1901) 164 p.p. — S. cernua var. 
grandiflora Trautv. inA.H.P. V (1878) 479. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 2 cm long and to 15 mm across, with dark gray 
coats; scape 10-30 cm long, rather weak, bearing 1 or more often several 
flowers; leaves oblong-linear to oblong-lanceolate, 5-10 mm broad, pale 
green, cucullate; bracts small, connate, thickened at base, toothed or 
obliquely truncate at apex; perianth segments 14-17 mm long, oblong- 
lanceolate, pale azure, sometimes slightly violet-tinged, dark-colored on 
the nerve, obtusish to acutish; stamens about half the length of perianth 
segments; ovary obovate. June-July. (Plate IX, Figure 13a). 

High mountain meadows, near melting snow.— Caucasus: W., E. and S. 
Transc. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd, (former Artvin District). Described 
from Georgia. Type in Tiflis. 



Cycle Hohenackerianae Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. II, 3 (1927) 
190. — Flowering in spring; ovary cells 6-ovuled; bracteoles 2, distinct, 
appendaged, recurved. 

8. S. Hohenackeri Fisch. et Mey. in Hohenacker, Enum. Talysh. (1838) 
26; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 227. — S. cernua var. pluriflora Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV (1853) 157. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid to subglobose -ovoid, to 2 cm long and as much 
across; scape (l0)-20-40 cm long, weak; leaves 4 or 5, slightly shorter 
than to exceeding the scape, linear-lanceolate, 3 — 10 (12) mm broad, slender; 
inflorescence a loosely 4-8-flowered raceme; bracts 2, linear, with a 
recurved subulate appendage; pedicels equaling or slightly longer than 
flowers; perianth segments lilac-azure, oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, 
12-13 (15) mm long; stamens about half the length of perianth; style slender, 
slightly exceeding the ovary; ovary and capsule flattened subglobose-ovoid. 
March-April. (Plate IX, Figure 12 a, b). 

Woods, scrub, and wood margins, to 500-600 m. — Caucasus: E. Transc. 
(Akhsu in Shemakha District), Tal. Gen. distr. : Iran (Gilan, Mazanderan, 
Astrabad). Described from Talysh. Type in Leningrad. 



Cycle Sibiricae Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot, Tifl. II, 3 (1927) 191. 
Flowering in spring; bracts 2, sometimes united; ovary cells 4-10, 
mostly 6. 



288 



376 9. S. diziensis Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. II, 3 (1927) 191. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2 (to 4-5) cm long and 1.5 cm across, with gray 

coats; scape flabby, 15-32 cm long; leaves 2-5, thin, broadly oblong- 
linear, flat, 16-28 mm broad, equaling the scapes, subobtuse to subacute, 
not cucullate; raceme loosely 2-4-flowered; bracts 2, small, often united, 
to 1.5 mm long, obtuse, not appendaged; pedicels slender, 2-3 times the 
length of flowers; perianth segments 13-16 mm long, pale azure, nearly 
white, with a darker band on the back, oblong-linear, obtuse; stamens 
one-third the length of perianth; capsule globose. April. 

In fissures and under rock overhangs in the lower mountain zone.— 
Caucasus: S. Transc. (Nakhichevan SSR: Negram, Ordubad, Akulisy). 
Described from N. Iran (Maku, Diza). Type in Tiflis. 

10. S. sibirica Andre vs, Botan. Repository V (1804) tab. 365. — 

S. cernua Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV. (1853) 157; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 226 p.p.; 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 494. — S. azure a Goldbach Mem. Soc. Nat, Mosc. V 
(1817)125 (nomen). — Ic. : Andrevs, I.e. tab. 365; Redoute, Liliacees, III 
(1807) tab. 130 (sub S. amoena); lb. tab. 298 (sub S. cernua); Bot. 
Mag. tab. 2408 (sub S. amoenula); Syreishch. 111. Fl. Mosk. gub. I 
(1906)241 (sub S. cernua); Fl. Yugo.-Vost. (1929)385, f. 188.- Exs.: 
HFRNo.188, sub S. cernua. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 2 cm long and to 15-20 cm across, covered 
with dark gray coats; scapes angled, flattened, 10-20 (30) cm long, 
1-4 from a single bulb, bearing 1-4 nodding flowers; leaves 2-4, broadly 
linear, 10-20 mm broad, enlarged toward apex, subacute, cucullate, 
shorter than to nearly equaling the scapes; bracteoles small, white; pedicels 
equaling or shorter than the flowers; perianth segments 12-13 mm long, 
oblong-linear, obtusish, sky-blue with a darker band on the back, rarely 
almost white; stamens one-half to two-thirds the length of perianth; anthers 
blue; ovary ovoid-globose; capsule subglobose. In the Caucasus the plants 
are mostly shorter, with narrower and little enlarged leaves, and more 
intensely colored perianth — var. gracilis Grossh. March-April. 
(Plate IX, Figure 15a). 

Broad-leaved woods, wood margins, and scrub. — European part: 
Lad.-Ilm. (rare, naturalized), U. V. (rare, naturalized), U. Dnp., M. Dnp., 
V.-Don, Bl., Crim., L. Don; Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., Tal., E. Transc. 
Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur., Bal.-As. Min. (Balkans). Probably described 
from the southern part of the USSR (erroneously reported for Siberia). 
Type in London. 

11. S. caucasica Miscz. in Tr. Byuro po Prikl. bot. 2 (1912) 48 and 56; 
Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. ser. II, 3 (1927) 197. 

377 Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 2 cm long and 10-15 mm across, with gray 
coats; scape to 20 cm long, solitary or several from a single bulb; leaves 
2-4, broadly linear, 10-15 mm broad, slightly shorter than the scape, 
cucullate; inflorescence usually a 3-6 flowered raceme, rarely flowers 
fewer or solitary; bracts acute, to 2-4 mm long, white -hyaline; pedicels 
commonly longer than flowers, slender, nutant after anthesis; perianth 
segments 10-12 mm long, oblong-elliptic, obtuse, bright azure suffused 
with violet; stamens one-half to two-thirds the length of perianth, with 
azure anthers; ovary subglobose -ovoid; capsule subglobose. March- April. 



289 



Woods in the lower and middle mountain zone. — Caucasus: E. Transc, 
Tal. Endemic. Described from Karabakh (Murob-dag). Type in Tiflis. 

Note. A species differing little from S. sibirica, the distinguishing 
characteristics being chiefly the larger number of flowers and the tinge 
of a different color, which caused confusion with S. Hohenackeri. 
Additional field studies are needed. 

12. S. monanthos C. Koch in Linnaea XXII (1849) 251; Grossh. in Monit. 
Jard. Bot. Tifl. ser. II, 3 (1927) 197. — S. cernua Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
(1884) 226 p.p. — S. sibirica var. tenuis Miscz. in schedis. — Exs.: 

PI. or. exs. No. 376. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, ca. 2 cm long, 15-18 mm across, covered with 
gray coats; scapes 10-20 cm long, solitary or up to 4 from a bulb; leaves 
2-5, linear to broadly linear, 4-10 mm broad, shorter than scapes; scapes 
bearing 1 or 2 flowers, rarely more; bracts relatively large, broadly 
lanceolate, white, obtusish to acutish, not appendaged; pedicels equaling 
or longer than flowers, strongly attenuate below the flower; perianth 
segments broadly lance-linear, 10-12 mm long, obtusish, pale azure to 
nearly white, with a darker band on the back; stamens about half the length 
of perianth; anthers azure; ovary ovoid, slightly narrowed toward base. 
March-April. 

Woods of the lower and middle mountain zones.— Caucasus: W. Transc. 
Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. (Lazistan, Pontus*). Described from Pontus .* 
Type in Berlin. 

13. S. armena Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. ser. II, 3 (1927) 
198. — S. sibirica f. monantha E. Bordz. in Fl. Cauc. exs. (1909) 
No. 334. — Exs. : I.e.; PI. or exs . No. 355. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 20 cm long, with gray coats; scapes 
8-15 (20) cm long; leaves 2, commonly falcately recurved, oblong- 
lanceolate, 2-5 mm broad, cucullate; flowers solitary or rarely 2; bracts 
070 j j > 

°'° 2, small; perianth segments elliptic -linear to oblong, 10-13 mm long, 
3-5 mm broad, intensely blue, with a very dark dorsal band, rarely pale 
blue (var. pallida Troitz.); stamens about half the length of perianth; 
capsule ovoid-spherical, obtusely 3-angled. May-June. 

Grassy slopes, at altitudes of 1500-2400 m.— Caucasus: S. Transc. 
(W. part). Gen. distr.: Arm. -Kurd. Described from S. Georgia. Type in 
Tiflis. 

Note. Contrary to E.I. Bordizilovskii's view that this form is merely 
a variety of S. sibirica, the author is of the opinion that the 
distinctiveness of the distribution area, the nature of the habitat (not 
sylvestrine), and the constancy of characters as a whole, justify the 
establishment of this form as an independent species. 

14. S. Misczenkoana Grossh. in Monit. Jard. Bot. Tifl. ser. II, 3 
(1927) 200. 

Perennial; bulb small, ovoid, 15-18 mm long, 10-15 mm across; 
bulb coats dark gray, violet within; scape slender, 4-10 cm long; leaves 
mostly 3 or 4, recurved, broadly linear, ca. 5 mm broad, shorter than 
the scape, green, not cucullate; flowers 2, rarely 1-4; bracts small, 

* [Ancient region of NE Asia Minor.] 



290 



obtuse; pedicels erect, shorter than flowers; perianth segments 10-12 mm 
long, oblong-oval, obtuse, pale azure or nearly white, with a dark nerve 
on the back; stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; anthers dark azure. 
March -April -May. 

Mountain meadows. — Caucasus: S. Transc. (Zangezur Range). 
Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Zangezur Range. Type inTiflis. 



Cycle Puschkinioides Grossh. — Inflorescence a raceme of several 
flowers; bracts 2, connate. 

15. S. puschkinioides Rgl. in A.H.P. Ill (1875) 295; Izv. Obshch. lyub. 
est., antr. i etn. XXI, 2, 118; XIX, 9-10. — Exs.: H.F.A.M. No. 4 (1929). 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 10-20 cm long, covered with gray coats; 
leaves 2-5, broadly linear, 3-6 (10) mm broad, obtuse, more strongly 
narrowed toward base than toward apex; scape 10-20 cm long, rather weak; 
inflorescence a 2-8-flowered raceme; bracts unequal, small, one-third to 
one-half the length of pedicels; pedicels shorter to longer than flowers, 
erect; flowers pale azure, rarely brighter azure with a blue dorsal band; 
perianth segments linear-oblong, 10-12 mm long, acutish; stamens only 
slightly shorter than perianth; anthers oblong, blue; ovary ovoid; capsule 
flattened globose. April-May. 

Slopes in the middle mountain zone. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al., T. Sh. 
Endemic. Described from Central Asia. Type in Leningrad. 

379 16. S. bucharica Dessjatova in Fedch., Rast. Turk. (1914)248, nomen. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 10-20 cm long, covered with gray or dark 
brownish-gray; scape 10-20 cm long, rather weak; leaves 2 or 3, oboblong- 
spatulate, broadest at upper third, 12-25 mm long, abruptly narrowed 
toward apex, obtusely truncate and terminating in a small point; 
inflorescence a dense 5-10-flowered raceme; bracts white, much shorter 
than pedicels; pedicels shorter than, rarely equaling or longer than 
perianth; flowers only slightly open; perianth segments narrowly oblong, 
ca. 12 mm long and 2-3 mm broad, pale azure, with a darker median 
nerve; stamens two-thirds the length of perianth; anthers dark azure, 
oblong; capsule flattened-globose, small; seeds black, ovoid, minutely 
alveolate. April-May. (Plate IX, Figure 10). 

Middle mountain zone, on dry slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. 
Described from Bukhara. Type in Leningrad. 

17. S. Raevskiana Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII (1884) 655. — Ic. : Rgl. I.e., 
tab. VIII, f. e-h. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovoid, 15-25 mm long, covered with gray coats; 
scape rather weak, 12-25 cm long; leaves 3-10, narrowly linear, 
1.5-2 mm broad, weak, often flexuous, about equaling or slightly exceeding 
the scape; flowers 2 or 3, rarely solitary, erect, only slightly open; bracts 
small; perianth segments dark bluish-violet, with a green dorsal band, 
14- 16 (18) mm long, oblong-lanceolate, attenuate toward apex; stamens 
slightly shorter than perianth, with dark blue anthers; ovary ovoid. March- 
April. (Plate IX, Figure 18). 



291 



Slopes in the middle mountain zone.— Centr. Asia: Parn.-Al. Endemic. 
Described from Bukhara. Type in Leningrad. 



Genus 276. ORNITHOGALUM * L.** 

L. Gen. pi., 1(1737)95; Baker in Journ . Linn. Soc. XIII (1873) 257-285. 

Perianth segments of medium size, rather wide, many-nerved, white, 
commonly with a green dorsal band of varying breadth, or rarely the 
segments yellowish; filaments of stamens flat, petaloid, bicuspidate at 
apex, narrower on the sides or toward apex; anthers dorsifixed; style 
filiform with triangular stigma; capsule with winged or wingless ribs; 
380 seeds flat, ovoid or subglobose, black; inflorescence a raceme or a corymb; 
scape leafless; leaves radical; bulb of numerous small united coats. 

1. Filaments broad, petaloid, cuspidate, the anthers inserted between the 
cusps (Section Myogalum Baker) 2. 

* Filaments not cuspidate, narrowed at apex to a point 3. 

2. Filaments bearing on the inner side below the anthers a small tooth 
decurrent into a rather broad wing .... 24. O. Boucheanum Aschers. 

■+ Filaments smooth on the inner side 23. O. nutans L. 

3. Inflorescence an elongated many-flowered cylindric raceme (often 
pyramidal when young); leaves mostly shorter than inflorescence 
(Section Beryllis Baker) 4. 

"* Inflorescence a corymb or a short raceme, relatively few -flowered; 
leaves often exceeding the inflorescence, sometimes 2-3 times as long; 
smaller plants with a weak scape (Section Heleocharmos Baker).. 
10. 

4. Perianth segments with a rather broad green dorsal band, sometimes 
turning brown in herbarium specimens 6. 

"*■ Perianth segments without continuous, rather broad dorsal band, white 
or rarely with several ferruginous or greenish nerves 5. 

5. Perianth segments always pure white on the back; rather tall plants 
(50-80 cm); inflorescence 20-45 cm long, many-flowered; pedicels 
arcuately ascending after flowering 19. O. arcuatum Stev. 

"* Perianth segments white on the back or with several ferruginous or 
obsolescent greenish nerves; scape on the average 20-35 cm (rarely 
up to 70 cm) long; pedicels obliquely ascending after flowering and 
more or less appressed to scape. . . . 22. O. Fischerianum H. Krasch. 

6. Perianth segments greenish-yellow on the margin 

16. O. flavescens Lam. 

■* Perianth segments white -margined 7. 

7. Pedicels divergent after flowering and characteristically arcuate- 
ascending, the mature capsule thus erect 8. 

+ Pedicels straight after flowering, obliquely ascending and more or less 
appressed to scape 9. 

8. Scape to 1 mm long; inflorescence 20-25 cm long, many-flowered; 
leaves lance -linear, 3-4 cm broad, short -acuminate 

3R , 20. O. magnum H. Krasch. et Schischk. 

* Smaller plants (40-60 cm tall; leaves linear, rather long-acuminate, 

to 1 cm broad 17. O. Schelkovnikovii Grossh. 

* A plant name mentioned by Dioscorides, from Greek ornis , bird, and gala, milk. 
** Arranged by I.M . Krashennikov. 

292 



9. Inflorescence 10-25 cm long, many -flowered; pedicels 2-3 times as 

long as bracts; leaves smooth-margined 18. O. pyrenaicum L. 

"*" Inflorescence to 10 cm long, few -flowered (10-20 flowers); pedicels 
half as long again to twice as long as bracts; leaves distantly 
denticulate 21. O. brachystachys C. Koch. 

10. Leaves more or less pubescent beneath .... 4. O. fimbriatum Willd. 
"*" Leaves glabrous 11. 

11. Mature capsules with prominently winged ribs 12. 

"•" Mature capsules not distinctly winged 17. 

12. Lower pedicels much longer than the upper ones, hence lower flowers 
markedly overtopping the upper 7. O. Woronowii H. Krasch. 

+ Lower pedicels little differing in length from the upper ones; fruiting 
pedicels often rather strongly arching 13. 

13. Fruiting pedicels very strongly twice curved (S-shaped), conspicuously 
clavately thickened above the curvature ... 10. O. sigmoideum Freyn. 

+ Fruiting pedicels straight or more or less curved, not thickened or 

relatively little thickened at the curvatures 14. 

14. Leaves spatulate -linear, narrowed toward base, 6-10 mm broad, 
usually slightly exceeding the inflorescence ... 8. O. Balansae Boiss. 

"* Leaves lance -linear or linear, 2-5 mm broad, commonly half as long 
again to 3 times as long as inflorescence 15. 

15. Scapes 15-20 cm long; fruiting pedicels straight or weakly arching; 

leaves shortly obtusish; perianth segments to 25 mm long 

11. O. Schischkini H. Krasch. 

"*■ Scapes 5-10 cm long; fruiting pedicels rather strongly arcuately 

ascending; leaves more or less long-acuminate; perianth segments to 
20 mm 16. 

16. Leaves reaching 2-3 times the height of inflorescence, deeply 
canaliculate 6. O. Sintenisii Freyn. 

**" Leaves flat, equaling or not more than twice as long again as scapes; 
plants of the alpine zone 9. O. Schmalhauseni N. Alb. 

OQO 

°°^ 17. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate or broadly linear, from 10 to 20 mm broad, 

shorter than to slightly exceeding the inflorescence 18. 

+ Leaves narrower, narrowly linear, commonly less than 10 mm broad, 
often 2-3 times the length of inflorescence (rarely shorter) 21. 

18. Inflorescence 2-6-flowered 19. 

"•" Inflorescence containing more flowers 20. 

19. Perianth segments 12-15 mm long; leaves long-elliptic 

13. O. graciliflorum C. Koch. 

"•" Perianth segments 22-25 mm long 12. O. hyrcanum Grossh. 

20. Perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, 12-18 mm long 

14. O. platyphyllum Boiss. 

"t Perianth segments oblanceolate, broader (to 5 mm broad in upper part), 
20-25 mm long 15. O. arianum Lipsky. 

21. Fruiting pedicels very strongly arching, hence the capsule vertical; 
leaves 2-3 times the length of inflorescence .... 3. O. refractum Kit. 

+ Fruiting pedicels straight or slightly arching, horizontal or obliquely 
ascending 22. 

22. Capsule ribs evenly distributed; pedicels long, horizontally spreading 
in fruit 1. O. umbellatum L. 



293 



■+■ Capsule ribs in approximate pairs 23. 

23. Bulb ovoid, gray-coated; inflorescence 5 - 15-flowered; leaves narrowly 

linear, often drying at flowering; steppe plants 

2. O. tenuifolium Guss. 

"*" Bulbs oblong-ovoid, dark brown-coated; inflorescence weak, 

2 -5 -flowered; leaves delicate, flat, green at flowering; plants of 

steppe mountain slopes of Transcaucasia 

5. O. transcaucasicum Miscz. 



Section HELEOCHARMOS Backer in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII, 262.— 
Characteristics in the key. 

1. O. umbellatum L. Sp. pi. (1753) 307; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 159 ex p. 
Shmal'g., Fl. II, 500. 

Perennial; bulb small, ovoid, often with small bulbils; leaves linear, 
4-8 mm broad, canaliculate, sometimes white-banded beneath, commonly 
exceeding the scape; inflorescence many-flowered; lower pedicels 
subhorizontally spreading in fruit, much longer than the narrow bracts; 
perianth segments linear -oblong, obtuse, slightly acuminate, with a broad 
green median band; stamens half the length of perianth segments; capsule 
383 oblong-ovoid, equidistantly 6 -ribbed, with a small depression at top due 
to raised projections. June. 

Woods and glades. — European part: M. Dnp.. Gen. distr. : Scand., 
Atl. Eur., W. Med., Bal. As. Min. Described from Europe. 

2. O. tenuifolium Guss. Prodr. fl. sic. 1 (1827) 413. — O. Gu s s o ni i 
Ten. Fl. Neap. Ill, 337; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 160; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 500.- 
Ic: Ten. Fl. Neap. t. 226; f. 1; Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1020. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, small; leaves 4-6, narrowly linear, sometimes 
faintly light-nerved beneath, shorter to longer than the scape, sometimes 
withering at flowering; inflorescence containing 5-15, rarely fewer flowers; 
lower pedicels remaining upturned in fruit, usually longer than the narrow 
bracts; perianth segments oblong-linear, to 1.5 cm long, green-banded 
beneath, the outer broader and obtuse, the inner narrower and more pointed; 
capsule obovoid, the 6 archingly convex ribs arranged in approximate pairs, 
projecting at the top, thus forming a marked depression at the top. May. 
(Plate XXII, Figure 6). 

Steppes, stony slopes, and meadows. — European part: M. Dnp., BL, 
U. Don, L. Don; Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., E., S. and W. Transc. 
Gen. distr.: W. Med., Bal. -As. Min., Arm. -Kurd. Described from Sicily. 

3. O. refractum Kit. in Willd. Enum. pi. H. reg. berol., 1813, Suppl. 
18; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 160. — Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 1024. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, included with numerous bulbils in a common coat; 
scape not more than 10 cm long; leaves narrowly linear, 3-5 mm broad, 
white -banded beneath, reaching up to 3 times the height of inflorescence; 
pedicels long, in fruit slightly recurved at base, then abruptly vertical; 
perianth segments oblong-elliptic to lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm long, obtusish, 
broadly green-banded beneath; stamens half the length of perianth segments; 
capsule oblong-ovoid, the ribs in approximate pairs, very slightly ribbed. 
April. 



294 



Scrub and steppe slopes . — European part: Centr. Eur. (S.), Bal.-As. 
Min. 

4. O. fimbriatum Willd. N. Schr. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin III (1801) 
420. — O. Roegnerianum C. Koch in Linnaea, XXII (1849) 246. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, small, 1.5 cm in diameter; leaves 3-8, linear, 

384 3-5 mm broad, canaliculate, often falcately recurved, considerably 
exceeding the scape, 10-28 cm long, rather densely covered beneath with 
long spreading white hairs (sometimes the leaves glabrous or nearly so 
except for the margin — v. ciliatum Boiss.); scape 5-12 cm long, 
commonly covered with spreading white hairs; inflorescence 1 -10-flowered; 
pedicels 6—20 cm long, shorter to longer than the bracts, arcuately 
ascending in fruit; perianth segments 13-18 mm long, oblong-linear, obtuse 
or slightly acuminate, broadly green-banded on the back; stamens half the 
length of perianth; capsule with slightly winged paired ribs, 10-12 cm long. 
April. 

Light woods, glades, and steppes. — European part: Crim., Bl. 
Gen. distr. : E. Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described from the Crimea 
(Chatyr-dag). Type in Berlin^ 

5. O. transcaucasicum Miscz. in Grossgeim, Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 230. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, small, to 1 cm in diameter, with dark coats; 

scape slender, weak, 10-12 cm long; leaves flat, delicate; 2-3 mm broad, 
9-15 cm long, considerably exceeding the inflorescence; inflorescence 
2-4-flowered; pedicels 1-2 cm long, shorter than to as long as the 
lanceolate bracts; perianth segments oblong-obovate, 9-11 mm long, obtuse, 
sometimes short -mucronate, rather broadly green-banded on the back. 
June- July. 

Grassy mountain slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described 
from Armenia (Lake Sevan). Type in Tiflis. 

6. O. Sintenisii Freyn in BulL Herb. Boiss., 2 ser., 11(1902)911-13. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid to ovoid-globose; leaves few, lance-linear to 

linear, deeply canaliculate, recurved, reaching 2-3 times the height of 
inflorescence, 2-4 mm broad; scape 5-12 cm long, bearing 2-4 flowers, 
fruiting pedicels arcuately ascending, longer than the lanceolate bracts; 
perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, white, broadly green-banded beneath, 
15-20 mm long, short -acuminate, sometimes mucronate; stamens half 
the length of perianth segments; capsule with obtuse ribs in closely 
approximate pairs. June. 

Scrub and meadows. — Caucasus: Dag., E. Transc, Tal. Gen. distr.: 
Iran. Described from N. Persia. Type in Vienna; cotype in Leningrad. 

7. O. Woronowii H. Krasch. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 743. 
Perennial; bulb ovoid, small; leaves linear, 4-7 mm broad, 20-25 cm 

385 long, narrowly white -banded beneath, shorter to slightly longer than 
inflorescence; inflorescence 4-8-flowered, rarely containing up to 

12 flowers, in a loose corymb; lower pedicels arcuately ascending at base, 
erect, at first equaling and at length greatly exceeding the upper, reaching 
up to 10 cm in length; bracts narrowly lanceolate, 1-4 cm long; perianth 
segments oblong-obovate to ovate-lanceolate, softly mucronate, 12-15 mm 



295 



long, broadly green-banded on the back; capsule ovoid, 6-7 mm long, 
the narrow winged angles approximate in pairs, forming a depression at 
the top. April-June. (Plate XII, Figures 1, 2). 

Woods and fields . — European part: Crim.; Caucasus: Cisc. (W. part), 
W. Transc. Endemic. Described from vicinity of Sukhumi. Type in 
Leningrad. 

8. O. Balansae Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 222. 

Perennial; bulb small (l cm in diameter), ovoid; scape slender, 
5-10 cm long; leaves 2 or 3, linear, ligulate, short-acuminate, rather 
strongly falcately recurved, canaliculate, ca. 6-10 mm broad, 7-15 cm 
long, equaling or exceeding the inflorescence; inflorescence 2- or 
3-flowered, rarely 5-7-flowered, corymbose; flowering pedicels erect, 
closely approximate; lower fruiting pedicels slightly elongated; bracts 
lanceolate, commonly exceeding the pedicels; perianth segments 17-20 mm 
long, oblong-linear, obtuse, the outer slightly acuminate, broadly green- 
banded on the back; filaments strongly dilated, shortly narrowed at apex; 
capsule ovoid, the wings in approximate pairs. June. (Plate XXII, 
Figure 5, 5a). 

Mountain and alpine meadows. — Caucasus: Cisc, W., E. and S. Transc. 
Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min., Arm. -Kurd. Described from the alpine zone 
of Pontus (Asia Minor). Type in Geneva. 

9. O. Schmalhauseni N. Alb. Tr. Odessk. otd. Ross, obshch. sadovod. 
(1891)15. — O. Balansae var. stenophyllum N. Alb. in Bull. Herb. 
Boiss., I, No. 5 (1893) 260. — Ic. : Al'bov, I.e. 

Perennial; bulbs small, ovoid, with dark brown coats; scapes slender, 
weak, 4-10 cm long; leaves few, flat, narrowly linear to linear, 3-5 mm 
broad, rather strongly pointed at both ends, straight or arcuately recurved, 
equaling to half as long again as the scape, 6-20 mm long; inflorescence 
1 -3-flowered, rarely containing up to 8 flowers; pedicels slender, at first 
short and more or less erect, at length much elongated (3-5 cm), more or 
less arcuately upturned and greatly exceeding the lanceolate bracts; fruiting 
pedicels sometimes slightly thickened at apex and at curvature; perianth 
segments 10-15 mm long, oblong-lanceolate, obtusish, broadly green- 
banded beneath; capsule subglobose, the wings in approximate pairs. June- 
July. 
386 Alpine and subalpine meadows. — Caucasus: W., S. and E. Transc. 
Endemic. Described from Abkhazia. Type in Leningrad. 

10. O. sigmoideum Freyn et Sint. Bull. Herb. Boiss. t. IV (1896) 189. 
Perennial; bulb small, ovoid-globose, 2 cm long, brown-coated; scapes 

slender, short; leaves linear or spatulate -linear, broadly canaliculate, 
white -banded beneath, cucullate, twice the length of scape or longer, 
3-6 mm broad; fruiting pedicels strongly twice arched (S-shaped), 
conspicuously clavately thickened above the base; perianth segments 
ca. 2 cm long, oblong, obtuse, green-banded below; capsule ellipsoid, 
8-9 mm long, the angled winged in upper part. June. (Plate XXII, 
Figure 7). 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr.: Arm. -Kurd. 
Described from Turkish Armenia. Type in Vienna, cotype in Leningrad. 



296 






(387) 




Plate XXII 

1. O rn ithogalum Woronovii H. Krasch.- 2. Cross section of the capsule of O. W oro no vi i H. Krasch. 
3. O. Sintensii Freyn.- 4. Cross section of the capsule of O. Sintenisii Freyn.— 5. O. Balansae 
Boiss. ; 5a) stamen of O. Balansae Boiss.— 6. O. tenuifolium Guss., flower.— 7. O.sigmoideum 
Freyn., pedicel.- 8. O. arianum Lipsky, perianth segments.— 9. Detail of outer perianth segments of 
O.arianum Lipsky from the back.— 10. O. pla typhy llu m Boiss., capsule.— 11. O. Bucheanum 
Aschers., filament of stamen.- 12. O. Bucheanum Aschers.— 13. O. flavescens Lam.— 
14. O.pyrenaicum L., flower.— 15. Portion of inflorescence of O. pyre n a icum L. with mature 
capsules.— 16. Cross section of capsule of O. pyren a i cum L.— 17. Portion of inflorescence of 
O. arcuatum Stev. with mature capsules. 



297 



Note. In areas where O. Balansae Boiss., O. Schmalhauseni 
N. Alb., and O. sigmoideum Freyn. grow side by side, transitional 
forms are of frequent occurrence. In relation to the characteristics of 
the respective distribution areas, these forms may be regarded as 
geographical or partly ecological races of these species. Detailed 
observations in natural conditions are much needed. 

11. O. Schischkini H. Krasch. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 743. 
Perennial; bulbs small, ovoid, 4-5 cm long; scapes 15-20 cm long, 

slender; leaves nearly flat, broadly linear, 2-5 mm broad, gradually 
narrowed toward base, to 30 cm long, subobtuse, rather markedly exceeding 
the inflorescence; inflorescence 2- or 3- (rarely 4)-flowered; pedicels 
slender, the outer arching, 1-3 cm long, usually considerably exceeding 
the hyaline lanceolate bracts, saccately clasping the pedicels at base, 
gradually attenuate toward apex; perianth segments 2-2.5 cm long, 
389 lanceolate, rather narrowly green-banded on the back; capsule subglobose, 
the angles in approximate pairs; style to half as long again as the capsule. 
May. 

Forest glades. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
vicinity of village of Zargeran, in Azerbaijan. Type in Leningrad. 

12. O. hyrcanum Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 331. 

Perennial; bulb small, ovoid; scape to 25 cm long; leaves 6-8, 20-30 cm 
long, slightly exceeding the inflorescence, flat, 10-18 mm broad, gradually 
narrowed toward base; inflorescence 2-6-flowered, dense, ovaloid, 
gradually becoming corymbiform due to elongation of lower pedicels; bracts 
lanceolate; perianth segments 20-32 mm long, ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
broadly green-banded on the back; capsule wingless, with evenly spaced 
angles. June. 

Mountain woods. — Caucasus: Talysh. Endemic. Described from Talysh. 
Type in Leningrad. 

13. O. graciliflorum C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII (1849) 248. 
Perennial; leaves 2, long-elliptic, 10-20 cm long, narrowed at both 

ends, many-nerved, equaling the slender scape; inflorescence corymbose, 
loosely 3- or 4-flowered; pedicels erect, the lower elongated, 2-3 times 
the length of the narrowly lanceolate bracts; perianth segments lanceolate, 
12-15 mm long, white, rather broadly green-banded on the back. June. 

Meadows and scrub. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd. 
Described from Asia Minor (Hemsin and [?] Sber). Type in Berlin. 

14. O. platyphyllum Boiss. Diagn. plant, or ser. I, No. 5 (1844)65.— 
O. montatum var. platyphyllum Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 217. 

Perennial; bulb small, ovoid, 2 cm in diameter; leaves 2-4, flat, 
lanceolate, 1-2 cm broad, acuminate, sometimes falcately recurved, 
equaling or exceeding the inflorescence; scape 10-20 cm long, rather thick 
at base, firm; inflorescence 6- 12 -flowered, rather distinctly corymbose; 
lower pedicels long, obliquely ascending, 2-5 cm long; fruiting pedicels 
one-third to one -half the length of the lanceolate acuminate bracts, curved 
at the tops, hence the capsule erect; perianth segments oblong-lanceolate, 



298 



obtuse, the outer narrower, acuminate, all broadly green-banded on the 
back, 12-18 mm long, sometimes tipped by a short soft pointed projection; 
capsule obovoid, to 15 mm long in maturity, the angles winged at the top. 
May-July. (Plate XXII, Figure 10). 
390 Steppe slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. , 
Arm. -Kurd., Iran. Described from Asia Minor (Karia). 

15. O. arianum Lipsky in Fedch., Fl. Turkm. II, 1931. — Ic: I.e. 

Perennial; bulb broadly ovoid, ca. 2 cm in diameter, covered with gray 
coats; leaves 4 or 5, green, broadly linear, 1-2 cm broad, terminating 
slightly below the top of the inflorescence, subobtuse; bracts hyaline, 
greenish on the back; inflorescence many-flowered, corymbose, finally 
elongating; pedicels spreading in fruit, to 5 cm long; perianth segments 
white within, green-banded on the back, 2-2.5 cm long, ca. 5 mm broad, 
oblanceolate, obtusish, the inner slightly narrower; stamens half the length 
of perianth segments, the filaments linear-lanceolate; capsule ovoid. 
(Plate XXII, Figures 8,9). 

Meadows. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh). Endemic. 
Described from Turkmenistan (Kushka). 

Note. A species closely related to O. platyphyllum Boiss.; 
availability of more ample material may possibly lead to unification of the 
two species. 



Section BERYLLIS Salisb. in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII, 273. 
Characteristics in the key. 

16. O. flavescens Lam. Fl. Franc. (1778) 277, tab. 232, f. 2.— 

O. sulfureum Schult. Syst. Veg. VII (1829) 518. — Ic. : Rchb. Ic. Fl. 
Germ., X, tab. 1027. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 3-5 cm in diameter; leaves linear, coerulescent, 
narrowly linear, 2-3 mm broad, sometimes marcescent; scape slender, 
25-60 cm long; inflorescence many-flowered, loose, 5-25 cm long; 
pedicels obliquely ascending, straight, the lower 1-3 cm long, several 
times the length of the small broadly lanceolate bracts, acuminate; perianth 
segments oblong-linear, 5-10 mm long, ca. 1 mm broad, yellowish, with 
a broad ferruginous -green dorsal band; capsule ovoid, to 1.5 cm long. 
June-July. (Plate XXII, Figure 13). 

Fields, meadows, steppe slopes, and roadsides. — European part: 
Bl., Crim. Gen. distr.: Atl. Eur., W. Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described 
from W. Europe (France). 

17. O. Schelkovnikovii Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 228. 

Perennial; bulb 1.5-2 cm long; scape 40-50 cm long; leaves few, green, 
long- acuminate, 3-10 mm broad; inflorescence 10-20-flowered; fruiting 
391 pedicels arcuately upturned, 3-4 cm long; perianth segments oblong-linear, 
to 10 mm long, narrowly green banded beneath. June-August. 

Alpine and subalpine meadows. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Armenia. Type in Tiflis. 



299 



18. O. pyrenaicum L. Sp. pi. (1753)306.-0. narbonense auct. 
fl. Ross. — Ic: Rchb. Ic. Fl. Germ. X, tab. 1028. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-3 cm in diameter; leaves coerulescent, linear, 
canaliculate, cucullate, 5-7 mm broad; scape 30-70 cm long, exceeding 
the leaves; raceme many-flowered, 10-25 cm long, initially compact, 
becoming elongated -cylindric and loose in fruit; fruiting pedicels straight, 
more or less appressed to scape; occasionally pedicels arching and raceme 
containing fewer flowers; bracts lanceolate, long-acuminate, the lower 
one-third to one-half the length of pedicels; perianth segments oblong- 
lanceolate, 12-14 mm long, obtuse, white, rather broadly greenish-banded; 
stamens half the length of perianth segments; capsule ovoid, 3 -angled, 
1.5 cm long, with slightly convex valves . June-July. (Plate XXII, 
Figures 14, 15, 16). 

Steppes, steppe slopes, arable land, and among field crops. — European 
part: Crim; Caucasus: Cisc, W., E. and S. Transc, Dag. 

19. O. arcuatum Stev. in Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. VII (1829) 271. 
Perennial; bulb large, to 2 cm in diameter; scapes firm, 5-8 mm in 

diameter, 50-80 cm long; leaves linear, to 10 cm [sic] broad, rather long- 
acuminate, 40-50 cm long; inflorescence large, many -flowered, 20-45 cm, 
long, initially densely pyramidal, becoming loosely cylindric; flowering 
pedicels 3-7 cm long, more or less straight, erect; fruiting pedicels arcuately 
upturned in lower part; bracts lanceolate, long-acuminate, one -third to 
one-half the length of pedicels; perianth segments 10-12 mm long, linear, 
obtusish, milky white, not green-banded and merely brownish-nerved, 
sometimes (in herbarium specimens) with a brownish spot above; stamens 
half the length of perianth, sometimes slightly longer; capsule pyramidal, 
3 -angled, strongly 3-lobed at the top, 1-1.5 cm long in maturity, the convex 
valves deeply concave at angles. June. (Plate XXII, Figure 17). 

Mountain woods and steppe slopes. — Caucasus: Cisc. Endemic. 
Described from Ciscaucasia (grassy slopes in vicinity of Mount Beshtau). 
Type in Helsinki. 

20. O. magnum Krasch. et Schischk. sp. n. in Addenda III, p. 743.— 
O. arcuatum Boiss. (non Stev.) in Fl. Or. V (1884) 215. 

392 Perennial; bulb rather small, ovoid, to 2 cm in diameter; scapes firm, 
to 1 m long and to 6 mm in diameter; leaves broadly lance -linear, 2-4 cm 
broad, narrowed at base, short -acuminate; inflorescence large, many- 
flowered, cylindric, fairly loose, 20-25 mm [?] long; flowering pedicels 
to 4 cm long, more or less straight, obliquely ascending; fruiting pedicels 
arcuately ascending, hence the capsule erect; bracts lanceolate, one -fourth 
to one-third the length of pedicels; perianth segments oblong-linear, to 
2 cm long, white, obtusish, mucronate, with brown median nerves; 
filaments broadly lanceolate, abruptly narrowed at apex, half the length of 
perianth; capsule ovoid, 12-13 mm in maturity, the somewhat convex 
valves concave at margins. June -July. 

Woods, scrub, and vineyards. — Caucasus: Cisc, E. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Ciscaucasia (Karas colony). Type in Leningrad. 

Note. A plant worthy of attention with a view to introduction for 
ornament. 

21. O. brachystachys C. Koch, in Linnaea, XXII, (1849) 74-75. 



300 



Perennial; bulb rather small, ovoid, 1.5-1.75 cm in diameter; scapes 
slender, 30-35 cm long; leaves few, narrowly linear, 3-5 mm broad; 
inflorescence narrow, 10-15 cm long, 10-25-flowered; pedicels 1-2 cm 
long, in fruit nearly appressed to rachis, slightly exceeding the lanceolate 
acuminate bracts; perianth segments oblong-linear, 10-12 mm long, obtuse, 
white, narrowly green-nerved on theback; capsule ovoid, 1 cm long, with 
slightly convex valves. July. 

High mountain zone . — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Armenia. Type in Leningrad. 

22. O. Fischerianum H. Krasch. nom. nov. — O. b r ac hy s t achy s 
Fisch. (nonC. Koch.) nom. nud., Cat. H. Gorenk. et pi. exs. in H. Inst. 
Bot. Ac. Sc. URSS. — O. narbonense var. minus Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV 
(1853) 158. — O. narbonense var. b r ac hy s t ac hy s Schmalh., Fl. II, 
(1897) 501. — Ic. : Fl. Yugo-Vost., Figure 190. 

Perennial; bulb rather small, ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter; scapes 
averaging 20-35 cm in length, occasionally to 70 cm long; leaves 4-6, 
shorter than the scapes, linear, canaliculate, 2-6 mm broad; inflorescence 
a loose oblong raceme, on the average 5-12 cm long (rarely to 20 cm); 
flowers averaging 4-25; flowering pedicels obliquely ascending; fruiting 
pedicels rather strongly appressed to scape, sometimes slightly arcuate, 
1.5-2.5 cm long; bracts lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, long -acuminate, 
1-2.5 cm long, commonly shorter than or rarely exceeding the pedicels; 
393 perianth segments 10-12 mm long, oblong-linear, obtuse, white, with 
a narrow median band consisting of several ferruginous or faint greenish 
nerves; filaments slightly more than half the length of perianth, subulately 
acuminate; capsule slightly elongate to ovoid. May- June. 

Steppes, sometimes alkaline, and meadows. — European part: Bl., L. 
Don, L. V., Transc; W. Siberia: U. Tob., Irt.; Centr. Asia: Ar.-Casp. 
(N.) Endemic. Described from the SE part of the European USSR. Type 
in Leningrad. 



Section M YOG ALUM Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XII, 272.— 
Characteristics in the key. 

23. O. nutans L. Sp. pi. (1753)308; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 500.— 
Myogalum nutans Link, Handb. I (1829) 164; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
161. — Albucea nutans Rchb. Fl. Excurs. (1830) 110. — Ic. : Rchb. 
Ic. Fl. germ. X, tab. 483. 

Perennial; bulb large, ovoid, ca. 3.5 cm in diameter, with numerous 
small bulbils; scape 30-45 cm long; leaves 4-6, broadly lanceolate, 
ca. 1 cm broad, slightly canaliculate, persistent in flower, equaling or 
slightly exceeding the inflorescence; inflorescence 3- 12-flowers; bracts 
lanceolate, acuminate, to 3 cm long, about as long as pedicels; perianth 
segments oblong, to 2.5 cm long, to 8 mm broad, obtuse; outer filaments 
segments petaloid, short -acuminate, the inner with broad obtusish cusps, 
all without a tooth on the inner surface below the anther; capsule broadly 
ovoid. May. 

Meadows and scrub. — European part: M. Dnp. Some of the locations 
refer perhaps to naturalized specimens of the cultivated plant, as this is 



301 



sometimes grown in E. Europe and easily runs wild. Gen. distr. : Scand., 
Atl. Eur., W. Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described from W. Europe. 

24. O. Boucheanum (Kunth) Aschers. in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. XVI 
(1866)191; Pachoskii, Khersonsk. Fl. I, 466 . — My o g alum 
Boucheanum Kunth. Enum. pi. IV (1842) 348. — Ic. : Hegi 111. Fl. Mitt. 
Eur. II, f. 367 c and d. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, large; leaves linear, 8-15 mm broad, 
canaliculate, equaling or exceeding the scape, sometimes persistent at 
flowering; scape 20-50 cm long; inflorescence a fairly dense 1 -sided 
raceme; perianth segments elongate -lanceolate, 20-25 mm long, acuminate, 
green-backed, with whitish margins; bracts lanceolate, more or less 
subulately long- acuminate, the lower to 3 cm long, considerably longer than 
the pedicels; anthers of inner stamens 3-4 mm long; filaments broadly 
394 petaloid, all bicuspidate, the cusps of inner stamens equaling or exceeding, 
the anthers, those of outer stamens shorter, a small tooth on the adaxial 
side of filaments below the anthers decurrent into a winged process; 
capsule oblong, slightly longer than the style. May. (Plate XXII, 
Figures 11-12). 

Scrub, river valleys and meadows. — European part: Bl., Crim. 
Gen. distr. Bal.-As. Min. Described from the Balkans. 



Genus 277. PUSCHKINIA* ADAMS.** 
Adams in Nova Acta Acad. Petr. XIV (1805) 164, tab. 13.-Adamsia Willd. Mag. Ges. Nat. 
Berl. (1808)16. 

Perianth campanulate, with a short tube and longer equal rotately 
spreading segments; anthers subsessile, dorsifixed, introrse, inserted at 
throat between the lobes of the 6 -cleft crown formed by projections of the 
perianth; ovary sessile; style short, with capitate stigma; raceme loosely 
few-flowered. 
1. Perianth tube campanulate, one -third to one -half the length of perianth 

segments 1. P. scilloides Adams. 

■* Perianth tube funnelform, slightly shorter than the segments 

2. P. hyacinthoides Baker. 



1. P. scilloides Adams in Nova Acta Acad. Petrop. XIV (1805) 164; 
Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 231.— Adamsia scilloides Willd. Mag. Ges. 
Nat. Berl. (1808) 16. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. f. 2244.— Exs. : PI. or. exs. 
No. 253. 

Perennial; bulbs ovoid-globose; leaves 2 or 4, rather fleshy, linear- 
lorate, amplexicaul below, broadly linear, about equaling the slender scape, 
10-30 cm long, 1 cm broad; raceme 1-6-flowered; pedicels slightly 
spreading, shorter than perianth; perianth azure; segments obtuse, 
10-12 mm long, 3 times the length of the campanulate tube; crown one -third 
the length of perianth, 6 -cleft down to base, the lobes entire or emarginate 
(rarely acutely bifid — var. libanotica Boiss.). April. 

Mountain meadows and scrub. — Caucasus: Cisc, W. and E. Transc. 
Gen. distr. : N. Iran. Described from Transcaucasia. 

* Named for A. A. Musin-Pushkin, who travelled in 1802 in the Caucasus and collected plants on the Ararat. 
** Arranged by A.S. Lozina-Lozinskaya. 



302 



2. P. hyacinthoides Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 435; Grossg., 
Fl. Kavk. I, 231. 
395 Perennial; leaves 2, rather fleshy, narrowly linear to lorate, 

amplexicaul at base, exceeding the scape; scape 5-15 cm long; raceme 
densely 4-6-flowered; pedicels short; perianth white or pale azure; perianth 
tube funnelform, slightly shorter than the segments; crown half the length 
of perianth, with emarginate to bifid lobes. April. 

Dry mountain slopes, at 1800-2400 m, — Caucasus: E. Transc, Tal. 
Gen. distr. : N. Iran. Described from Kurdistan. 



Genus 278. BELLEVALIA LAPEYROUSE** 

Lapeyrouse in Journ. Phys. LX VII (1808) 425. 

Perianth tubular-campanulate; with more or less spreading but not 
reflexed segments and without constriction below the throat; filaments 
long, adnate in lower part to perianth tube; anthers apparently attached to 
throat, the tips reaching the margin of perianth or partly exserted; 
terminal flowers sometimes sterile; fertile flowers greenish, yellowish, 
violet, or blue, or turning from whitish-yellowish or lilac to various shades 
of brown; scapes firm, erect; inflorescence racemose; leaves lanceolate, 
mostly ciliate. 

1. Flowers yellow, brown, greenish, blue, or violet; perianth long 
tubular-campanulate (Section Eubellevalia Boiss.) 2. 

+ Flowers blue; perianth short -tubular (Section Oxyodon A. Los.). . 16. 

2. Perianth of live plants blue or violet 3. 

■* Perianth brown, yellow, greenish, or purple 4. 

3. Perianth blue; anther violet 1. B. turkestanica Franch. 

"*" Perianth dark violet; anthers pale azure 2. B. atroviolacea Rgl. 

4. Flowering pedicels 3 or more times the length of flowers 5. 

+ Flowering pedicels not more than twice the length of flowers 6. 

5. Pedicels 3 times the length of flowers, to 6 cm in fruit; scape to 20 cm 
long 3. B. albana Woron. 

"*" Pedicels 4-8 times the length of flowers; to 12 cm in fruit; scape to 

30 cm long 4. B. sarmatica (Pall.) Woron. 

6. Perianth zygomorphic, the lower segments longer than the upper 

5. B. zygomorpha Woron. 

"* Perianth regular, with equal segments 7. 

7. Style exserted 8. 

"* Style included 9. 

8. Pedicels as long as flowers; leaves to 2 cm broad 

6. B. longistyla (Miscz.) Grossh. 

+ Pedicels 2-3 times the length of flower; leaves to 4 cm broad 

7. B. araxina Woron. 

9. Pedicels not elongating after anthesis; inflorescence narrowly cylindric 
10. 

■* Pedicels elongating after anthesis; inflorescence narrower at top than 
at base 12 . 



396 



Genus named for P.R. Belleval, founder of the Montpellier Botanical Garden (1598). 
Arranged by A .S. Lozina-Lozinskaya.— The species of the genus Bellevalia Lapeyr. are treated by 
the author on the lines established by Yu.N. Boronov, whose material and drawings have been used in the 
present study. 



303 



10. Flowers reddish; buds blue 8. B. Aucheri (Baker) A. Los. 

+ Flowers brownish; buds violet 11. 

11. Leaves much shorter than scape 9. B. Fomini Woron. 

-*" Leaves equaling or exceeding the scape 

10. B. Lipskyi (Miscz.) Wulff. 

12. Perianth yellowish-green 11. B. lutea Bordz. 

■+ Perianth white, blue, violet or brown 13. 

13. Anthers yellow 12. B. Wilhelmsii (Stev.) Woron. 

•*■ Anthers violet or blue 14. 

14. Anthers violet; perianth segments white or yellow 15. 

+ Anthers blue; perianth segments azure 

13. B. montana (C. Koch) Boiss. 

15. Perianth segments white 14. B. Saviczii Woron. 

+ Perianth segments yellow 15. B. speciosa Woron. 

16. Plants to 40 cm tall; raceme oblong-ovaloid 

16. B. pycnantha (C . Koch) A. Los. 

"t Plants to 15 cm tall; raceme short -ovaloid 

17. B. acutifolia (Boiss.) Deloney. 

Section EUBELLEVALIA Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 301 . — Perianth long, 
tubular-campanulate, brown, yellow, greenish, violet or blue. 

1. B. turkestanica Franch. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 6, XVIII (1884) 256.— 
Hyacinthus t u r ke s t a n i c u s Fedtsch. in sched. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid; leaves 4, linear, ligulate, conduplicate, slightly 
exceeding the scape, prominently nerved, point-tipped, the margin 
cartilaginous and scabrous -ciliate; scape 10 cm long; flowering raceme 
397 dense, oblong-obovaloid; bracts white, rounded; pedicels shorter than or 

as long as flower; flowers spreading to subnutant; perianth blue, 6 mm long, 
drying brown, campanulate; segments as long as tube, lance -triangular; 
filaments dilated toward base; anthers violet; capsule globose; fruiting 
pedicels curved at the ends. March. (Plate XXIII, Figure 9). 

Slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from Ibragim-ata. 
Type in Paris. 

2. B. atroviolacea Rgl. in A.H.P. VIII, 2 (1833)655, tab. VI.— 
Hyacinthus at r o v i o 1 ac e u s B, Fedtsch., Rast. Turk. (1915) 250.— 
Exs. : Herb. Fl. As. Med. No. 345. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovaloid to ovaloid-conical; to 3 cm long, the 
outer scales membranous, brown; leaves 4-6, broadly linear, slightly 
narrowed toward base, acutish, with hispid-ciliolate margin, 10-20 cm 
long, 4- 10 mm broad; scape solitary, erect, glabrous, equaling or 
exceeding the leaves; raceme many-flowered, ovoid-oblong; perianth 
8-9 mm long, campanulate -cylindric, dusky bluish-violet, enlarged toward 
apex; segments oval, broad, straight, spreading; stamens inserted at 
throat; anthers pale azure. March-April. (Plate XXIII, Figure 13). 

Mountain slopes. — Centr. Asia: Pam.-Al. Endemic. Described from 
Gissar. Type in Leningrad. 

3. B. albana Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVII, 6 (1927)615.— 
B. glauca auct. fl. cauc, non Kunth. — Hy ac i nt hu s glaucus Miscz. 
in Acta. Inst. Agr. Kuban. V (1927) 155p.p., non Baker. 



304 



Perennial; bulb 4 cm long, 3.5 cm in diameter, subglobose-ovaloid, 
the outer scales blackish; leaves 3 or 4, glaucescent above, green beneath, 
hispid-ciliate on the margin, thickened at apex, 13-14 cm long, 1.2-1.7 cm 
broad; raceme fairly loose; perianth 7-8 mm long, tubular -campanulate, 
dark brown; buds yellowish-violet; segment green-banded at apex, one -third 
the length of tube, extended or slightly open, flat or convex; pedicels 
3 times the length of flower, becoming elongated, arcuately ascending in 
bud, arcuately spreading in fruit; filaments in free portion triangular, about 
as long as the violet anthers; style as long as filaments; capsule valves 
with entire margins. May -July. (Plate XXIII, Figure 5). 

Dry slopes. — Caucasus: E. Transc. (Ganzha, Kura River valley). 
Endemic. Described from a specimen grown in the Tiflis Botanical Garden 
from bulbs collected near Adzhikabul. Type in Tiflis. 

4. B. sarmatica (Pall.) Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVI (1926) 
615; Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 235. — Hy ac i nt hu s sarmaticus Pall. 
Enum. Taur. in Nov. Acta Acad. Petrop. X (1795) 595; Miscz. in Acta. 

398 Inst. Agr. Kuban. V (1927) 155; Schmal'g., Fl. II, 497; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
153. — H. ciliatus auct. Fl. Ross. — Ic. : Ker.-Gawl. Bot. Reg. (1819) 
394. 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid, 2-4 cm in diameter; leaves 3-7, lorate, fleshy, 
narrowed toward base, mucronate, the cartilaginous margin ciliate; scape 
stout, 15-30 cm long; raceme many-flowered, elongated, oblong-ovaloid; 
flowering pedicels erect spreading, 4-8 times the length of flower; fruiting 
pedicels indurated, horizontally spreading, strongly elongating up to 12 cm, 
more or less straight; bracts small, deltoid, or greatly reduced; perianth 
campanulate, 8-9 mm long, grayish-brown; segments straight, oval- 
lanceolate, one-third the length of tube, yellowish-white; stamens 
uniseriate; anthers violet, short; capsule oblong, 1-2.3 cm long, slightly 
compressed, the cells 2-6-seeded. May-June. (Plate XXIII, Figure 3b-e). 

Steppes and dry hills. — European part: Crim., Bl., L. Don, L. V., 
M. Dnp.; Caucasus: Cisc. Endemic. Described from the Crimea. 

5. B. zygomorpha Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVI, 6 (1927) 
618; Grossg., Fl. Kavk. I, 233. 

Perennial; bulb 5 cm in diameter, the outer scales black; leaves green, 
lance-lorate, narrowed toward base, erect, revolute, scaberulous- 
margined, 20 cm long, 3-3.5 cm broad; raceme oblong-cylindric, loose, 
16 cm long; flowering pedicels nodding; fruiting pedicels arching; perianth 
tubular -campanulate, 10-11 mm long, about as long as pedicel; buds violet, 
the tube becoming light brown, green-banded, 7-8 mm long; segments one- 
third to one -half the length of perianth, unequal, the lower more elongate, 
exceeding the upper by 2-3 mm, flat outside, round-tipped, folded along 
the midrib; filaments linear; anthers violet, as long as filaments; capsule 
with emarginate valves. May-June. (Plate XXIII, Figure 12). 

Steppes, dry slopes, and among field crops. — Caucasus: E. Transc, 
Tal. Endemic. Described from a specimen grown in the Tiflis Botanical 
Garden from bulbs collected in the former Lenkoran District. Type in 
Tiflis. 



305 



399 




Plate XX IE 

1. Hyacintella leucophaea Schur.: lb) flower, lc) flower in section, Id) capsule, le) seed.— 

2. H.Pallasiana (Stev. ) A. Los., flower.— 3. Bellevalia sarmatica (Pall.) Woron. ; 3b) flower, 
3c) flower in section, 3d) leaf tip, 3e) capsule —4. B. speciosa Woron., flower.— 5. B. albana Woron., 
flower.— 6. B. araxina Woron., flower.— 7. B. Fomini Woron., flower.— 8. B. Saviczi Woron,, 
flower.— 9. B. turkestanica Franch,, flower.— 10. B. Wilhelmsii Woron., flower.— 11. B. Lipskii 
Miscz., flower.— 12. B. zygomorpha Woron. flower.— 13. B. atroviolacea Rgl., flower.— 

14. Hyacinthus Litwinowii W. Czern.; 14b) flower, 14c) flower in section, 14d) capsule.— 

15. H. tra ns ca sp icus Litw., flower.— 16. H. kopetdaghi E. Czerniak., flower. 



306 



401 6. B. longistyla (Miscz.) Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 235. - 
Hyacinthus longi stylus Miscz. in Acta Inst. Agr. Kub. V (1927) 157. 

Perennial; bulb globose, 4 cm long; leaves lanceolate, to 30 cm long, 
2 cm in diameter, more or less narrowed toward base, acuminate, the 
margin naked or scarcely ciliate; raceme elongate, 15-25-flowered, with 
numerous sterile flowers at the top; pedicels the length of flower, erect 
or reclinate, at length spreading, horizontal in fruit, 5 cm long; perianth 
in herbarium ferruginous -purple, long tubular-campanulate, 12 mm long, 
the tube 8-9 mm long, narrower upward; segments acute, straight, white, 
one-third to one -half the length of tube; style exserted; capsule large, 
ovoid, strongly flattened, cuspidate; capsule cells 1- or 2-seeded. April. 

Valleys, and among field crops. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Iran. Described from Osmangenskii Pass and from the Araks River. Type 
in Tiflis. 

7. B. araxina Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVI, 6 (1927) 614.— 
Hyacinthus ciliatus var. grandiflorus Bordz. in Scripta Soc. Nat. 
Kiew, XXV (1915) 76. 

Perennial; bulb 6 by 5 cm, ovaloid-globose, with rusty'gray outer scales; 
leaves 7, broad, oblong-lorate, glaucescent, ciliate-margined, 16 cm long, 
2.5-4 cm broad; raceme dense, many-flowered; flowers campanulate, 
11-12 mm long; buds pale violet; perianth brown; segments white, green- 
banded, half the length of tube, flat or abaxially convex, wide open; pedicels 
2-3 times the length of flower, arcuately nodding, becoming elongated, 
erect or spreading, horizontal in fruit; filaments in free portion triangular; 
anthers pale azure, exserted, as long as the style. May- June. (Plate XXIII, 
Figure 6). 

Slopes. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from a specimen 
grown in the Tiflis Botanical Garden from bulbs collected in Nakhichevan. 
Type in Tiflis. 

8. B. Aucheri (Baker) A. Los. comb. nov. — Hy ac int hu s Aucheri 
Baker in Jour n. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 433. — B elle v ali a ciliata var. 
stenophylla Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 302.— B. glauca f. 
stenophylla Fomin. in sched. Herb. Mus. Cauc. 

Perennial; bulb hemispherical, 2-2.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm in diameter; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, to 30 cm long, 0.5-1 cm broad, gradually 
narrowed toward base, slightly folded, with cartilaginous slightly pectinate - 
ciliate margin, somewhat wavy, more or less revolute, as long as the 
scape; flowering raceme dense, oblong-conical, becoming elongate- 
cylindric; pedicels equal, about twice the length of flower; flowers 5-6 mm 

402 long, campanulate, blue in bud, becoming reddish (in dry condition); 
segments broad, obtuse, greenish-yellow; stamens as long as the style. 
May. 

Plains. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Gen. distr.: Iran. Described from 
Isfahan. 

9. B. Fomini Woron. in Bull. Jard. Princ. XXVI, 6 (1927) 617; Grossg., 
Fl. Kavk. I, 233.— B. macrobotrys auct. Fl. cauc, non Boiss.— 
Hyacinthus macrobotrys ssp. caucasicus Miscz. in Acta Inst. 
Agr. Kuban. V (1927) 158. — M u s c ar i Clusianum C. Koch in Linnaea 
XXII (1849) 253; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 154, non Griseb. 



307 



Perennial; bulb 3 by 3.5 cm or 4 by 5 cm, with thick blackish scales; 
leaves 3-5, narrowed toward base, acuminate, 15-20 cm long, 1-2 cm 
broad, ciliolate-margined; raceme loose, cylindric; flowering pedicels 
nodding, as long as flower; fruiting pedicels arcuately ascending; buds 
dark violet; perianth tubular, to 7 mm long, grayish-violet; segments 
half the length of tube, blackish-tipped, convex-backed outside, flat within; 
filaments in free portion triangular, as long as the yellow anthers; capsule 
ovaloid-globose, the valves with entire margins. May- June. (Plate XXIII, 
Figure 7). 

Steppes and hills . — Caucasus: E. Transc. Described from a specimen 
grown in the Tiflis Botanical Garden from bulbs collected in Peidzheli-bar. 
Type in Tiflis. 

10. B. Lipskyi (Miscz.) Wulff, Fl. Kryma, I, 3(1928)56.— 
Hyacinthus Lypskyi Miscz. in Acta Inst. Agr. Kuban. V (1927) 158.— 
Bellevalia trifoliata Pacz. in Mem. Soc. Nat. N. Ross. XV, 1 
(1890)829, nonKunth.— B. dubia Shmal'g., Fl. II, 489. 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid, small; leaves 3, 25-35 cm long, 6-12 mm 
broad, commonly exceeding the scape, narrowed at both ends, cartilaginous- 
denticulate on the margin and often on the veins; raceme before anthesis 
cylindric, compactly conical at the top, becoming elongated to 6-15 cm, 
commonly 30-flowered; pedicels shorter than flower, elongating in fruit, 
spreading at first, horizontal at anthesis; bracts broadly triangular, 2- or 
3 -parted; uppermost flowers sterile, dusky violet; perianth of fertile 
flowers campanulate -tubular, dusky violet, becoming dingy yellow, 5-7 mm 
long, 3 mm broad; segments broadly ligulate, obtuse, cucullate, one -third 
to two-fifths the length of tube; anthers violet; capsule flattened, obovoid. 
April-May. (Plate XXIII, Figure 11). 

Fields. — European part: Crimea (Balaklava, Alupka). Endemic. 
Described from Balaklava. Type in Leningrad. 

11. B. lutea Bordz. in Ucr. Bot. Mag. Ill (1926)50; Grossg., Fl. 
Kavk. I, 232. 

403 Perennial; leaves long, linear, acuminate, equaling the scape, the 

margin cartilaginous white ciliate; scape 15-18 cm long; raceme oblong- 
ovoid; pedicels half as long again to twice the length of flower, recurved; 
perianth tubular, greenish-yellow in live condition, drying dingy brownish- 
violet; segments straight, ovate, slightly shorter than the tube; filaments 
triangular-lanceolate. April. 

Dry grassy slopes. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Akhalkalaki (Dzhavakhetiya), at 1800 m above sea level. Type in Kiev. 

12. B. Wilhelmsii (Stev.) Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVI 
(1927) 617. — Muse ari Wilhelmsii Stev. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXX 
(1857) 446. — B. glauca auct. fl. cauc, pro parte. — M. ciliatum]3 
latifolium C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII (1849) 255. 

Perennial; bulb 3 cm in diameter, subglobose-ovaloid, the outer scales 
dark grayish-brown; leaves 3 or 4, oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at base 
into a petiole, 25 mm broad, glaucescent, the margin cartilaginous - 
scabrous or ciliolate; raceme many-flowered, the upper flowers sterile; 



308 



buds dark violet: perianth brown 8-10 mm long, green-handed; segments 
imbricately connivent one-third the length of tube, triangular, light - 
colored, mucronate; flowering pedicels nodding, 12-15 mm long, at length 
arcuately divergent, in fruit spreading, 3-5 cm long; anthers yellow; 
capsule with emarginate valves, longer than the style. May. (Plate XXIII, 
Figure 10). 

Dry hills and arable fields. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Georgia. 

13. B. montana (C. Koch)Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 304. — M u s c a r i 
montanus C. Koch in Linnaea XXII (1849) 252; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 153.— 
Hiacinthus glaucus var. montanus Miscz. in Acta Inst. Agr. 
Kuban. V (1927) 156. 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid; leaves 4 or 5, oblong-lanceolate, 15-20 mm 
broad, narrowed toward base, acuminate, hyaline -margined, ciliolate, 
slightly shorter than scape; scape erect, 5-15 cm long; raceme oblong; 
pedicels very slender, erect, half as long again as perianth; perianth of 
the small sterile terminal flowers globose, azure; perianth of the fertile 
flower campanulate -tubular, 4-5 mm long, dusky brown; segments half 
the length of the lustrous tube, oblong-oval, obtuse; filaments lanceolate; 
anthers large, blue. May. 

Mountain meadows. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Described from Lori and 
Shuragel'. Type in Berlin. 

14. B. Saviczii* Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVI, 6 (1927)614.— 
Hyacinthus ciliatus B. Fedtsch., Rast. Turk. (1915)250, non Cyrill. 

404 Perennial; bulb large, broadly ovoid, 5 cm in diameter, the outer scales 
blackish -gray; leaves 3 or 4, oblong-lanceolate, 15-17 cm long, 29 mm 
broad, glaucescent above, the margin cartilaginous -scaberulous; raceme 
oblong -cylindric, in fruit oblong-ovaloid, 10 — 15 cm long; scapes 40 cm long; 
flowering pedicels spreading, twice the length of flower; fruit stipes 
arcuately spreading, elongating to 5 cm; flowers 9-10 mm long; perianth 
campanulate, the tube ferruginous -gray; segments white, spreading, obtuse, 
somewhat shorter than the tube; filaments dilated at base; anthers violet, 
exceeding the perianth; capsule oblong-ovaloid, about equaling the scape. 
March-April. 

In the juniper zone. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh). Endemic. 
Described from plants grown in the Tiflis Botanical Garden frombulbs brought 
from Kopet Dagh Mountains (2600-3300 m). Type in Tiflis. 

15. B. speciosa Woron. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ. XXVI, 6 (1927)613.— 
Hyacinthus ciliatus var. genuinus Bordz. in Scripta Soc. Nat. 
Kiew. XXV (1915) 76. — Bellevalia ciliata Radde, Mus. Cauc. (1899) 
165, nonHyac. ciliatus Cyr. 

Perennial; bulb 5 by 5 cm, subglobose -ovoid, the outer scales blackish; 
leaves 5 or 6, glaucescent, lorate, 14-20 cm long, 2.5-3 cm broad, the 



Named for V.M. Savich, forester-botanist who first collected bulbs of this species. 



309 



margin cartilaginous ciliate; scape 20-40 cm long; raceme commonly the 
length of flower, many-flowered, containing up to 100 flowers, 8-20 cm 
long, broadly pyramidal; buds white; perianth 8-9 mm long, 4 mm broad, 
the tube brownish with lighter stripes; segments yellow, half the length of 
tube, convex outside, pedicels erect in bud, arcuately nodding in flower, 
at length horizontal, 2-3 times the length of flower, strongly elongating 
in fruit; anthers violet; capsule with entire valves, 13-14 cm long. 
May-June. (Plate XXIII, Figure 4). 

Dry slopes and among field crops. — Caucasus: S. and E. Transc. 
Gen. distr. : Arm. -Kurd. Described from the vicnity of Tiflis and from a 
specimen grown in the Tiflis Botanical Garden from bulbs brought from the 
former Kars Region. Type in Tiflis. 



Section OXYODON A. Los. sect, nov. — Sect. Botryanthus (Kunth.) 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1894) 228 p. p. — Sect. Hyacintella Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 
305 p.p. — Perianth short -tubular, dark blue. 

16. B. pycnantha (C. Koch) A. Los. comb, n. — Muscari 
pycnanthum C. Koch in Linnaea XXII (1849) 363; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
154. — Belle valia comosa Grossh., Fl. Kavk. 1(1928)233. 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid, to 2 cm in diameter; leaves lanceolate, 
405 10-15 mm broad, exceeding the scape, canaliculate, amplexicaul at base, 
acuminate; scape 25-40 cm long; raceme oblong-ovaloid, dense; sterile 
flowers few or none, globose and short-pediceled; fertile flowers dark blue, 
oblong- campanulate, as long as pedicels, spreading; perianth segments 
oval, subacute, white within, one -third the length of tube; stamens inserted 
at throat; anthers yellow. May -June. 

Wet meadows. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Mount Alagez [Aragats]. Type in Berlin. 

17.* B. acutifolia (Boiss.) Deloney in Mon. Jard. Tifl. n.s. 1(1922-23) 
44.— Muscari acutifolium Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 300. — Exs. : PI. 
or. exs. No. 276 (sub B. paradoxa). 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovaloid, 1.5 cm in diameter; leaves 2, rarely 3, 
narrowly lanceolate, narrowed toward base, acuminate, 6-12 cm long, 
0.5 cm broad, commonly shorter than or equaling the scape; scape to 15 cm 
long, red at the top; raceme short, obovoid, compact, few -flowered; 
pedicels blue, spreading, slightly shorter than flower; perianth dark 
bluish-violet, short cylindric -campanulate to subglobose-ovoid; segments 
obtusish, straight, one -fourth the length of tube; anthers yellow; capsule 
globose, slightly flattened. May. 



This plant may possibly be identical with Muscari paradoxum (Fisch. et Mey.) Baker, p. 421. 
(Editors). 



310 



406 



Mountain and meadow slopes.— Caucasus: W. and S. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Persut mountain plateau. Type in Geneva. 



Genus 279. HYACINTHUS* TOURN.** 

Inst. (1709) 344, pro parte; L. Gen. PI. ed. V (1754) 149. 

Perianth funnelform, the tube constricted above the ovary; segments 
reflexed, about the length of tube; stamens distinct, inserted below the 
middle of the tube, uniseriate; style short; stigma obtusish; ovary 3-locular, 
the locules 6-8-ovuled; capsule globose, compressed; leaves numerous, 
amplexicaul; scapes bearing a loose racemose inflorescence. 

1. Wild plants; perianth not fleshy; flowers inodorous 2. 

+ Plants cultivated in gardens and greenhouses; perianth fleshy; flowers 

fragrant *H. orientalis L_ 

2. Flowers to 15 mm long, blue or azure, perianth segments erect or 
spreading 3. 

"* Flowers 20-25 mm long, lilac; perianth segments twisted at the edge 
1. H. Litwinowii E. Czern. 

3. Leaves erect; bracts 1 mm long 2. H. transcaspicus Ltw. 

"*" Leaves arcuately spreading; bracts 4 mm long 

3. H. kopetdaghi E. Czerniak. 

1. H. Litwinowii E. Czern. in Not. Syst. Herb. H. P. IV, 19-20(1923) 
148. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2-4 cm long, with lilac scales; leaves 3 or 4, 
broadly oval-lanceolate, 15-17 cm long, 3-5 cm broad, thin, glabrous, 
subobtuse to acutish, scaberulous -margined (inf. contractus 
E. Czerniak.), horizontally spreading, glaucous, undulate at the margins; 
scapes 1 or 2, 15-20 cm (sometimes up to 25 cm) long; raceme dense, 
3-13-flowered (in f. contractus E. Czerniak, 3-5-flowered); fruiting 
pedicels arcuately spreading, elongating to 8-12 mm; bracts binate, 
filiform -linear, free down to base, white -hyaline, 7-9 mm long; flowers 
2-2.5 cm long, pale lilac-azure; perianth funnelform-campanulate, the 
tube enlarged toward base; perianth segments 8-10 mm long, lanceolate, 
acuminate, reflexed, the midrib darker colored; stamens biseriate; 
filaments slightly dilated, inserted below the middle of tube; anthers as 
long as or slightly shorter than filaments, 3 mm long, bluish, slightly 
exserted from tube; ovary ovaloid, with 3-4-ovuled locules; style 6 mm 
long, shorter than stamens; stigma 3-lobed; capsule globose, slightly 
flattened; seeds globose, rugose, black. April. (Plate XXIII, Figure 14b-d). 

Stony slopes and rock crevices. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet 
Dagh). Gen. distr, : N. Iran. Described from Kopet Dagh. Type in 
Leningrad. 

2. H. transcaspicus Litw. in Trav. Mus. Bot. Ac. Sc. XV (1916) 120.— 
Ic. : ibid. , tab. V. 

* Named after the Homeric hero Hyacinthos. According to legend, a hyacinth flower arose from a drop of 
the hero's blood. 
** Arranged by A. S. Lozina-Lozinskaya. 



311 



Perennial; bulb ovaloid, 3 cm long; leaves 2 or 3, fleshy, glabrous, 
linear, erect, slightly enlarged toward apex; obtuse, narrowed toward base, 
amplexicaul, 16 mm long, 1.5 cm broad, slightly arched at apex, erect; 
scape equaling the leaves, mostly solitary (rarely 2), bearing a loose 
4-10-flowered raceme; bracts scalelike, 1 mm long, colored or white, 
hyaline; pedicels shorter than to nearly equaling the flowers, erect at 
anthesis; flowers 1.5 cm long, campanulate, pale blue, not enlarged at 
throat; segments erect or spreading, equal, lanceolate, obtuse, as long 
as or slightly shorter than the tube; filaments linear, flattened, entire, 
shorter than perianth, inserted slightly below the throat; anthers yellow, 
versatile, 2-2.5 mm long; ovary ovaloid, slightly compressed, with 
2-ovuled locules; style filiform, as long as the stamens. May. (Plate XXIII, 
Figure 15). 

Mountains juniper woods. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh). 
Endemic. Described from vicinity of Ashkhabad. Type in Leningrad. 

407 3. H. kopetdaghi E. Czerniak. in Not. Syst. Herb. H. P. IV, 19-20 

(1923) 150. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 3 cm long, 1.5 cm in diameter, truncate at base; 
leaves 2, linear-lanceolate, conduplicate, arcuately spreading, subobtuse, 
glabrous, 7-9 cm long, 4-5 (6-8) mm broad, amplexicaul below ground 
surface; scape mostly solitary, sometimes scape and pedicels red-tinged; 
pedicels appressed to scape, 3-4 mm long, half the length of flower; bracts 
binate, hyaline, lilac-tinged, linear, erect, 4 mm long, obliquely truncate 
at apex, equaling or slightly exceeding the flower, one of them abbreviated 
and thickened; flowers 13-14 mm long, dark blue; perianth tubular- 
campanulate; segments lanceolate, erect, acuminate; with a darker midrib, 
about as long as the tube; filaments linear, flat, inserted below the middle 
and reaching to 2/3 the perianth; anthers bluish, 3 mm long, slightly 
exserted from the tube; style elongated, as long as the stamens. May. 
(Plate XXIII, Figure 1). 

Alpine zone and juniper woods, on soil rich in humus. — Centr. Asia; 
Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh). Gen. distr. : N. Iran. Described from Kopet 
Dagh. Type in Leningrad. 

*H. orientalis L. Sp. PI. (1753) 454; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 309.- 
Ic. : Bot. Mag. tab. 937. 

Bulb to 8 cm in diameter; leaves to 2 cm broad, lustrous, canaliculate, 
subobtuse, equaling or shorter than the scape; scape 0.5 cm in diameter, 
terete, 20-50 cm long, bearing a loose 4-15-flowered raceme; flowers 
short -pediceled, erect to horizontally spreading in lower part; bracts 
binate, whitish or colored, acuminate; perianth to 2 cm long, tubular- 
funnelform, inflated in lower part, cleft nearly to the middle into lanceolate 
reflexed segments, fleshy, blue, red or white; stamens inserted below the 
middle of the tube, uniseriate. 

Growing wild in Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, and Mesopotamia. Widely 
cultivated all over Europe. Best known is hyacinth cultivation in Holland 
where numerous horticultural varieties have been produced. In the USSR 
hyacinths are cultivated in the central and northern regions, in hotbeds 
and greenhouses. In Crimea and in the Caucasus, where commercial 
production has been initiated on a large scale, the plant winters in the 
ground. 



312 



Genus 280. HYACINTELLA* SCHUR.** 

Schur. in Oest. Bot. Zeit. VI (1865) 227. 

Flowers white or azure; perianth campanulate -funnelform; perianth 
408 tube straight, of equal diameter throughout; perianth segments reflexed, 

one-third the length of tube; stamens inserted on the lower part of the tube, 
biseriate; anthers short; ovary ovoid -globose; capsule with rounded angles; 
leaves numerous, narrowly linear; scape bearing short fairly loose 
racemes. 

1. Perianth segments spreading; flowers 5-6 mm long 

1. H. leucophaea (C. Koch) Schur. 

"* Perianth segments not spreading; flowers 7-8 mm long 

2. H. Pallasiana (Stev. ) A. Los. 

1. H. leucophaea (C. Koch) Schur in 6.B.Z. VI (1856) 228.— 
Bellevalia 1 e u c o p h ae a Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 305; Grossg., Fl. 
Kavk. I, 232. — Mu s c ar i leucophaeum C. Koch, in Linnaea XXII 
(1849)254 — Hyacinthus leucophaeus Stev. ex Kunth, Enum. IV 
(1843) 312, nomen; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV (1853) 156, descr. ; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 
497. — Ic: Rchb. Ic. crit.IV, 27, tab 511. — Exs. : Shiraevskii, 1897, No 
No. 33. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 1.5 cm in diameter; leaves 2 or 3, equaling the 
scape, to 20 cm long, linear, acute, 2-8 mm broad, reddish toward base, 
glabrous, smooth, cucullate; raceme loosely 10-20-flowered; pedicels 
horizontal or slightly ascending, as long as or slightly shorter than flower, 
azure at anthesis, fading green; bracts very small; perianth oblong- 
campanulate to oblong -funnelform, azure or white, cleft to l/3; segments 
spreading, oval, obtuse; 5-6 mm long, 2-3 mm in diameter, the throat 
5-6 mm across; anthers black; ovary broadly obovoid; capsule with 
rounded ribs, slightly flattened. April-May. (Plate XXIII, Figure 1 b-e). 

Steppes, meadows, and slopes .— European part: M. Dnp., Bl., V.-Don, 
L. Don; ? Caucasus: Cisc. Gen. distr. : Bal.-As. Min. Described from 
S. Russia. 

2. H. Pallasiana (Stev.) A. Los. comb. nova. — Hy ac i nt hu s 
Pallasianus Stev. in Bull. Soc, Nat. Mosc. XXX (1857) II, 85, in textu. 

Perianth; bulb small, 1 cm in diameter, with whitish scales; leaves 
1 or 2, linear, narrowed toward base, acuminate, 6-7 mm broad, 10-15 cm 
long, equaling or slightly exceeding the scape; raceme few -flowered, 
compact, broadly ovaloid; flowers borne on very short erect pedicels; 
perianth azure, narrowly funnelform, 8-10 mm long; segments oval, 
obtuse, not reflexed, with prominent midrib, less than one-third the length 
of tube; bracts very small, blue. May. (Plate XXIII, Figure 2). 

Steppes. — European part: Bl., L. Don, Crim. Endemic. Described 
from the Crimea. 



D im inutive vers ion of Hyacinthus. 
Arranged byA.S. Lozina-Lozinskaya. 



313 



409 Genus 281. LEOPOLDIA PARL.** 

Pari. Fl. Palermil(1845)435.- Sect. Leopoldia Boiss. Fl. Or. V(1884)289. 

Sterile flowers usually markedly different in color from the fertile, 
blue or violet; fertile flower brown or yellowish; perianth tubular, 
zygomorphic, with unequal short teeth, strongly constricted at throat, in 
upper part especially on outer lobes with hornlike processes; stamens 
inserted on tube, biseriate; filaments short; lower anthers larger than the 
upper; ovary oblong-ovoid; style short; stigma capitate; capsule 3-locular; 
leaves broadly lanceolate, conduplicate, succulent, as long as or exceeding 
the scapes; racemes long, cylindric. 

1. Pedicels of sterile flowers much longer than those of the fertile, flowers 
forming a tassel 1. L. comosa (L.) Pari. 

"•" Pedicels of sterile flower about as long as or shorter than those of the 
fertile flowers; inflorescence not tassellate 2. 

2. Pedicels of lower flowers several times the length of perianth; raceme 
broadly pyramidal 2. L. longipes (Boiss.) A. Los. 

+ Pedicels of lower flowers about the length of perianth 3. 

3. Perianth of fertile flowers tubular-cylindric, 3-4 times as broad; 
raceme very long 3. L. tenuiflora (Tausch) Heldr. 

"*" Perianth of fertile flowers ovaloid-campanulate or short-cylindric, 

2-2 2 times as long as broad; raceme shorter 

4. L. caucasica (Griseb.) A. Los. 

1. L. comosa (L.) Pari. Fl. Palerm., I (1845) 438. — Mu s c ar i 
comosum Mill. Diet. (1768) No. 2; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 153; Shmal'g., 
Fl. II, 496.— Bellevalia comosa Kunth, Enum. IV (1843) 306. — 
Hyacinthus comosus L. Sp. PI. (1753) 455. — Ic. : Redoute" Lil. t. 231; 
Pari. Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. XV (1883) t. 19. — Exs.: Fl. Stir. No. 1123. 

Perennial; bulb 4 cm in diameter, globose, with light brown scales; 
leaves 3 or 4, fleshy, pale green, linear-lorate, 30-45 cm long, 8-15 mm 
broad, equaling or exceeding the scape; scape brown-speckled; raceme 
loosely 40-100-flowered, elongate at anthesis, 15-30 cm long; pedicels 
as long as or slightly longer than perianth, recurved in bud, horizontal in 

410 flower, ascending in fruit; perianth urceolate, twice as long as broad, 
4-5 mm long, 2-2.5 mm broad, tawny; sterile flowers bluish-violet, 
cuneate, their pedicels arcuately ascending, 3-4 times the length of 
perianth. July. (Plate XXIV, Figure 16 a-c). 

Dry slopes, wood margins, and meadows.— European part: Crim., 
Bl. Gen. distr. : Med. Described from Europe. Type in London. 

2. L. longipes (Boiss.) A. Los. comb. nova. — M u s c ar i longipes 
Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, 13 (1843-44) 37. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovaloid, 2 cm in diameter, with light-colored 
scales; leaves 10-20 mm broad, conduplicate -canaliculate, undulate- 
margined, scaberulous, shorter than scape; scape 30 cm and over; raceme 
loose, 15 cm long, broadly pyramidal; pedicels flexuous, horizontally 
spreading, 2-6 times the length of perianth (to 3.5 cm long); perianth of 
sterile flowers cylindric, 2? times as long as broad, brownish-violet; 

* Named for Leopold II, duke of Tuscany ( 1824-59), who supported the botanist Parlatore in the organization 
of the Botanical Museum in Florence . 
** Arranged by A. S. Lozina-Lozinskaya. 

314 



sterile flowers small, blue, their pedicels as long as or shorter than 
perianth; capsule oblong, acute. April-May. 

Dry stony slopes. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Gen. distr. : E. Med., Iran. 
Described from Asia Minor. Type in Geneva. 

3. L. temiiflora (Tausch) Heldr. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. (1878)70.— 
Muscari tenuiflorum Tausch in Flora XXIV (1841) 234; Shmal'g., 
Fl. II, 496.— Muscari tubiflorum Stev. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. XXX 
(1857) 384.— Bellevalia tenuiflora Nyman. Consp. (1882)732, 
suppl. 306. 

Perennial; bulb 2.5 cm in diameter, obovoid; leaves broadly linear, 
erect or spreading, equaling the scape; raceme oblong-cylindric, 35 cm 
long; perianth of fertile flowers tubular -cylindric, 3-4 times as long as 
broad, tawny-brown; fertile pedicels slightly reclinate to horizontally 
spreading, as long as or shorter than perianth; sterile flowers numerous, 
in a long dense raceme, slenderly tubular-clavate, spreading or pendulous, 
bluish-violet, the pedicels as long as or slightly longer than perianth; 
capsule globose, 8-9 mm in diameter. May- June. (Plate XXIV, Figure 13). 

Fields, slopes, and steppes . — European part: BL, M. Dnp., Crim., 
Caucasus: Cisc, Dag., S. and E. Transc. Gen. distr. : E. Med., Bal.-As. 
Min. Described from Austria. 

4. L. caucasica (Griseb.) A. Los. comb. nova.-Muscari 
caucasicum Griseb. ex Baker, in Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 414. — 
M. comosum var. tubiflora Trautv. in A. H. P. 11(1873)592.— 
Bellevalia caucasica Griseb. Fl. Rumel. 11(1841)387.— 
Muscari mutilatum Miscz. ex Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 236. — 
M. comosum var. mutilatum Trautv. in A.H.P. VII (1880) 514. 

411 Perennial; bulb 2 cm in diameter, with rosy-brown outer scales; leaves 

2-4, rather fleshy, linear-lorate, erect, 18-22 cm long, 0.5 cm broad; 
scape to 20 cm long; raceme 20-40-flowered, becoming elongated atanthesis, 
10 cm long, 2.5 cm broad; pedicels horizontal, the lower nodding, as long 
as or shorter than flower, 2.5-4 mm long; perianth of fertile flowers 
obovoid-urceolate, 4 mm long, brownish-violet; sterile flowers small, 
numerous, dense, urceolate-ovaloid, bright bluish-violet; their pedicels 
as long as or longer than perianth. April. (Plate XXIV, Figure 19). 

Stony slopes and wood margins. — Caucasus: S. and E. Transc; Centr. 
Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh). Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from 
Georgia. 

Genus 282. MUSCARIMIA* KOSTEL.** 

Kostel. Ind. Fl. Hort. Prag. (1844).- Mosharia Salisb. Gen. of pi. (1866) 25.- Sect. Muscarimia , 
gen. Muscari L. Baker Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 412. 

All flowers nearly always fertile; perianth urceolate -cylindric, 
actinomorphic, with 6 teeth, enlarged below, in upper part with processes 
forming a 6 -rayed star, constricted under the teeth into a very narrow 
throat and below the processes into a rather narrow neck; stamens inserted 
deep down the tube, biseriate; ovary globose, ovaloid-globose; style short; 

* From Muscarimi or Muschirumi (i.e., Greek musk), Arabic name of the plant. 
** Arranged by A. S. Lozina-Lozinskaya. 



315 



stigma 3-lobed; capsule broadly obovoid, enlarged below, narrowed upward, 
flattened, deeply cordate -truncate at base; leaves linear-lanceolate, fleshy, 
canaliculate; scapes succulent; racemes rather small, dense; flowers 
subsessile. 

1. M. muscari (L. ) A. Los. comb, nova. — M. moschatum Willd. 
Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 378; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 154; Grossg., Fl. 
Kavk. I, 236. — Hy acinthus Muscari L. Sp. PI. (1753)817.— 
Botryanthus Sauli Jaub. et Sp. III. or. (1842) t. 329. — M u s c a r i 
muscarimi Medic, in Uster. Ann. II (1791) 15.— Muscari 
ambrosiacum Moench, Meth. (1794) 637. — Ic. : Bot. Mag. t. 734. 

Perennial; leaves 5 or 6, 10 or more mm broad, canaliculate, 
mucronate, equaling or slightly exceeding the scape, grayish-green; scape 
10-20 cm long; raceme 20-50-flowered, short -cylindric; flowers 
horizontally spreading, borne on very short pedicels; perianth fleshy, 
tubular-urceolate, 8 mm long, pale yellowish-green, greenish below; 
perianth teeth very small; throat narrow, the processes forming a regular 
6 -rayed star, marcescent, the constriction below them becoming less 
412 distinct after flowering; sterile flowers smaller lilac -tinged, or none; 

filaments short; style short; stigma sessile, 3-lobed; capsule 2 cm long, 
acutely 3 -angled; horticultural form (j3 flava) is characterized by a long- 
cylindric yellow perianth with purple or black teeth. Flowers strongly 
odorous. April-May. (Plate XXIV, Figure 1 b-e). 

Mountains. — Caucasus: E.Transc, Azerbaijan. Gen. distr. : Asia 
Minor, Kurdistan. Described from Asia Minor. Type in London. 

Note. The occurrence of this species in the Caucasus is not 
authenticated. It is to be found in cultivation in gardens. 



Genus 283. MUSCARI* MILL.** 

Mill. Gard. Diet, ed . VIII (1768).- M us ca r i sect. Botryanthus Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884)-294. 

Perianth dolioform, constricted at throat, with 6 spreading teeth; the 
constriction in species of the section Pseudomuscari A. Los. very 
indistinct; ovary globose; stigma capitate; stamens biseriate, equal, 
included; flowers blue, azure, or violet, with a pleasant rather pungent 
scent; leaves numerous, linear; scape bearing a raceme of short-pediceled 
flowers. 

1. Constriction at throat very distinct (Section Eumuscari A. Los.). . .2. 
"+ Constriction at throat indistinct, sometimes merely the teeth spreading 

(Section Pseudomuscari A. Los.) 12. 

2. Perianth oblong-cylindric 3. 

"*" Perianth broadly ovaloid 8. 

3. Perianth dark bluish-violet 4. 

415 + Perianth blue or azure 7. 

4. Leaves broadly linear; perianth to 1 mm long . . 1. M. neglectum Guss. 
+ Leaves narrowly linear; perianth smaller 5. 



Name referring to the scent reminiscent of nutmeg or musk. 

Identification within this genus is very difficult with dried material. Generic differences are very 

indistinct in the herbarium as a result of drying (Arranged by A .S.Lozina-Lozinskaya). 



316 



(413) 




Plate XXIV 

1. Muscarimia muscari (L.)A. Los.: lb) flower, lc) flower in section, Id) capsule, le) flower 

from above.— 2. Muscari racemosum Mill.- 2a) leaf tip, 2b)flower, 2c) flower in section, 

2d) capsule.— 3. M. neglectum Guss., flower.— 4. M. botryoides Mill., flower.— 

5. M.polyanthum Boiss., flower.— 6. M. dolychanthum Woron. et Fom., flower.— 

7. M. Szovitzianum Baker, flower.— 8. M. Woronovii Tron et A . Los., flower.— 9. M . S teup i 

Woron. etTron, flower.— 10. M. pendulum Trautv., flower.— 11. M. paradoxum Fisch., flower.— 

12. M. Turkeviczi Woron., flower.— 13. M. coeleste Fom., flower.— 14. M. forniculatum 

Fom., flower.— 15. M.pallens Fisch., flower.— 16. Leopoldia comosa (L.)Parl. 16a)flower, 

16b) flower in section, 16c) flower from above.— 17. L. tenuifolia (Tausch)Heldr., flower. — 

18. L. longipes Boiss., flower.— 19. L. caucasica Baker, flower.— 20. Bellevalia acutifolia 

( Boiss.) Deloney: 20a) flower, 20b) flower in section. 



317 



416 



5. Perianth blackish- violet; bulb with numerous offsets 
2. M. commutatum Guss. 

+ Perianth bluish-violet; bulb without offsets 6. 

6. Leaves shorter than scape; perianth narrowed toward base 

3. M. racemosum (L.) Mill. 

+ Leaves longer than scape; perianth not narrowed toward base 

4. M. leucostomum Woron. 

7. Plants about 35 cm tall; perianth 8-10 mm long 

5. M. dolychanthum Woron. et Tron. 

"*" Plants about 20 cm tall; perianth 6-7 mm long 

6. M. Woronowii Tron et A. Los. 

8. Pedicels 2-3 times the length of perianth .... 7. M. pendulum Trautv. 
+ Pedicels as long as or shorter than perianth 9. 

9. Plants 40-60 cm tall; perianth to 8 mm long 

8. M. Steupii Woron. et Tron. 

+ Plants lower; perianth shorter 10. 

10. Perianth darker, blue, broadly ovaloid . . 9. M. botryoides (L.) Mill. 
■+ Perianth lighter, azure, subspherical 11. 

11. Perianth teeth connivent, the white border descending to the middle of 
tube 10. M. polyanthum Boiss. 

+ Perianth teeth reflexed, the white border narrow, not descending down 
the tube 11. M. Szovitzianum Baker. 

12. Perianth violet 12. M. Turkewiczii (Woron.) A. Los. 

■* Perianth blue, azure, or almost white 13. 

13. Perianth pale azure to almost white, with rather distinct constriction 

at throat 13. M. pallens M. B. 

+ Perianth blue or intensely azure, with very indistinct constriction at 

throat 14. 

14. Perianth dark blue 14. M. paradoxum Baker. 

"*■ Perianth light blue or sky-blue 15. 

15. Perianth teeth azure 16. 

+ Perianth teeth at first white, becoming bluish 17. 

16. Perianth with white stripes 17. M. forniculatum Fom. 

+ Perianth with darker stripes 18. M. coeleste Fom. 

17. Perianth teeth nearly half the length of tube, initially incurved 

15. M. apertum Freyn. et Conrath. 

+ Perianth teeth one -fourth the length of tube, initially straight 

16. M. coeruleum A. Los. 



Section EUMUSCARI A. Los.— Sect. Botryanthus Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 
288, p.p. — Botryanthus Kunth. Enum. IV (1843) p. p. — Perianth 
distinctly constricted at throat, the teeth recurved. 



1. M. neglectum Guss. in Ten. Syll. App. V (1842) 13. — B o t r y a nt hu s 
neglectum Kunth, Enum. IV (1843) 679. — M. altaicum Boiss. et Reut. 
Pugill. (1852) 114 ex Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 296. — M. at 1 antic a Nym. Consp. 
(1882) 734. 

Perianth; bulb to 3 2 cm long, with thick scales; leaves broadly linear, 
6 mm broad, deeply grooved, exceeding the scape; raceme oblong, 



1920 



318 



30-40-flowered, dense; pedicels of fertile flowers spreading, shorter than 
or as long as perianth; perianth dark violet, long-ovaloid, subtubular, 
10 mm long, with oval reflexed teeth; sterile flowers few, small, erect or 
slightly reclinate, short-pediceled; capsule subglobose, round-topped. 
March-April. (Plate XXIV, Figure 3). 

Wood margins and rocky places. — Caucasus: Cisc, W., E. and S. 
Transc. Gen. distr. : Centr. Europe, Med., Bal.-As. Min. Described 
from Europe. 

2. M. commutatum Guss. Fl. Sic. Prodr. I (1827) 426. — Hy ac i nt hus 
commutatus Ten. Syll. (l83l) 177. — M u s c a r i acutibolum Bert. 
N. Comm. Bon. V (1842) 431; Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 296 . — B o t r y ant hu s 
commutatus Kunth, Enum. IV (1843) 411 .— B. a lb o - vi r e n s Tod. Ann. 
Sc. Nat. IV, 20 (1863)304. Muscari albo-virens Nym. Syll.Suppl. (1863) 
65. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, to 3 cm long, with dark tawny scales and numerous 
offset bulbils at base; scape 30 cm long, red at base; leaves 5 or 6, 
exceeding the scape, linear, 4 mm broad, pendent, pale and canaliculate 
above, green striped and convex beneath, the margin ciliate; raceme short, 
ovaloid, dense, containing about 20 flowers; pedicels shorter than to as 
long as perianth; perianth very dark, blackish blue-violet, oblong-ovoid, 
narrowed toward base, furrowed, 5 mm long, the small light -colored teeth 
incurved connivent; sterile flowers funnelform, small, light -colored; 
capsule obcordiform, deeply emarginate. March, April. 

Middle mountain zone, among field crops and on slopes.— Caucasus: 
E. Transc. Gen. distr.: Med. Described from Sicily. 

Note. The author has not seen the material relating to this species. 
The occurrence of the species in the Caucasus is not authenticated. 

417 3. M. racemosum (L.) Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) No. 31; Ldb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 154; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 496. — Hy ac i nt hu s racemosus L. 
Sp. pi. (1753) 456. — Mus cari Strangwaisii Tenore Ind. Sem. Hort. 
Nepal. (1837)5, (1839) 9. — Bo t ry ant hus odorus Kunth, Enum. IV, 
(1843) 311.- Ic. : Redoute Lil. t. 232, IV. 

Perennial; bulb ovoid, 2 cm in diameter; leaves narrowly linear, 
2-3 mm broad, slightly enlarged upward, arched, furrowed on the abaxial 
face, to 15 cm long, shorter than the scape; raceme 2-3 cm long, oblong- 
ovoid, rather densely many-flowered; sterile flowers subsessile, ovaloid- 
tubular, bright azure; fertile flowers short-pediceled, oblong-ellipsoid, 
somewhat narrowed toward base, slightly furrowed, dusky violet, greenish 
toward base, 7 mm long, 3.5 mm broad; perianth teeth rounded, strongly 
spreading, white only down to throat; capsule narrowed toward base, 
slightly cordate at top. Characteristic development pattern: scape with 
buds developing first, the leaves appearing next and not surpassing the 
scape. April-May. (Plate XXIV, Figure 2 a-d). 

Steppe slopes, scrub, hills, and rarely arable fields. — European part: 
M. Dnp., L. Don, Crim. ; Caucasus: Cisc. Gen. distr.: Centr. Eur., 
Med. Described from Europe. Type in London. 

Note. M. racemosum (L.) Mill, is a species composed of numerous 
races which need detailed study. 



319 



4. M. leucostomum Woron. in Fedde, Repert. sp. nov. XXVII (1930) 

262. 

Perennial; bulb oblong-ovaloid; leaves narrowly linear to subfiliform, 
spreading to sprawling, somewhat spirally coiled, to 30 cm long, exceeding 
the scape; scape, reddish-brown below, to 20-25 cm long; raceme short - 
ovaloid, 1-1.5 cm long, dense; sterile flower bright azure, ovaloid -tubular, 
subsessile; fertile flower dark violet, oblong-dolioform, smooth, 6 mm 
long, 3.5 mm broad, the white rim usually extending down to tube, the 
white teeth strongly reflexed. Characteristic development pattern: leaves 
appearing first (December to January), the scape with buds appearing after 
the completion of leaf growth. March-April. 

Slopes. — European part: Crim., Caucasus; E. Transc; Centr. Asia: 
Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh), Amu D. (Tashkent), Pam.-Al. (Zeravshan). 
Gen. distr. : Iran. Described from Kopet Dagh from plants grown in the 
Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad. Type in 
Leningrad. 

5. M. dolychanthum Woron. et Tron sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 744. 
Perennial; bulb large, 3 cm in diameter; leaves 3-4, to 55 cm long, 

418 broadly linear, 5-10 mm broad, slightly canaliculate, pointed, pendent, 
often twisted, considerably exceeding the scape, glaucescent above, bright 
green beneath, suffused with anthocyanin at base; scape 25-35 cm long, 
reddish-brown at base, erect; raceme 8-10 cm long, elongate-cylindric, 
densely many-flowered; pedicels of fertile flowers nodding, shorter than 
perianth; pedicels of sterile flowers erect; fertile perianth elongate- 
cylindric, same diameter throughout, 8-10 mm long, 5-6 mm broad; 
sterile flowers smaller; perianth bluish-violet, with darker longitudinal 
stripes enlarged at throat into a dark spot; perianth teeth oval-triangular, 
reflexed, obtuse, white. April. (Plate XXIV, Figure 6). 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
Krasnaya Polyana, from town of Aibga, using plants grown in the Leningrad 
Botanical Garden. Type in Leningrad. 

6. M. Woronowii Tron et A. Los. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 744. 
Perennial; leaves broadly linear, slightly concave and slightly 

canaliculate bright green above, glaucescent beneath, 6 mm broad, 
35-40 cm long, exceeding the scape; raceme to 8 cm long, narrowly 
cylindric, loosely many-flowered; sterile flowers numerous, bluish-violet, 
longitudinally furrowed, short-pediceled; fertile flowers tubular-cylindric, 
6-7 mm long, slightly constricted at throat, bluish- violet, the rather 
large teeth broadly reflexed, the white rim scarcely extending to tube; 
pedicels slightly shorter than perianth, slightly recurved. April. 
(Plate XXIV, Figure 8). 

Slopes. — Centr. Asia: Mtn. Turkm. (Kopet Dagh). Gen. distr.: Iran. 
Described from Kopet Dagh, using plants grown in the Botanical Garden of 
the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad. Type in Leningrad. 

7. M. pendulum Trautv. in A.H.P. II (1873) 484. 

Perennial; leaves broadly linear, glabrous, entire, canaliculately 
conduplicate, arcuately spreading, as long as scape; raceme dense, 5 cm 
long, ovoid-ellipsoid; pedicels of sterile flowers as long as perianth; 



320 



pedicels of fertile flowers nodding, twice the length of perianth; perianth 
campanulate-ovaloid to dolioform, strongly constricted, violet-blue, 6 mm 
long, 4 mm broad, the rounded teeth one -fourth the length of tube. May. 
(Plate XXIV, Figure 10). 

Foothills and wood margins. — Caucasus: W. and E. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Kutaisi. Type in Leningrad. 

8. M. Steupii Woron. et Tron. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 745. 
Perennial; bulb to 3 cm in diameter; leaves 3 or 4, broadly linear, 

5-10 mm broad, 40-60 cm long, canaliculate, uniformly broad then slightly 
419 tapering to an acute apex, pendent, considerably exceeding the scape, 
glaucous -green above, dark green beneath, suffused with anthocyanin at 
base; scape 30-35 cm long, reddish-brown at base; raceme elongate- 
cylindric, 8-10 cm long; pedicels of fertile flowers as long as or slightly 
shorter than perianth, arcuately spreading; lower sterile pedicels 
horizontal, the upper erect; fertile flowers violet-azure, oblong-dolioform, 
slightly narrowed toward base, enlarged in middle part; perianth 7-8 mm 
long, 5.5 mm broad, the throat at base of teeth white-rimmed; perianth 
teeth white, broad, triangular, reflexed; sterile flowers smaller; stamens 
obscurely biseriate. April. (Plate XXIV, Figure 9). 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Endemic. Described from 
cultivated specimens grown in the Leningrad Botanical Garden from bulbs 
brought from Krasnaya Polyana, from town of Aibga. Type in Leningrad. 

9. M. botryoides (L.)Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8 (1868) No. 1; Ldb. Fl. 
Ros. IV, 154; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 496. — Hy a c i nt hu s botryoides L. Sp. 
pi. (1753) 318.— M. Strangwaisii Ten. Ind. Hort. Nepal. (1839)12.— 
Botryanthus vulgaris Kunth, Enum. IV (1843) 311 . — Ic. : Rchb. Icon. 
Bot. X, tab. 400, f. 998; Bot. Mag. t. 157. 

Perennial; bulb of medium size; scape 10-20 cm long; leaves 20-30 cm 
long, 8 mm broad, somewhat succulent, broadly linear, narrowed toward 
base, equaling or exceeding the scape; raceme oblong-cyliridric, many- 
flowered; pedicels shorter than or as long as the perianth; fertile flowers 
4 mm long, subspherical, the perianth bluish-violet with short white 
slightly reflexed teeth; sterile flowers smaller; capsule obovoid. April- 
May. (Plate XXIV, Figure 4). 

Slopes. — Caucasus: E. Transc. Gen. distr. : Centr. Eur. Described 
from Europe. 

Note. Regel (A.H.P. VIII (1883) 655, tab. XIX) reports for Bukhara 
var. bucharicum Rgl. This plant is undoubtedly a distinct species but 
it is difficult to provide a description in the absence of sufficient material 
and merely on the basis of Regel' s drawing which does not agree with 
herbarium material. 

10. M. polyanthum Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 297. — Exs. : Kotshy, 1859. 
Perennial; bulb ovaloid; leaves broadly linear, canaliculate, pointed, 

convex, prominently nerved on the abaxial surface, glaucescent above, 
exceeding the scape; raceme rather loose, 5 cm long, oblong-ovaloid, 
to 25 cm long; sterile flowers pale violet, tubular; fertile flowers pale 
sky-blue, dolioform, slightly enlarged in upper part, 6 mm long, 4 mm 
broad, strongly constricted at throat; perianth teeth small, acutish, 



321 



connivent, reflexed at tips, the white rim spreading far down the tube; 
pedicels the length of perianth, horizontal, the upper ones slightly reclinate. 
Fl. April. (Plate XXIV, Figure 5). 
420 Scrub and meadows in the middle mountain zone. — Caucasus: S. and W. 
Transc. Gen. distr. : Asia Minor. Described from Cappadocia and Cilicia. 
Type in Geneva. 

11. M. Szowitzianum Baker in Gard. Chron. (1878)799.— 
M. racemosum |3 b r a c hy a nt hu m Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 295.— 
Ic: Sosnovskii, Grossg., Shishk., Fl. Tifl. I (1925) 114. 

Perennial; bulb 10-12 cm long, ovoid, with dark gray coats; leaves 
2-4, narrowly linear, pendent, longer than the scape; scape to 15 cm 
long; raceme dense, oblong-ovaloid, 2.5-3.5 cm long; fertile flowers 
short-pediceled; perianth short-ovoid or ovaloid-urceolate, to 5 mm long 
and 4 mm broad, pale blue to azure or rarely white; perianth teeth deltoid, 
spreading, white; sterile flower few, dense, sessile, lighter in color; 
capsule 3-4 mm long, March-April. (Plate XXIV, Figure 7). 

Rocky places and scrub. — Caucasus: disc., S. and E. Transc, Dag. 
Endemic. Described from a cultivated specimen in Kew Gardens. Type 
in London. 



Section PSEUDOMUSCARI A. Los. sect, nova.— Sect. Botryanthus 
Kunth, Enum. IV (1843) p.p.— Perianth not constricted at throat, the teeth 
straight or slightly recurved. 

12. M. Turkewiczii (Woron.) A. Los. comb. nova. — Hy a c i nt h e 1 1 a 
Turkewic zi Woron. in Not. Syst. Herb. H.P. V, 6(1924)88. 

Perennial; bulb broadly ovaloid to subglobose, 1.4-2 cm long, with 
hyaline scales; leaves 2 or 3, linear, arched-recurved, 10-11 cm long, 
5-6 mm broad, exceeding the scape, slightly cucullate; raceme ovaloid, 
20-30-flowered; perianth cylindric-campanulate, intensely violet, 7 mm 
long, 4 mm broad; pedicels elongate, one-third to one-fourth the length 
of tube, weak, reflexed; pedicels slightly shorter than perianth, horizontal, 
at length pendulous; stamens included in perianth, distinctly biseriate; 
anthers azure. June. (Plate XXIV, Figure 12). 

Rocky slopes . — Caucasus: possibly occurring in W. Transc. Gen. distr. : 
Arm. -Kurd. Described from Mount Kvakhid (former Artvin District). 
Type in Leningrad. 

13. M. pallens M.B. Fl. taur.-cauc. I (1808) 283; Ldb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
154; Shmal'g., Fl. II, 496; Grossg., Fl. Kavkaza I, 236. — Hy ac int hus 
pallens Sweet, Flow. Gard. (1827) tab. 259. 

Perennial; bulb ovaloid, small; leaves linear, slightly enlarged upward, 
pointed, convex beneath, equaling or slightly exceeding the scape; scape 
15-20 cm long; raceme dense, oblong-ovaloid, short; sterile flowers 
421 small; fertile flowers nodding, the short pedicels recurved, the oval 

perianth white or azure suffused with violet, the oval teeth reflexed; capsule 
compressed, with obcordate valves. May. (Plate XXIV, Figure 15). 

Alpine and subalpine meadows. — Caucasus: E. Transc, Dag. Endemic 
Described from Georgia. Type in Leningrad. 



322 



14. M. paradoxum (Fisch. et Mey. ) Baker Journ. Bot. (1874)6; Ldb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, 153.— Bellevalia paradoxa Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 
308. — Hy ac inthu s paradoxus Fisch. et Mey. Ind. Sem. Horti 

B. Petrop. I (1835) 20.— Bellevalia pseudomuscari Boiss. et Buhse 
in Boiss. Diagn. ser. II, 4 (1842-44) 110. 

Perennial; bulb narrowly ovaloid, 1.5 cm in diameter; leaves 2, rarely 
3, narrowly lanceolate, linear, canaliculate, gradually narrowed upward, 
10-20cmlong, exceedingthe scape; scape 10-15 cm long; raceme ovaloid, 
loose, often many-flowered; pedicels shorter than perianth, horizontal; 
perianthblue, campanulate -oblong, thebroadly oval segments one -third the 
length of tube, slightly reflexed; anthers yellow. May. (Plate XXIV, Figure 11). 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: W. Transc. Gen. distr. : Iran. Described 
from Adzharistan. Type in Geneva. 

15. M. apertum Freyn et Conrath in Bull. Herb. Boiss. V (1896) 194.— 
Bellevalia aperta Grossh., Fl. Kavk. I (1928) 233. 

Perennial; bulb small, ovaloid, 1.5 mm in diameter, with brown scales; 
leaves linear, 20 cm long, 6 mm broad, slightly spatulate, erect or 
falcately recurved, flat or more or less revolute, striated, glabrous, 
obtusish, exceeding the erect scape; raceme short, ovaloid-conical, very 
dense; flowers small, 4 mm long, shorter than or as long as the nodding 
pedicels; perianth pale blue, shortly campanulate -cylindric, scarred below, 
open; perianth teeth oblong-oval, more or less elongate, reflexed; stamens 
biseriate, included in perianth; anthers globose; sterile flowers ellipsoid, 
slightly clavate, pale cornflower-blue, short-pediceled to subsessile. 
April-May. 

Slopes in lower mountain zone. — Caucasus: S. Transc. Endemic. 
Described from Akhtala, at 800 m. 

16. M. coeruleum A. Los. sp. nova in Addenda III, p. 745. 
Perennial; bulb oblong, 1-2 cm in diameter, with light-colored outer 

scales; leaves 2, linear, narrowed toward base, pointed, flat, distinctly 
nerved, 10-18 cm long, 3 mm broad, shorter than the scape at anthesis, 
exceeding it in fruit; raceme short, ovoid, contracted, few-flowered; 
pedicels reclinate, 1.5 mm long; pedicels and often the rachis of raceme 
azure; bracts white, obtuse, less than 1 mm long; perianth ovaloid- 
j422 cylindric, drying blue, 5 mm long, 3 mm broad; perianth teeth white, oval, 
obtuse, 1.75 mm long, nearly straight; constriction at throat obsolescent; 
sterile flowers small, claviform; anthers globose, blue; capsule small, 
4 mm long, 6 mm broad, narrowed below, slightly flattened. June. 

Alpine meadows. — Caucasus: Cisc. (Balkariya). Endemic, Described 
from Balkariya. Type in Leningrad. 

17. M. forniculatum Fom. in Monit. Jard. Tifl. No. 9 (1908) 11.— 
Bellevalia forniculata Deloney in Monit. Jard. Tifl. 1(1922-23)44. 

Perennial; bulb globose, the outer scales thick brown; leaves erect, 
linear-lanceolate, canaliculate, cucullate, tapering toward base, equaling 
the scap